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AP Comparative Government and Politics

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1 AP Comparative Government and Politics
Politics in China: Comparative Politics: People’s Republic of China


3 China’s neighbors: Mongolia, Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan,
Tajikstan, Krygystan, Kazakhstan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, and North Korea

4 China’s population = 1.3 billion
(the world’s most populous nation) China has a unitary government that exerts control over local subdivisions: 22 provinces 5 autonomous regions 4 municipalities 2 administrative districts: Hong Kong and Macao

5 Literacy rate: 91% Life expectancy: 73 Pop. density: 364 mi sq


7 Country Bio: China Language: Religion: Population: Territory:
1, million Territory: 3,705,386 sq. miles Year of PRC Inauguration: 1949 Year of Current Constitution: 1982 Head of Party and State: Hu Jintao Head of Government: Wen Jiabao Language: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect) Yue (Cantonese) Wu (Shanghaiese) Minbei (Fuzhou) Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese) Xiang Gan Hakka dialects Minority languages Religion: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhist, Muslim 2-3% Christian 1% (estimated) Nota Bene: officially atheist

8 Background Mao Zedong 1949 Communist victory
Formally inaugurated the People’s Republic of China Until his death in 1976, he was the chief architect and agitator for a project to lead an agrarian people to modernization, prosperity and communist utopia. After his death Successors rejected most of the revolutionary project; declaring it a failure essentially. Launched new era of reform

9 Background New economic pragmatism Economic growth highest priority
Communist Party’s main assignment Retreated from government’s direct administration of the economy Superiority of capitalism Socialist market economy But have rejected political pluralism Tolerates no challenge to the Communist Party’s monopoly on political power Institutionalization in China Promote more transparency, stability, and responsiveness To encourage investment and innovation Safeguard against arbitrary dictatorships and disruptive politics Better crafted laws, new legality, more assertive representative assemblies, and popularly elected grassroots leaders

10 Current Policy Challenges
Political corruption, rural unrest, growing wealth gap, and severe pollution Fostering economic growth and deliver a better material life for Chinese citizens Economy has grown at a rate of nearly 10 percent per year since 1980 Economic success has not been costless Corruption Rural reform Land not privately owned, but contracted for agricultural use by Chinese farmers Farmers poorly compensated Growing wealth gap Public disturbances China has thoroughly abandoned the strictures of communist ideology; experienced an awesome economic revolution. Opened up political processes to most diversified inputs But have also firmly suppressed organized challenges to the Communist Party

11 Historical Setting Confucianism
Conservative philosophy Conceived of a society and the polity in terms of an ordered hierarchy of harmonious relationships Imperial order to the Founding of the PRC Nationalist Party: Guomindang – Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek Republic of China: Chinese Communist Party: CCP Mao Zedong: “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” History of the PRC: Deng Xiaoping: “Socialism With Chinese Characteristics” Lean to One Side Great Leap Forward: 1957 Retreat from the Leap: 1958 “Hundred Flowers” GPCR:

12 Social Conditions Huge population
World’s most populous country Most live in the countryside, but now that is only 57% compared to 85% in 1980 Rural industrialization and growth of towns Rural collective industry is the most dynamic industrial sector The population is concentrated in the eastern third of the land Only ¼ of China’s land is arable Land shortage/reduction in cultivated area Land is used for property borders, burial grounds, and bigger houses. So the problem of feeding the large population is expected to continue China is a multiethnic state 92 percent of Chinese are ethnically Han, but there are fifty-five recognized ethnic minorities, ranging in number from a few thousand to more than 16 million. Tibet and Xinjiang (unrest)

13 Structure of the Party State
Design Features Guardianship Describes the main relationship between the Communist Party and society Representation of “historical best interests” Mass line Party Organization Democratic centralism – Leninist principle Refers mainly to consultation: opportunities for discussion, criticism, and proposals in party organizations Two Hierarchies, with Party Leadership Division of labor between party-state and government structures

14 Structure of the Party State: Government Structures
National People’s Congress (NPC) – legislative Elected for five-year terms by delegates in provincial-level congresses and the armed forces Assemble once annually for a plenary session of about two weeks Always large body Formally has extensive powers: amendment of the constitution, passage and amendment of legislation, approval of economic plans,etc. Is it a rubber-stamp assembly? Was during Maoist years, but now…. It is still too large and meets too infrequently, but the lawmaking role of the less cumbersome NPC Standing Committee seems to be gaining.


