4Conflict in the Thirteen Colonies What was the American War of Independence? After 1763, Britain was deeply in debt because of the Seven Years War.To save money, it kept troops in the Thirteen Colonies, but made the colonies pay for the troops by raising taxes.The colonists refused to pay because they were not allowed to elect representatives in the British parliament.The protests turned into a rebellion in 1775, and the American War of Independence lasted until 1783.People who supported the war were called Patriots.People against the war & loyal to Britain were called Loyalists.
6A Wave of Refugees What was the Loyalist Migration? During & after the war, people supporting British rule left the Thirteen colonies for the British colonies of Quebec & Nova Scotia.Most of these people had British ancestors, however some were African American Loyalists, some were Haudenosaunee, & some were German Mennonites.
7Challenges Related to the Loyalist Migration Impact on Canadians The number of British people grew in Quebec with the arrival of Loyalists.Loyalists wanted British laws in Quebec.The Canadiens were concerned about their rights, retaining French laws & customs that were protected under the Quebec Act of 1774.
8Impact on First Nations After the Loyalists arrived the British changed their reason for negotiating treaties with the First Nations.Treaties were originally for peace but because the loyalists were farmers, new treaties were made to take over land.
9Loyalists Press for Change Many Loyalists in Nova Scotia joined existing settlements.A large new group settled along the St. John River & wanted a colony separate from Nova Scotia.The British government received petitions from Loyalist settlers in Quebec who wanted British laws & customs instead of French Laws & customs.Britain responded by dividing Nova Scotia into several new colonies in 1784; New Brunswick, Cape Breton island, & St. John Island.A few years later, Britain reorganized Quebec by passing the Constitutional Act of 1791.This act established British laws & institutions for Loyalist settlers west of Montreal.Quebec was also divided into Upper & Lower Canada each having representative governments.
11War of 1812The War of 1812 was a fight between British North America & the United States, it also started wars in Europe.As part of its war against France, Britain shut down trade between France & the U.S..It blocked American ships from landing at French ports & also looked on these ships for British deserters.In retaliation the U.S, declared war on the closest piece of British territory, British North America now known as Canada.The Americans invaded British North America but the colonists fought back.
12Taking Sides in the War of 1812 The Americans hoped that people living in British North America would not oppose their take over plans.Some Americans thought the Canadiens would fight British rule once the Americans attacked.The Canadiens did not support the Americans mainly because the Catholic Church opposed it.Many Upper Canadians supported Britain & strongly opposed the Americans.Some American settlers in Upper Canada supported the U.S. invasion but did not take any sides. They just wanted to farm peacefully.After the war Britain ordered those who had supported the American cause to leave Upper Canada.It further discouraged American immigration & encourage British immigrants to settle in Upper Canada.Many First Nations groups supported the British against the Americans.