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The American Nation Chapter 4 The Thirteen English Colonies, 1630–1750 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Nation Chapter 4 The Thirteen English Colonies, 1630–1750 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Nation Chapter 4 The Thirteen English Colonies, 1630–1750 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 The American Nation Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: The New England Colonies Section 2: The Middle Colonies Section 3: The Southern Colonies Section 4: Roots of Self-Government Chapter 4: The Thirteen English Colonies, 1630–1750 Section 5: Life in the Colonies

3 Chapter 4, Section 1 The New England Colonies Why did the Puritans decide to leave England? What problems in Massachusetts colony caused people to leave? Why were the Puritans and Native Americans at war? Why were towns and villages important in New England life?

4 Chapter 4, Section 1 The Puritans Decide to Leave England Who were the Puritans? A religious group who had hoped to reform the Church of England Why did they leave England? The king disapproved of Puritans and their ideas, canceled Puritan business charters, and had some Puritans jailed. They believed that England had fallen on “evil and declining times.” They wanted to build a new society based on biblical laws and teachings.

5 Chapter 4, Section 1 Problems in Massachusetts Caused People to Leave Who Left?For Where?Why?Results Thomas HookerFounded Connecticut He thought the governor and other officials such as the General Court had too much power. He established a colony with strict limits on government. Settlers wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. General Court—Massachusetts assembly elected by male church members Fundamental Orders of Connecticut—a plan of government that gave all male property owners the right to vote, not just church members, and limited the governor’s power

6 Chapter 4, Section 1 Problems in Massachusetts Caused People to Leave Who Left?For Where?Why?Results Roger WilliamsSettled in Rhode Island He believed that the Puritan church had too much power. He set up a colony where church and state were completely separate. He fostered religious tolerance. Anne HutchinsonFled to Rhode Island She questioned the Puritan church’s teachings; she was tried and ordered out of the colony. She later became a symbol of the struggle for religious freedom. religious tolerance—willingness to let others practice their own beliefs.

7 Chapter 4, Section 1 Puritans and Native Americans Fought Over Land As more colonists settled in New England, they began to take over more Native American lands. By 1670 nearly 45,000 settlers were living in New England. In 1675, Chief Metacom and the Wampanog Indians destroyed 12 towns and killed more than 600 settlers.

8 Chapter 4, Section 1 Towns and Villages Were Important in New England Life In the center of each village was the common, an open field where the settlers’ cattle grazed. The Puritans worshiped in the village meeting house. They took their Sabbath, or holy day of rest, seriously. Settlers gathered at the meeting house for town meetings, where they discussed and voted on issues. Some towns became important centers of trade and shipbuilding.

9 Chapter 4, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment The Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony to build a new society a) that would expand the Church of England. b) where church members and nonchurch members alike could vote. c) based on their views of biblical laws and teachings. d) where church and state were completely separate. Which statement is NOT true of the New England Colonies? a) Settlers spoke their minds at town meetings. b) Fishing and shipbuilding were important economic activities. c) Religion had an important influence on colonial life. d) Farmers plowed broad, fertile fields to grow wheat. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

10 Chapter 4, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment The Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony to build a new society a) that would expand the Church of England. b) where church members and nonchurch members alike could vote. c) based on their views of biblical laws and teachings. d) where church and state were completely separate. Which statement is NOT true of the New England Colonies? a) Settlers spoke their minds at town meetings. b) Fishing and shipbuilding were important economic activities. c) Religion had an important influence on colonial life. d) Farmers plowed broad, fertile fields to grow wheat. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

11 Chapter 4, Section 2 The Middle Colonies Why did the colony of New Netherland become the colony of New York? Why did New Jersey separate from New York? How was Pennsylvania founded? What was life like in the Middle Colonies?

12 Chapter 4, Section 2 New Netherland Became New York 1626 and on The Dutch set up the colony of New Netherland. Settlers traded in furs. New Amsterdam became a thriving port. To encourage farming, Dutch officials granted huge estates to a few rich families. Owners of the estates were called patroons. People from different religious groups flocked to New Netherland because of its religious tolerance. The colony grew. Rivalry for trade and colonies increased between England and the Netherlands. The governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, swore to defend his colony. Stuyvesant was unpopular because of his harsh rule and heavy taxes. When English warships entered the harbor, the colonists refused to help the governor. The English took over without a shot The king of England gave New Netherland to the Duke of York. New Netherland became New York.

13 Chapter 4, Section 2 New Jersey Separated From New York The Duke of York thought that New York was too big to govern easily. He gave up some land to friends. They set up a new colony, New Jersey, which was a proprietary colony. In a proprietary colony, the king gave land to one or more people. These proprietors could divide the land and make laws for it. Settlers came from many countries. In 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony, which is a colony under the direct control of the English crown.