16 Structure of the Party State
State Council-executive functions Composed the premier, who is head of government, and his cabinet of vice-premiers, state councillors, ministers, auditor general, and secretary general Has its own Standing Committee, which meets twice weekly As in most parliamentary systems, the bulk of legislation is drafted by specialized ministries and commissions under the direction of the cabinet President- Head of State – purely ceremonial office Communist Party Leadership Judiciary: Supreme People’s Court Supreme People’s Procuratorate Bridge between public security agencies and the courts

17 Structure of the Party State
Party Structures National Party Congress Central Committee Exercises the powers of the congress between sessions Chinese political elites Politburo Politburo Standing Committee Top Leader and the Succession Problem Party Bureaucracy



20 Structure of the Party State
People’s Liberation Army Does not dictate policy to party leaders, but it is the self-appointed guardian of Chinese sovereignty and nationalism. Preventing Taiwan’s independence Party Dominance Nomenklatura system The most important mechanism by which the Communist Party exerts control over officials. Party membership Party Core Groups Overlapping Directorships Elite Recruitment Rule by Law Socialist Legality Legal Reform Criticism of Legal Practices

21 Political Socialization
Mass Media Ordinary citizens now exposed to news and opinions about public affairs Hong Kong Relatively free and critical mass media Chinese journalists expose government wrongdoings and thwart official efforts to suppress news of disasters. Chinese leaders reserve the right to shut down publications that in their view go too far. Internet: 50,000 cyber police; still difficult to monitor Education System Past: very ideological; persecution of scholars Today: respect for expertise Fall 2006 reduced the seven compulsory courses on political ideology and party history to four, in the first major curricular change in twenty-five years.

22 Political Culture From radicalism to “reform and opening” to the outside world Political Knowledge Not uniformly distributed in China More active knowledge and interest found in men, the more highly educated, and Chinese with higher incomes. Beijing Here people discuss politics very frequently Political Values Reject every democratic value and support for democratic values generally low Influence of non-Chinese political socialization is evident Show an impact of socioeconomic development; urban Chinese are much more supportive of democratic values than are mainland Chinese generally


24 Political Participation
Changes in the Rules Political participation: was required; now optional Mao: mass mobilization campaign; contemporary leadership does not attempt to rouse the mass public to realize policy objectives Rejection of mass mobilization as the dominant mode of political participation Rather: express opinions and participate through regular, official channels – hotlines, letters to newspaper editors, etc. Local Congress Elections Village Committees Unacceptable Political Participation Protestors and Reformers Democracy Movement Tiananmen massacre of June 4, 1989


26 Interest Articulation and Aggregation
Organizations Under Party Leadership Satellite parties Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Important mass organizations All-China Federation of Trade Unions Women’s Federation Mass organizations represent the interests of the Communist Party to the organized “interest groups” it dominates, not vice versa. Transmission belts

27 Interest Articulation and Aggregation
NGOs Nongovernmental organizations Most active in environmental issues Seek embeddedness All-Chinese Women’s Federation: responsible for more than 3,000 social organizations dealing with women’s issues GONGOs Government-organized nongovernmental organizations Front operations for government agencies Set up to take advantage of the interest of foreign governments and international NGOs to support the emergence of Chinese civil society. Most interesting: business associations set up to organize firms The Self-Employed Laborers Association The Private Enterprises Association Federation of Industry and commerce

28 Policymaking and Implementation
Three tiers in policymaking Politburo and its Standing Committee Leading small groups (LSGs) Relevant party departments and government ministries From agenda setting to implementing regulations Five stages: agenda setting; inter-agency review; Politburo approval; NPC review, debate, and passage; and the drafting of implementing regulations Two most important states: interagency review and drafting of implementing regulations Policy implementation Monitoring Policy priorities Adapting policy to local conditions Corruption


30 Policy Performance Economic Growth Environmental Degradation
Success story; opening up to foreign trade and investment Trade balances Scarcity prices versus government controlled or two-track pricing system Decentralization Reform of SOEs Environmental Degradation Economic growth = serious environmental damage Health and productivity costs “first development, then environment” EPBs local environmental protection bureaus State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) Underfunded



33 Policy Performance Population Control Policy implementation
Little regulation during Maoist years; 1978 population close to a billion One-child family policy State-sponsored family planning added to the constitution Ideal family had one child Most couples required to stop childbearing after one or two births Married couples in urban areas restricted to one child In rural areas, married couples are subject to rules that differ across provinces. In some, two children permitted. In others, only one child permitted; in most provinces, a second child is permitted only if the first is a girl. Difficult to implement; many sons ideal: a married daughter joins the household of her husband, while a married son remains in the household to support aging parents. Policy implementation Carrots and sticks utilized to encourage one child policy Perverse outcomes Shortage of girls Sex-selective abortions


35 Hong Kong 1842 and 1860, the island of Hong Kong, and adjacent territory on the Chinese mainland, were ceded by treaty to the British in perpetuity. Due to result of wars fought to impose trade on China For nearly a century, China was a British colony. 1984, the Chinese communist authorities elaborated the principle of “one country, two systems” applicable to Hong Kong after 1997 Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 but would continue to enjoy a “high degree of autonomy.” Chinese authorities hope the outcome will woo Taiwan back to the PRC, too.

