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American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America 1680 ‒ 1763.

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Presentation on theme: "American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America 1680 ‒ 1763."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America 1680 ‒ 1763

2 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America, 1680 ‒ 1763 Tensions in the Backcountry What difficulties did Native Americans face in maintaining their cultural independence on the frontiers of English and Spanish settlement? The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture How did European ideas affect eighteenth-century American life?

3 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America, 1680 ‒ 1763 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies How did the Great Awakening transform the religious culture of colonial America? Clash of Political Cultures Why were eighteenth-century colonial assemblies not fully democratic?

4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America, 1680 ‒ 1763 Century of Imperial War Why did colonial Americans support Great Britain's wars against France? 4.5

5 Video Series: Key Topics in U.S. History 1.Great Britain’s Empire in North America: 1713 ‒ Scots-Irish Migration 3.The First Great Awakening 4.Seven Years’ War Home

6 Constructing an Anglo-American Identity: The Journal of William Byrd Eighteenth-century backcountry Many cultures, independent families Older Atlantic settlements Growing populations Many immigrants and slaves arrived Less isolated from one another Eighteenth-century colonists powerfully attracted to Great Britain Home

7 Tensions in the Backcountry Scots-Irish Flee English Oppression Germans Search for a Better Life Native Americans Stake Out a Middle Ground Conquering New Spain’s Northern Frontier Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands Home

8 Tensions in the Backcountry 1700– colonial population rose From 250,000 to over 2 million Backcountry Inland area Complex society Spanish borderlands - multicultural Southwest California Florida Tensions in the Backcountry

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10 Scots-Irish Flee English Oppression Origins of Scots-Irish Lowland Scottish Presbyterians transported to northern Ireland Emigrated to America Concentrated - Pennsylvania frontier Welcomed by colony’s proprietors, at first Barrier between Indians and coastal communities Quick to challenge authority Tensions in the Backcountry

11 Germans Search for a Better Life Germans – approximately 100,000 Early migrants - small Protestant sects, similar to Quakers Later waves - Lutherans A third of Pennsylvania population by 1766 Religious institutions important Germans and Scots-Irish push south Backcountry of Virginia and the Carolinas Tensions in the Backcountry

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13 Native Americans Stake Out a Middle Ground Many eastern Indians moved Middle Ground - trans-Appalachian region Escaped confrontations with Europeans Relied on white traders Traditions eroded by European contact Earliest encounters controlled by Indian leaders Middle ground – individual Indians bargained for themselves French and British conflict Tensions in the Backcountry

14 Conquering New Spain’s Northern Frontier Spanish settle north of Rio Grande in late 1500s Pueblo Indians resisted in New Mexico St. Augustine, Florida – missions in California Tensions in the Backcountry

15 Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands Slow growth in Spanish borderlands Mainly males: priests, soldiers, and administrators Few European women Influence on Native American culture Spanish exploited native labor Lowest social class Natives resisted conversion to Catholicism Retained Spanish culture Tensions in the Backcountry

16 Discussion Questions What difficulties did Native Americans face in maintaining their cultural independence on the frontier? Why was the Spanish empire unable to control its northern frontier? Tensions in the Backcountry

17 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture American Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin Economic Transformation Birth of a Consumer Society Home

18 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture Rapid change in eighteenth-century colonies Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture Aggressive participation in consumption The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

19 American Enlightenment Intellectual thought swept Europe Basic assumptions of the Enlightenment American Enlightenment Appeal was practical knowledge Applied reason to social and political problems The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

20 Benjamin Franklin Franklin regarded as Enlightenment thinker by Europeans Started as printer, then satirist in Boston Achieved wealth through printing business Made important scientific discoveries and inventions Promoted reason The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

21 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

22 Economic Tranformation Early eighteenth-century growth Population increased eightfold Economic success Mercantilist restrictions expanded Benefited mother country Not enforced The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

23 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

24 Birth of a Consumer Society Consumer Revolution English exports to colonies increased Credit available Intercoastal trade Movement of goods between regions Great Wagon Road Change in American culture Erosion of local and regional identities Frequent contact The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

25 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

26 Discussion Question How did European ideas affect eighteenth-century American life? The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture

27 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies The Great Awakening Evangelical Religion Home

28 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies Great Awakening Spontaneous, evangelical revivals People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions, and society Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

29 The Great Awakening Widespread movement Americans looked backward with nostalgia Varied times in different regions Leaders Sparked by Jonathan Edwards George Whitefield Audience All walks of life Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

30 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

31 Evangelical Religion Itinerant Preachers Followed Whitefield’s example Split established churches Established ministers were suspicious Gilbert Tennent “New Lights” formed colleges Cultural change Active, questioning role African Americans Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

32 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

33 Discussion Question How did the Great Awakening transform the religious culture of colonial America? Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

34 Clash of Political Cultures Governing the Colonies: The American Experience Colonial Assemblies Home

35 Clash of Political Cultures Colonists attempted to emulate British political institutions Parliament – model for American assemblies Unwritten constitution; English system of checks and balances Study of British political theory and practice led to discovery of how different Americans were from English people Clash of Political Cultures

36 Governing the Colonies: The American Experience Erroneous belief that American governments modeled on England Royal governors Council Colonial assemblies Participation varied When big issues at stake Assemblies mostly gentry Clash of Political Cultures

37 Colonial Assemblies Aggressive colonial assemblies Felt obligation to preserve colonial liberties Assemblies controlled colony’s finances Conflict with governors No incentive for cooperation Governors wanted patronage system Shaped American culture Weekly journal Law Clash of Political Cultures

38 Discussion Question Why were the eighteenth-century colonial assemblies not fully democratic? Clash of Political Cultures

39 Century of Imperial War The French Threat King George’s War and Its Aftermath Seven Years’ War Perceptions of War Home

40 Century of Imperial War Britain’s conflicts with continental rivals like France spilled over to colonies Security threats from these conflicts forced colonists into more military and political cooperation British colonies overwhelmingly militarily superior to New France but ineffective Century of Imperial War

41 The French Threat France - limited New World military French army of 100,000, but not sent abroad Defense left to companies in fur trade English colonists’ theoretical advantage Larger population, but divided English and French suspicious English being encircled by French English seizing French land Century of Imperial War

42 Table 4.1 A Century of Conflict: Major Wars, 1689 ‒ 1763 Century of Imperial War

43 King George’s War and Its Aftermath King George’s War –1748 In Europe - War of Austrian Succession Victory over the French French built Fort Duquesne English population growing Virginia advised to expel French British army also unsuccessful Albany Plan Colonial unity Century of Imperial War

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46 What Did the Global Seven Years’ War Mean for North America? How did other colonial claims in North America create instability for the thirteen British mainland colonies? What made this eighteenth-century war a “world war”? In what ways did the territorial results of the war impact British mainland colonies? Century of Imperial War

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48 Seven Years’ War 1756 – Seven Years’ War began England declared war on France European warfare – France’s advantage Shifted strategy to focus on North America Peace of Paris France lost British got large piece of North America Spanish added Louisiana to their empire French kept Caribbean sugar islands Century of Imperial War

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51 Perceptions of War Deep impression on American society Colonists had to cooperate Closer contact with Britain British and Colonial views of each other Created trained officer corps British felt colonists ungrateful Colonists saw themselves as “junior partners” to British Century of Imperial War

52 Discussion Question Why did colonial Americans support Great Britain’s wars against France? Century of Imperial War

53 Conclusion: Rule Britannia? most Americans bound to Great Britain Culture and religion Lifestyle Politics and war Identity British had different perception


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