3 China’s neighbors: Mongolia, Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikstan, Krygystan, Kazakhstan, India, Nepal,Bhutan, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, and North Korea
4 China’s population = 1.3 billion (the world’s most populous nation)China has a unitary government that exerts controlover local subdivisions:22 provinces5 autonomous regions4 municipalities2 administrative districts: Hong Kong and Macao
5 Literacy rate: 91%Life expectancy: 73Pop. density: 364 mi sq
7 Country Bio: China Language: Religion: Population: Territory: 1, millionTerritory:3,705,386 sq. milesYear of PRC Inauguration:1949Year of Current Constitution:1982Head of Party and State:Hu JintaoHead of Government:Wen JiabaoLanguage:Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect)Yue (Cantonese)Wu (Shanghaiese)Minbei (Fuzhou)Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese)XiangGanHakka dialectsMinority languagesReligion:Daoism (Taoism), Buddhist, Muslim 2-3%Christian 1% (estimated)Nota Bene: officially atheist
8 Background Mao Zedong 1949 Communist victory Formally inaugurated the People’s Republic of ChinaUntil his death in 1976, he was the chief architect and agitator for a project to lead an agrarian people to modernization, prosperity and communist utopia.After his deathSuccessors rejected most of the revolutionary project; declaring it a failure essentially.Launched new era of reform
9 Background New economic pragmatism Economic growth highest priority Communist Party’s main assignmentRetreated from government’s direct administration of the economySuperiority of capitalismSocialist market economyBut have rejected political pluralismTolerates no challenge to the Communist Party’s monopoly on political powerInstitutionalization in ChinaPromote more transparency, stability, and responsivenessTo encourage investment and innovationSafeguard against arbitrary dictatorships and disruptive politicsBetter crafted laws, new legality, more assertive representative assemblies, and popularly elected grassroots leaders
10 Current Policy Challenges Political corruption, rural unrest, growing wealth gap, and severe pollutionFostering economic growth and deliver a better material life for Chinese citizensEconomy has grown at a rate of nearly 10 percent per year since 1980Economic success has not been costlessCorruptionRural reformLand not privately owned, but contracted for agricultural use by Chinese farmersFarmers poorly compensatedGrowing wealth gapPublic disturbancesChina has thoroughly abandoned the strictures of communist ideology; experienced an awesome economic revolution.Opened up political processes to most diversified inputsBut have also firmly suppressed organized challenges to the Communist Party
11 Historical Setting Confucianism Conservative philosophyConceived of a society and the polity in terms of an ordered hierarchy of harmonious relationshipsImperial order to the Founding of the PRCNationalist Party: Guomindang – Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shekRepublic of China:Chinese Communist Party: CCPMao Zedong: “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”History of the PRC:Deng Xiaoping: “Socialism With Chinese Characteristics”Lean to One SideGreat Leap Forward: 1957Retreat from the Leap: 1958 “Hundred Flowers”GPCR:
12 Social Conditions Huge population World’s most populous countryMost live in the countryside, but now that is only 57% compared to 85% in 1980Rural industrialization and growth of townsRural collective industry is the most dynamic industrial sectorThe population is concentrated in the eastern third of the landOnly ¼ of China’s land is arableLand shortage/reduction in cultivated areaLand is used for property borders, burial grounds, and bigger houses.So the problem of feeding the large population is expected to continueChina is a multiethnic state92 percent of Chinese are ethnically Han, but there are fifty-five recognized ethnic minorities, ranging in number from a few thousand to more than 16 million.Tibet and Xinjiang (unrest)
13 Structure of the Party State Design FeaturesGuardianshipDescribes the main relationship between the Communist Party and societyRepresentation of “historical best interests”Mass lineParty OrganizationDemocratic centralism – Leninist principleRefers mainly to consultation: opportunities for discussion, criticism, and proposals in party organizationsTwo Hierarchies, with Party LeadershipDivision of labor between party-state and government structures
14 Structure of the Party State: Government Structures National People’s Congress (NPC) – legislativeElected for five-year terms by delegates in provincial-level congresses and the armed forcesAssemble once annually for a plenary session of about two weeksAlways large bodyFormally has extensive powers: amendment of the constitution, passage and amendment of legislation, approval of economic plans,etc.Is it a rubber-stamp assembly? Was during Maoist years, but now….It is still too large and meets too infrequently, but the lawmaking role of the less cumbersome NPC Standing Committee seems to be gaining.
