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Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I) FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I) FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Thirteen – Drug Analysis (Part I) FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley

2 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Objectives 1.Understand the basic concepts of psychological and physical dependence. 2.Name and classify commonly abused drugs. 3.Define the evolution of the Controlled Substance Act in the United States and explain the differences between federal and state and local drug laws. 4.List and define the schedules of the Controlled Substance Act. 5.Describe the “five p’s” in the chemical analysis of drugs. 6.Describe, explain, and perform the laboratory tests normally used to perform a routine drug identification analysis.

3 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Objectives 7.Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification of marijuana. 8.Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification of pill, tablets, capsules. 9.Explain the testing procedures used for the forensic identification on powders, solids, and residues. 10.Develop an understanding of the design and manufacturing process of clandestine laboratories.

4 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline I.Introduction A.Definition of drugs and medicines In 2010, there were 4.9 million drug-related emergency department (ED) visits; about one half (46.8 percent, or 2.3 million visits) were attributed to drug misuse or abuse with a nearly equal percentage (47.4 percent) attributed to adverse drug reactions N096/SR096EDHighlights2010.htm

5 In 2010, ED visits resulting from the misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals occurred at a rate of visits per 100,000 population compared with a rate of visits per 100,000 population for illicit drugs # ED VisitsVisits per 100,000 Illicit Drugs1,171, – Heroin224, – Cocaine488, – Marijuana461, Pharmaceuticals1,345, – Anti-anxiety + Insomnia472, – Benzodiazepines408, – Antidepressants105, – Pain Relievers659,

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8 ** Percent change is measured as difference in the estimated number of visits between 2004 and Reported changes are significant at the.05 level; "NC" signifies no significant change. Source: 2010 SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN).

9 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL (March 2004). "Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000". JAMA 291 (10): 1238–45. DOI: /jama Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000DOI /jama B.More Statistics Actual Causes of Preventable Deaths in United States (2000)

10 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline

11 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline II.Physiology of Drugs (Social Issues)

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16 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline A.Toxicity 1.Behavioral vs. Physiological Toxicity 2.Acute vs. Chronic Toxicity 3.DAWN (Drug Abuse Warning Network)

17 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline (chart) and (other data)http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k12/DAWN032/SR032Polydrug2012.htm Recently (2009): Cocaine – 422,901 Heroin – 213,118

18 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline B.Addiction (Habit-forming) 1.Tolerance 2.Physical Dependence a.Withdrawal syndrome 3.Physiological Dependence a.Reinforcement C.Crime and Violence

19 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Rate per 100,000 Americans

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21 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline III.Chemical Commodities A.Legal – Pharmaceutical Industry 1.Ethical vs. Proprietary 2.Legend vs. OTC 3.Proprietary vs. Generic B.Illegal

22 Heroin Production

23 Drug Trafficking Routes

24 Marijuana Production by State RankState Harvested Plants Production Weight (Lb) Value to Growers 1California21,667,6098,622,831$13,848,267,000 2Tennessee6,779,0932,980,853$4,787,250,000 3Kentucky6,467,1862,786,396$4,474,952,000 4Hawaii5,447,1312,378,196$3,819,383,000 5Washington2,074,349641,354$1,030,015,000 6North Carolina998,512418,588$672,253,000 7Florida1,434,745369,740$593,802,000 8Alabama810,287354,551$569,409,000 15New York544,957205,208$329,565,000 UNITED STATES56,412,61122,293,643$35,803,591,000

25 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline C.Drug Names 1.Chemical 2.Generic 3.Brand 4.Street

26 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline Chemical - 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one Generic - Diazepam Brand – Valium® Street – Candy, Downers, Sleeping Pills, Tranks

27 Also see this web site!!!

28 FRSC 8104 – Chapter 13 Outline IV.Drug Categories A.Actions (Effect) 1.Stimulants 2.Depressants 3.Analgesics (Narcotics) 4.Hallucinogens 5.Cannabis B.Acid/Base/Neutral 1.Acidic Drugs 2.Basic Drugs 3.Neutral Drugs C.Scheduling of Drugs

29 Schedule I Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. Examples – Heroin, LSD, Marijuana, Methaqualone, Mescaline, MDMA, GHB, Tryptamines, Most synthetic drugs

30 Schedule II Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples - Morphine, Codeine, phencyclidine (PCP), cocaine, methadone, and methamphetamine

31 Schedule III Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples - Anabolic steroids, codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or Tylenol®, and some barbiturates

32 Schedule IV Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III. Examples - Darvon®, Talwin®, Equanil®, Valium®, and Xanax® (Diazepam, Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Flunitrazepam, etc.)

33 Schedule V Controlled Substances (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. Example - Cough medicines with codeine


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