36 Taiwan Governed by the Nationalists as the Republic of China since 1945 100 miles off the east coast of the Chinese mainland. Communist “liberation” of Taiwan Korean war; American interests in the security of Taiwan Two major events affected Taiwan’s status Lost its membership in the U.N. and its seat on the Security Council to China in 1971 U.S. recognized China diplomatically, downgrading the relationship with Taiwan to one of unofficial liaison Today fewer than 30 countries recognize Taiwan. Taiwan’s public does not support unification.

37 China’s Political Future
Still primarily a communist state Room for optimism? The dramatic changes in the Chinese economy, polity, and society, are as much a by-product of reform as a direct product of reform policies. Authoritarianism has not survived intact with economic modernization in many East Asian countries. Prediction: The party will continue to transform China in the years to come and to transform itself in order to continue to rule.

38 China’s History China is the world's oldest continuous civilization, with a history characterized by repeated divisions and reunifications amid alternating periods of peace and war, and violent dynastic change. Power was generally concentrated in the hands of the emperor, but sometimes shifted to powerful officials or regional warlords. The country's territorial extent varied according to its shifting fortunes. In 1912, the Republic of China attempted to establish itself as a representative democracy, but immediately collapsed into a one-party dictatorship under the Nationalist Party. In 1949, Mao Zedong and the Communists took control of the mainland and Chiang Kai-shek and the ROC moved to Taiwan. Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China has continued to operate as a totalitarian one-party state to the present.

39 Mao Zedong implemented the and manufacturing sectors.
“Great Leap Forward” to modernize China’s agriculture and manufacturing sectors.

40 Mao’s 1960s “Cultural Revolution” sought to purge China of the
“four olds”--old thoughts, old culture, old habits, and old customs.

41 Mao’s dedicated Red Guards attacked and
bullied teachers, intellectuals, and anyone who seemed to lack the spirit of his revolution.

42 Deng Xiaoping came to power after Mao’s death in 1976
loosened government’s strict control over economy encouraged some forms of private enterprise tolerated NO political dissent his reaction to student protests for democracy outraged the world in 1989

43 Democracy in China? Tragedy of Tiananmen Square
Throughout the 1980s, Deng Xiaoping, the Communist leader of China, worked toward liberalizing China both politically and economically. As the world’s most populous nation apparently moved closer to democracy, the free world looked on hopefully. Deng’s reform program led to a popular desire for more. In the Spring of 1989, students and other pro-democracy groups demonstrated in a number of Chinese cities. The focal point of the demonstrations was in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, where the world media covered the ongoing nonviolent protests. Unarmed soldiers were sent into the crowd at Tiananmen in an effort to disperse the demonstration peacefully. Pelted by rocks, the troops retreated, only to return--this time with tanks. The protesters escalated the violence, assaulting the tanks with rocks and Molotov cocktails. This time, the army opened fire. As many as 1,000 protesters were killed. The pro-democracy dream was bloodied, not killed.

44 Chinese Government Head of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) =
General Secretary of the Politburo (aka President) Currently, Ho Jintao (took office after Jiang Zemin stepped down in 2003) elected by the National People’s Congress for a 5-year term State Council = cabinet leaders headed by a Premier who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Central Committee of the CCP National People’s Congress unicameral body 3,000 deputies elected to 5-year terms Supreme People’s Court judges appointed by NPC

45 Chinese Government Communist constitution formally adopted in 1954
not intended to be fundamental law--meant to reflect the current government’s policies most recent constitution adopted in 1982 universal suffrage at 18

46 China’s Economy “communist” system
centralized planning with market-oriented reforms GDP per capita = $4,400 economic goals: - to industrialize and modernize - adopt standard market practices - increase production (export-led economy) - investment in technology - increase standard of living and alleviate poverty

47 Trade partners: US, Japan, Russia, and other industrializing nations in Asia International Organizations: UN, APEC, WTO (since 2000) WMDs: China has WMDs but signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1992 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996

48 China-U.S. Relations no formal diplomatic relations between the
two nations from 1972, President Richard Nixon visited China, beginning a period of “constructive engagement” diplomatic relations continued to improve after the Cold War ended in despite criticism of China’s poor human rights record, the US granted China “most favored nation” status in 2000 today US-China relations are excellent…politically, economically, and culturally

49 Issues facing the current government:
stabilizing population growth autonomous Taiwan? re-asserting control over Hong Kong (1999) control of Tibet since 1959 continued economic growth continue improving human rights record granting more individual freedoms curbing human trafficking MODERNIZATION--preparing for the 2008 Olympics in Beijing

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