16 Structure of the Party State State Council-executive functionsComposed the premier, who is head of government, and his cabinet of vice-premiers, state councillors, ministers, auditor general, and secretary generalHas its own Standing Committee, which meets twice weeklyAs in most parliamentary systems, the bulk of legislation is drafted by specialized ministries and commissions under the direction of the cabinetPresident- Head of State – purely ceremonial officeCommunist Party LeadershipJudiciary:Supreme People’s CourtSupreme People’s ProcuratorateBridge between public security agencies and the courts
17 Structure of the Party State Party StructuresNational Party CongressCentral CommitteeExercises the powers of the congress between sessionsChinese political elitesPolitburoPolitburo Standing CommitteeTop Leader and the Succession ProblemParty Bureaucracy
20 Structure of the Party State People’s Liberation ArmyDoes not dictate policy to party leaders, but it is the self-appointed guardian of Chinese sovereignty and nationalism.Preventing Taiwan’s independenceParty DominanceNomenklatura systemThe most important mechanism by which the Communist Party exerts control over officials.Party membershipParty Core GroupsOverlapping DirectorshipsElite RecruitmentRule by LawSocialist LegalityLegal ReformCriticism of Legal Practices
21 Political Socialization Mass MediaOrdinary citizens now exposed to news and opinions about public affairsHong KongRelatively free and critical mass mediaChinese journalists expose government wrongdoings and thwart official efforts to suppress news of disasters.Chinese leaders reserve the right to shut down publications that in their view go too far.Internet: 50,000 cyber police; still difficult to monitorEducation SystemPast: very ideological; persecution of scholarsToday: respect for expertiseFall 2006 reduced the seven compulsory courses on political ideology and party history to four, in the first major curricular change in twenty-five years.
22 Political CultureFrom radicalism to “reform and opening” to the outside worldPolitical KnowledgeNot uniformly distributed in ChinaMore active knowledge and interest found in men, the more highly educated, and Chinese with higher incomes.BeijingHere people discuss politics very frequentlyPolitical ValuesReject every democratic value and support for democratic values generally lowInfluence of non-Chinese political socialization is evidentShow an impact of socioeconomic development; urban Chinese are much more supportive of democratic values than are mainland Chinese generally
24 Political Participation Changes in the RulesPolitical participation: was required; now optionalMao: mass mobilization campaign; contemporary leadership does not attempt to rouse the mass public to realize policy objectivesRejection of mass mobilization as the dominant mode of political participationRather: express opinions and participate through regular, official channels – hotlines, letters to newspaper editors, etc.Local Congress ElectionsVillage CommitteesUnacceptable Political ParticipationProtestors and ReformersDemocracy MovementTiananmen massacre of June 4, 1989
26 Interest Articulation and Aggregation Organizations Under Party LeadershipSatellite partiesChinese People’s Political Consultative ConferenceImportant mass organizationsAll-China Federation of Trade UnionsWomen’s FederationMass organizations represent the interests of the Communist Party to the organized “interest groups” it dominates, not vice versa.Transmission belts
27 Interest Articulation and Aggregation NGOsNongovernmental organizationsMost active in environmental issuesSeek embeddednessAll-Chinese Women’s Federation: responsible for more than 3,000 social organizations dealing with women’s issuesGONGOsGovernment-organized nongovernmental organizationsFront operations for government agenciesSet up to take advantage of the interest of foreign governments and international NGOs to support the emergence of Chinese civil society.Most interesting: business associations set up to organize firmsThe Self-Employed Laborers AssociationThe Private Enterprises AssociationFederation of Industry and commerce
28 Policymaking and Implementation Three tiers in policymakingPolitburo and its Standing CommitteeLeading small groups (LSGs)Relevant party departments and government ministriesFrom agenda setting to implementing regulationsFive stages: agenda setting; inter-agency review; Politburo approval; NPC review, debate, and passage; and the drafting of implementing regulationsTwo most important states: interagency review and drafting of implementing regulationsPolicy implementationMonitoringPolicy prioritiesAdapting policy to local conditionsCorruption
30 Policy Performance Economic Growth Environmental Degradation Success story; opening up to foreign trade and investmentTrade balancesScarcity prices versus government controlled or two-track pricing systemDecentralizationReform of SOEsEnvironmental DegradationEconomic growth = serious environmental damageHealth and productivity costs“first development, then environment”EPBs local environmental protection bureausState Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)Underfunded
33 Policy Performance Population Control Policy implementation Little regulation during Maoist years; 1978 population close to a billionOne-child family policyState-sponsored family planning added to the constitutionIdeal family had one childMost couples required to stop childbearing after one or two birthsMarried couples in urban areas restricted to one childIn rural areas, married couples are subject to rules that differ across provinces. In some, two children permitted. In others, only one child permitted; in most provinces, a second child is permitted only if the first is a girl.Difficult to implement; many sons ideal: a married daughter joins the household of her husband, while a married son remains in the household to support aging parents.Policy implementationCarrots and sticks utilized to encourage one child policyPerverse outcomesShortage of girlsSex-selective abortions
35 Hong Kong1842 and 1860, the island of Hong Kong, and adjacent territory on the Chinese mainland, were ceded by treaty to the British in perpetuity.Due to result of wars fought to impose trade on ChinaFor nearly a century, China was a British colony.1984, the Chinese communist authorities elaborated the principle of “one country, two systems” applicable to Hong Kong after 1997Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 but would continue to enjoy a “high degree of autonomy.”Chinese authorities hope the outcome will woo Taiwan back to the PRC, too.
