2As the colonies grew in the 1600’s and 1700’s, they became the home to people of many lands. These people brought their own customs and traditions. In time, they shaped these old ways into a new American Culture.Today we’ll identify their similarities and differences
3What is a colony? Land Usually has a desired resource Ruled by a country in another location
5What was the purpose of mercantilism? Economic system used by nations to grow wealth for the nationSeeks to enrich the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports.Exports- Goods sent to be sold outside the home countryImports- Goods brought in to be sold from another countryExamples:Triangle TradeNavigation ActsStamp ActTownshend Acts (Lead, Glass, Tea, Paint)Tea ActMolasses ActSugar Act
6Organization of Colonial Governments 1. Joint Stock Company – self governing colony – operated under shared ownership (like a company… investors pool money together in exchange for a share of the company and profits)Jamestown (invest capital, enjoy returns)2. Proprietary Colony – owned by wealthy landlords (PA, MD, DE) and nobles, recognized by king3. Royal Colony – Colony owned by Gov’t… royal governor appointed by king with elected representative assembly (if the king was okay with it)NY, NC (eventually)
7Immigrants to the Colonies Push – Pull FactorsSpain? – Where?England? – Where?France? – Where?Dutch? – Where?
8The Three RegionsNew EnglandMiddle ColoniesSouthern Colonies
9THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
10Geographic Characteristics Rocky soil and short growing seasons.
11Economic Characteristics The New England colonies developed an economy based on ship-building, fishing, lumbering, small scale farming, and eventually, industrial manufacturing (factories)
12Religion in the Colonies Concept check…What is religion?Why does religion exist?Where have we seen religion in the colonies so far? Roanoke? Jamestown?
13Split from Catholic Church as part of the Protestant Reformation The Anglican Church“Church of England”Split from Catholic Church as part of the Protestant ReformationHenry VIII - Divorce
15English Theocracy What is lacking in England???? What if you don’t like the Anglican Church?Dissenters were oppressedCatholics were hatedThe Gov’t was in control of official English religion!This is what we call a Theocracy… a type of gov’t where church and gov’t are one. There is only one religion practiced and others are NOT toleratedNot everyone in England is happy with the Anglican Church
16Puritans & PilgrimsPilgrims desired a split from the Church of EnglandPuritans- Desired reforms in the Church of EnglandTried to sail to Virginia but missed badly and ended up in Massachusetts BayVery devout
17Plymouth ColonyEstablished in 1620 by the Pilgrims… Puritan separatists who believed the English Church was too corrupt to be saved.In 1620, the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic in the ship the Mayflower to found the Plymouth Colony on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay.Before they disembarked, the group of about 100 made an agreement called the Mayflower Compact.The settlers agreed to form a government and obey its laws. This idea of self-government would later become one of the founding principles of the United States.19th Century depiction of Puritans landing at Plymouth Rock
18Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony Pilgrims 1620 Massachusetts Mayflower Compact – direct democracy, social contract
20Mayflower Compact, 1620In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620
21The Mayflower CompactAgreement made by the men of the first Plymouth colony, where the majority ruled.
22An example of Direct Democracy. The Mayflower CompactCreated a government based on town meetings, where the majority vote ruled.An example of Direct Democracy.
25Massachusetts Bay Colony Large Puritan Colony in North America, much larger than Plymouth ColonyEstablished in 1630 under the leadership of John Winthrop and with Boston as its capitalSettlers believed that they were “A City on a Hill”
26PuritansReligious movement begun in England by those who wished to purify the Church of England. Puritans believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible and that salvation depended on the will of God and not on observance of rituals.The Puritans followed the teachings of the theologian John Calvin. They believed that they could prepare for God’s saving grace by leading moral lives, praying devoutly, reading the Bible, and heeding their minister’s sermons.But not even the most devout could claim salvation as a right and a certainty, for they believed God alone determined who was saved. Salvation depended on the will of God rather than good behavior or adherence to church rules (elected vs. choice).
27PuritansPuritans came from all ranks of English society, including aristocrats.Most belonged to “the middling sort” –small-property holders, farmers, shopkeepers, and skilled artisans. Their modest properties put them economically ahead of much of the English population.Puritanism reinforced the values of thrift, diligence, and morality. Puritans insisted that men honored God by working hard in their occupations. One Puritan explained, “God sent you unto this world as unto a Workhouse, not a Playhouse.
