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NORTHERN NEVADA TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY PROJECT OCTOBER 2011 Debating the Constitution Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists, 1787-1788.

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Presentation on theme: "NORTHERN NEVADA TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY PROJECT OCTOBER 2011 Debating the Constitution Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists, 1787-1788."— Presentation transcript:

1 NORTHERN NEVADA TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY PROJECT OCTOBER 2011 Debating the Constitution Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists,

2 Recap: the process of writing & ratifying the Constitution A. The Federal Convention, Philadelphia, May-September 1787

3 Recap: the process of writing & ratifying the Constitution A. The Federal Convention, Philadelphia, May-September 1787 B. The ratification process in the states and among the people, September 1787-July 1788 (and all the way to 1790 in Rhode Island)

4 Analysis #1: Essays of Brutus, Number 1 A. Opening paragraphs: the importance of this moment, and of this debate. Posterity will remember you for what you decide now—and for the results of your decision (liberty or tyranny).

5 Analysis #1: Essays of Brutus, Number 1 A. Opening paragraphs: the importance of this moment, and of this debate. Posterity will remember you for what you decide now—and for the results of your decision (liberty or tyranny). B. Key point (third paragraph): “when the people once part with power, they can seldom or never resume it again but by force.” So be careful what you decide now.

6 Analysis #1: Essays of Brutus, Number 1 A. Opening paragraphs: the importance of this moment, and of this debate. Posterity will remember you for what you decide now—and for the results of your decision (liberty or tyranny). B. Key point (third paragraph): “when the people once part with power, they can seldom or never resume it again but by force.” So be careful what you decide now. C. Brutus’s big question: Can a unified (consolidated) government work over a territory as vast, and a population as large, as that of the United States—while still preserving the people’s liberty?

7 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

8 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

9 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

10 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

11 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

12 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations Point of agreement: we all want a free government.

13 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations Point of agreement: we all want a free government. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

14 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

15 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

16 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

17 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. What does the army do? Destroys the people’s liberty. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

18 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. What does the army do? Destroys the people’s liberty. This happens only if the people have confidence in the magistrate. OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

19 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. What does the army do? Destroys the people’s liberty. This happens only if the people have confidence in the magistrate. Confidence comes from knowing one’s rulers. Is that possible in a large republic? OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

20 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. What does the army do? Destroys the people’s liberty. This happens only if the people have confidence in the magistrate. Confidence comes from knowing one’s rulers. Is that possible in a large republic? Government will have to resort to force (army). OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests.

21 “one great republic,” or “thirteen confederated republics”? OR: Can a consolidated government work over a territory as broad, and a population as large, as the United States? Democracy? No: won’t work in such a large territory. Republic? Sure—but what is a good representative? Knows the mind and shares the views of his constituents In a vast republic, you’d need so many representatives in Congress that nothing could get done. Classical republics: small territory; homogeneous populations And in a vast republic, there’d always be clashing interests—nothing could get done. Point of agreement: we all want a free government. How are the laws executed (carried out)? The government maintains a standing army to enforce them. The people come to the aid of the magistrate, when called. Who pays for that army? The people, through taxes. What does the army do? Destroys the people’s liberty. This happens only if the people have confidence in the magistrate. Confidence comes from knowing one’s rulers. Is that possible in a large republic? Government will have to resort to force (army). OR, you’d have too few representatives to reflect the variety of interests. Conclusion: a consolidated, extended republic is a recipe for destroying the people’s liberty.

22 Analysis #2: Madison, “The Federalist,” number 10 A. Madison’s big challenge: to explain how a republic—and the citizens’ liberty—can survive when the territory is as vast, and the population as large & diverse, as in the U.S.

23 Analysis #2: Madison, “The Federalist,” number 10 A. Madison’s big challenge: to explain how a republic—and the citizens’ liberty—can survive when the territory is as vast, and the population as large & diverse, as in the U.S. B. The first paragraph: what’s a major advantage of a “well- constructed union”?

24 Analysis #2: Madison, “The Federalist,” number 10 A. Madison’s big challenge: to explain how a republic—and the citizens’ liberty—can survive when the territory is as vast, and the population as large & diverse, as in the U.S. B. The first paragraph: what’s a major advantage of a “well- constructed union”? C. Notice his language: with what kinds of words does he describe this problem?

25 Analysis #2: Madison, “The Federalist,” number 10 A. Madison’s big challenge: to explain how a republic—and the citizens’ liberty—can survive when the territory is as vast, and the population as large & diverse, as in the U.S. B. The first paragraph: what’s a major advantage of a “well- constructed union”? C. Notice his language: with what kinds of words does he describe this problem? D. Second paragraph: What’s his definition of a FACTION?

26 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION

27 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects

28 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease

29 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable

30 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem

31 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction

32 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW?

33 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?)

34 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation)

35 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation)

36 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation)

37 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation)

38 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep.

39 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep. Harder for bad people to win by bribery

40 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep. More different factions Harder for bad people to win by bribery

41 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep. More different factions Harder for bad people to win by bribery Harder for any faction to win a national majority

42 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep. More different factions Harder for bad people to win by bribery Harder for any faction to win a national majority bad reps. won’t win a national majority

43 Advantage of a well-constructed union: Break & control the violence of FACTION Remove causesControl effects Destroy liberty Worse than the disease Give everyone the same opinions I mpracticable Minority faction No problem Majority faction PROBLEM: need to secure public good & private rights. HOW? DEMOCRACY? No. (Why not?) REPUBLIC? Yes! (Why?) Small republic? Large republic? NO. Fewer factions = more chance that one will win. Fewer people = more chance that bad people will win. Republic = “refine & enlarge” the public views (representation) More citizens per rep. More different factions Harder for bad people to win by bribery Harder for any faction to win a national majority bad reps. won’t win a national majority Large republic = good!

44 Concluding questions A. What were the key disagreements between Anti- Federalists (such as Brutus) and Federalists (such as Madison)?

45 Concluding questions A. What were the key disagreements between Anti- Federalists (such as Brutus) and Federalists (such as Madison)? B. Do we see elements of these disagreements today?


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