36 TaiwanGoverned by the Nationalists as the Republic of China since 1945100 miles off the east coast of the Chinese mainland.Communist “liberation” of TaiwanKorean war; American interests in the security of TaiwanTwo major events affected Taiwan’s statusLost its membership in the U.N. and its seat on the Security Council to China in 1971U.S. recognized China diplomatically, downgrading the relationship with Taiwan to one of unofficial liaisonToday fewer than 30 countries recognize Taiwan.Taiwan’s public does not support unification.
37 China’s Political Future Still primarily a communist stateRoom for optimism?The dramatic changes in the Chinese economy, polity, and society, are as much a by-product of reform as a direct product of reform policies.Authoritarianism has not survived intact with economic modernization in many East Asian countries.Prediction: The party will continue to transform China in the years to come and to transform itself in order to continue to rule.
38 China’s HistoryChina is the world's oldest continuous civilization, with a history characterized by repeated divisions and reunifications amid alternating periods of peace and war, and violent dynastic change. Power was generally concentrated in the hands of the emperor, but sometimes shifted to powerful officials or regional warlords. The country's territorial extent varied according to its shifting fortunes.In 1912, the Republic of China attempted to establish itself as a representative democracy, but immediately collapsed into a one-party dictatorship under the Nationalist Party.In 1949, Mao Zedong and the Communists took control of the mainland and Chiang Kai-shek and the ROC moved to Taiwan.Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China has continued to operate as a totalitarian one-party state to the present.
39 Mao Zedong implemented the and manufacturing sectors. “Great Leap Forward”to modernizeChina’s agricultureand manufacturing sectors.
40 Mao’s 1960s “Cultural Revolution” sought to purge China of the “four olds”--old thoughts, old culture,old habits, and old customs.
41 Mao’s dedicated Red Guards attacked and bullied teachers, intellectuals,and anyone who seemed to lackthe spirit of his revolution.
42 Deng Xiaoping came to power after Mao’s death in 1976 loosened government’s strict control over economyencouraged some forms of private enterprisetolerated NO political dissenthis reaction to student protests for democracyoutraged the world in 1989
43 Democracy in China? Tragedy of Tiananmen Square Throughout the 1980s, DengXiaoping, the Communist leader of China, worked toward liberalizing China both politically and economically. As the world’s most populous nation apparently movedcloser to democracy, the free world looked on hopefully.Deng’s reform program led to a popular desire for more. In the Spring of 1989, students and other pro-democracy groups demonstrated in a number of Chinese cities. The focal point of the demonstrations was in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, where the world media covered the ongoing nonviolent protests. Unarmed soldiers were sent into the crowd at Tiananmen in an effort to disperse the demonstration peacefully. Pelted by rocks, the troops retreated, only to return--this time with tanks. The protesters escalated the violence, assaulting the tanks with rocks and Molotov cocktails. This time, the army opened fire. As many as 1,000 protesters were killed. The pro-democracy dream was bloodied, not killed.
44 Chinese Government Head of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) = General Secretary of the Politburo (aka President)Currently, Ho Jintao (took office after Jiang Zemin stepped down in 2003)elected by the National People’s Congress for a 5-year termState Council = cabinet leadersheaded by a Premier who is nominated bythe President and confirmed by theCentral Committee of the CCPNational People’s Congressunicameral body3,000 deputies elected to 5-year termsSupreme People’s Courtjudges appointed by NPC
45 Chinese Government Communist constitution formally adopted in 1954 not intended to be fundamentallaw--meant to reflect thecurrent government’s policiesmost recent constitution adoptedin 1982universal suffrage at 18
46 China’s Economy “communist” system centralized planning with market-oriented reformsGDP per capita = $4,400economic goals:- to industrialize and modernize- adopt standard market practices- increase production (export-led economy)- investment in technology- increase standard of living and alleviate poverty
47 Trade partners:US, Japan, Russia, and other industrializing nations in AsiaInternational Organizations:UN, APEC, WTO (since 2000)WMDs:China has WMDs but signed the Non-Proliferation Treatyin 1992 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996
48 China-U.S. Relations no formal diplomatic relations between the two nations from1972, President Richard Nixon visited China,beginning a period of “constructive engagement”diplomatic relations continued to improve afterthe Cold War ended indespite criticism of China’s poor human rightsrecord, the US granted China “most favorednation” status in 2000today US-China relations are excellent…politically,economically, and culturally
49 Issues facing the current government: stabilizing population growthautonomous Taiwan?re-asserting control over Hong Kong (1999)control of Tibet since 1959continued economic growthcontinue improving human rights recordgranting more individual freedomscurbing human traffickingMODERNIZATION--preparing for the2008 Olympics in Beijing