28Social Characteristics New England’s colonial society and government was based on religious standing (the religious leaders were also the political leaders)
29Social Characteristics 1) New England communities were closed religious communities.Everyone went to the same church.
30Social Characteristics 2) The Puritans grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged their belief in the connection between religion and government
31Social Characteristics “Protestant Work Ethic” –Puritans religious beliefs were closely tied to values of hard work and thrift.
33Religious FreedomRoger WilliamsBroke away from Puritans/was banned (for his “dangerous” ideas), forms Rhode Island ColonyDesired “separation of church and state”Forbade any type of slavery and was friendly to natives (wanted to actually pay them for land!).
34New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware The Middle ColoniesNew York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware
35Geographic Characteristics Average soil quality and average growing seasons.
36Economic Characteristics The Middle colonies developed economies based on ship building, small-scale farming, and trading
37Economic Characteristics Ports in this region such as New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore began to grow as seaports and commercial centers
38Political Characteristics New Netherland established by the Dutch in 1650 along the Hudson River.Established the town of New Amsterdam, but did not defend it well.
39Political Characteristics The British took the colony by force in 1663 and renamed it New York.
40Social Characteristics The Middle Colonies were home to many diverse cultural and religious groups such as Swedes, Germans and Dutch.
41Social Characteristics 1) Believed in ideas of religious freedom.Quakers in PennsylvaniaCatholics in Maryland
42Social Characteristics 2) These colonies were chiefly settled by English, Dutch, and German speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity3) In the Middle Colonies there was a strong belief in religious freedom and religious tolerance
43Social Characteristics 4) The Middle colonies had a more flexible society and they began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers
44Catholics in English Colonies Fled England due to discrimination of AnglicansSettle in MarylandCatholics will be the most hated religious group in the 13 colonies until well after the American Revolution.
45Separation of Church and State Why might having your government choosing a state religion be bad?Examples?ISIS? Iran?
46Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia THE SOUTHERN COLONIESVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
47Geographic Characteristics Warm weather, good soil and long growing seasons.
48Economic Characteristics Virginia and the other Southern colonies developed economies in the Eastern coastal lowlands based on large plantations
49Economic Characteristics These plantations typically grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, indigo, and rice for export to Britain
50Economic Characteristics Further inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian mountain foothills (Shenandoah Valley) the economy was based on small scale subsistence farming and hunting and trading
51Political Characteristics Virginia House of Burgesses – Later called the General Assembly.First elected assembly in the New WorldRepresentative Democracy
52Social Characteristics Virginia and Southern colonies had a social structure and government based on family status and the ownership of land
53Social Characteristics Large landowners in the Eastern lowlands dominated colonial government and society and they maintained an allegiance to the Church of England
54Social Characteristics Virginia and the Southern colonies had the closest social ties to England
55Social Characteristics Slaveholding elite along the coast vs. subsistence farming lower class in the interiorLeads to problems in the Civil WarChas vs. the Upstate
56Quakers Society of Friends George Fox – founder Established numerous congregations1672 – Fox made a pilgrimage to “the north of Carolina”Shocked by violence of Puritans and PilgrimsSalem Witch TrialsDominated early Carolina
57Moravians Originated in Czech Republic Started as an objection to the Catholic ChurchPacifists – Came to escape war and religious repressionSettled in Winston-SalemNamed the land Wachovia
59Why did people risk leaving their homeland to come to North America? Economic OpportunityCash Crops (sugar, indigo, tobacco, cotton)Indentured Servants (poor English peasants)ForcedAfrican SlavesPlantation System (large farm system)Middle Passage (slave route to Americas)Religious Freedom
60The 13 Colonies What do they have in common? Self Government Legislatures w/elected membersGovernor (elected or appointed by king)Salutary neglect- King not enforcing strict laws
61In your notebook:Compare the governments of the Virginia and Massachusetts colonies. How were they similar? (At least 1 sentence) How were they different? (At least 1 sentence)Read the following quote and explain how it reflects Puritan values: “God sent you unto this world as unto a Workhouse, not a Playhouse.” (At least 1 sentence)