Presentation on theme: "The Nation’s Shaky Start 1783 Treaty of Paris Officially recognized the United States as an independent country and awarded them all lands east of Mississippi."— Presentation transcript:
The Nation’s Shaky Start 1783 Treaty of Paris Officially recognized the United States as an independent country and awarded them all lands east of Mississippi and south of Great lakes and St. Lawrence Sea Way. Rewarding Spain As a thank you gift for Spain joining the war against Britain the U.S. returned Florida to them but there were still disputes on exactly how much land. The United States? As of yet, the only reason that the new country was called the United States, was due to the fact that they had called themselves “the thirteen united states of America” in the constitution. The Thirteen Republics In reality each state was a separate republic or country having created their own state constitutions at the request of the Continental Congress in 1776.
The Thirteen Republics The State Constitutions By 1781 every state had either made a new constitution/government or made their colonial charter their official form of government. Scary Governors Every state sought to weaken the power of the governors by giving some responsibilities to legislature or doing away with the position like Pennsylvania. The Legislator Given the most power but also divided into two houses to separate powers and required popular elections for freemen, usually white age 21 or above, who owned land or paid a certain amount of taxes. THE POWER OF THE PEOPLE! At the time each state considered itself to be its own country able to individually deal with their own affairs and only willing to work together to wage war and negotiate with foreign nations.
The Articles of Confederation Confederation of States Each state was given one vote in Congress with 9 of 13 states approval required to pass laws. Powers Right to raise army and navy, control foreign affairs, coin money, setup postal system but no power to set taxes to raise money to do so. No Money Without the power to raise money the congress was forced to ask for money from the states which usually ignored them. Slow Moving Requiring 9 of 13 states to approve laws congress was slow to pass laws if at all and 13 of 13 to change Articles of Confederation. Squatters in the West Settlers followed Daniel Boone into the Ohio River Valley often claiming whatever land they chose simply by marking their initials on a tree or drawing rough maps.
An ordinance created by the Articles of Confederation Congress to help settle lands west of the Appalachian Mountains in an orderly and profitable way. Divided lands “purchased’ from the Native Americans into townships which were 6 miles by 6 miles square Four sections were set aside for use by the national government Income from one section would support public schools Money from the sale of all other townships would be used to repay the war debt Land Ordinance of 1785
I.Governor Appointed as soon as settlers began to arrive in the new territories II.5,000 adult males Settlers were allowed to elect a legislature III.60,000 adult males A territory was allowed to apply for statehood and have the same rights as the original states Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Ordinance created by the Articles of Confederation Congress to create a government for the Northwest Territory and called for the creation of three, four, or five smaller territories Democracy Moves Westward Included a bill of rights Made slavery illegal in the territories Stated that good relations should be maintained with the Indians Stated that schools and education should be forever encouraged An Empire for Liberty Thomas Jefferson saw the expansion into the western lands as the creation of a Empire of Liberty and would continue this spread with his purchase of the Louisiana Territory during his presidency
Trouble with Britain Britain refused to withdraw from forts in the Northwest territory, as they had agreed to in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, because Americans failed to live up to their end of the deal by returning lands to loyalist and repaying debts to the British Merchants. Weak Congress The federal government was too weak to push the British out and also too weak to get the American public to repay their financial debts to the British Merchants. Spain Challenged the United States claims to lands between the Ohio River and Florida and closed the Mississippi River to American shippers effectively isolating the western settlers behind the rugged mountain passes of the Appalachians. WHY? No Army After the Continental Army had been disbanded the Congress could not afford to pay to raise another and could not defend its own lands or wage war to expand their lands. Still the Little Guy on the Block
The government is “fit for neither war nor peace” Alexander Hamilton No Unity Even before the war was over the states began to quarrel over; Trade with some states taxing goods from other states and congress unable to prevent it Boundaries as states like Maryland and Virginia nearly went to war over the Potomac River SPAIN AND BRITAIN JUST WAITING TO PICK UP THE PIECES Money Troubles Without gold or silver to give the continental dollar value states began to print their own money leading to inflation and more and more bills without value. Robert Morris Tried to pass a 5% tax on imported goods in order to pay U.S. debts to Britain, loyalists, and continental soldiers.
The End of Democracy? Washington had been maintaining an army outside of New York to insure that the British left. When the Congress failed to pay officers pensions and soldiers back pay some officers began circulating plan to overthrow the government and install Washington as King of America Nov 1786 – British pullout of New York December 1786 – Washington resigns position and retires to Mt Vernon.
Shay’s Rebellion Depression With all of the money trouble and problems with free trade among the states crop prices fell rapidly and many farmers were unable to repay their debts and pay the high state taxes meant to repay the states war debt. Refusal to Compromise The Massachusetts legislature refused to allow farmers to pay their debts with crops instead of money. Loss of Land Losing land not only took home and food but possibly right to vote. Daniel Shay’s A hero of Bunker Hill who led angry mobs armed with muskets to protest hearings to take peoples farms to repay their debts. March on the National Arsenal in Springfield Daniel Shay’s led a march of 800 farmers to take a federal arsenal. Massachusetts was on its own to but down the rebellion End of the Rebellion Although the rebels were eventually pushed back and Shays fled to Vermont to escape arrest many of those Americans who had accumulated wealth and land became very concerned about a government unable to protect their possessions. January 1787