14 Chapter 4, Section 2 William Penn Founded Pennsylvania In England, William Penn joined the Quakers, a religious group that believed that all people were equal in God’s sight. Quakers were against war. Quakers were arrested, fined, or even hanged for their ideas. Penn believed the Quakers must leave England. He turned to the king for help. The king issued a royal charter naming Penn proprietor of a new colony, later called Pennsylvania. Penn called for fair treatment of Native Americans. Penn welcomed settlers of different faiths and people from many countries, including Germany. Other colonists called the Germans Pennsylvania Dutch, from the word “Deutsch,” which means German.

15 Chapter 4, Section 2 Features of Life in the Middle Colonies Cash crops—crops that are sold for money at market Large farms Skilled artisans Homes far apart Settlers from many different countries Many styles of building Coastal area plus the backcountry

16 Chapter 4, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment The colonies of New York and Pennsylvania were both settled by a) the Dutch. b) Puritans. c) people of many different religious backgrounds. d) friends of the Duke of York. Which description does NOT fit the Middle Colonies? a) large farms with fields of grain planted in rich, fertile soil b) settlers of many different religious backgrounds c) settlers from many different countries d) pumpkins and squash grown in poor, rocky soil on small farms Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

17 Chapter 4, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment The colonies of New York and Pennsylvania were both settled by a) the Dutch. b) Puritans. c) people of many different religious backgrounds. d) friends of the Duke of York. Which description does NOT fit the Middle Colonies? a) large farms with fields of grain planted in rich, fertile soil b) settlers of many different religious backgrounds c) settlers from many different countries d) pumpkins and squash grown in poor, rocky soil on small farms Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

18 Chapter 4, Section 3 The Southern Colonies Why was Maryland important to Roman Catholics? How were the Carolinas and Georgia founded? What two ways of life developed in the Southern Colonies? Why did the slave trade grow in the 1700s?

19 Chapter 4, Section 3 Maryland Was Important to Roman Catholics 1632—Sir George Calvert became a Roman Catholic. He asked King Charles I for a colony in the Americas for Catholics. Calvert died. His son, Lord Baltimore, took over. 1634—Settlers arrived in Maryland. Lord Baltimore appointed a governor and council of advisers, but he let colonists elect an assembly. 1649—Lord Baltimore asked the assembly to pass an Act of Toleration, a law that provided religious freedom for all Christians.

20 Chapter 4, Section 3 Bacon’s Rebellion Settlers arrived in Virginia, expecting profits from planting tobacco. Wealthy planters already had the best lands near the coast. Newcomers were pushed farther inland, onto Indian lands. Settlers and Indians clashed. Settlers asked the governor for help. He wouldn’t act. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon organized angry frontier planters. They raided Native American villages, then burned Jamestown. The revolt soon ended when Bacon died suddenly.

21 Chapter 4, Section 3 The Carolinas and Georgia Are Founded Carolinas North: poor tobacco farmers from Virginia small farms South: eight English nobles Charles Town settlers from the Caribbean rice and indigo, a plant used to make blue dye enslaved Africans Georgia James Oglethorpe debtors, or people who owed money and could not pay

22 Chapter 4, Section 3 Two Ways of Life in the Southern Colonies Land Farms Crops Slavery Tidewater PlantationsBackcountry coastal plain, many riversrolling hills, thick forests large plantationssmall farms tobacco, rice, indigotobacco, garden crops Enslaved Africans tended Tidewater plantations Few enslaved Africans worked backcountry farms.

23 Chapter 4, Section 3 Why the Slave Trade Grew in the 1700s s Early 1700s 1700s First enslaved Africans arrived in Virginia. Some Africans remained enslaved, some were servants, a few were free. Carolina plantations needed large numbers of workers. The planters came to rely on slave labor. Slave ships carried millions of enslaved Africans west across the Atlantic. Colonists enacted slave codes. Many colonists displayed racism, though a few spoke out against slavery. slave codes—laws that set out rules for slaves’ behavior; treated enslaved Africans as property racism—the belief that one race is superior to another

24 Chapter 4, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment The Southern Colonies were especially known for a) shipbuilding. b) fishing and whaling. c) iron. d) rice and tobacco. One reason why the slave trade grew was that a) plantations needed large numbers of workers. b) so many slaves died during the voyage. c) colonists were defying the Quakers who spoke out against it. d) sparsely populated colonies like Georgia needed more people. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

25 Chapter 4, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment The Southern Colonies were especially known for a) shipbuilding. b) fishing and whaling. c) iron. d) rice and tobacco. One reason why the slave trade grew was that a) plantations needed large numbers of workers. b) so many slaves died during the voyage. c) colonists were defying the Quakers who spoke out against it. d) sparsely populated colonies like Georgia needed more people. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

26 Chapter 4, Section 4 Roots of Self-Government Why did England want to regulate colonial trade? What were colonial governments like? How were the liberties of the colonists limited?

27 Chapter 4, Section 4 England Regulated Colonial Trade England believed in an economic theory called mercantilism, which said: A nation became strong by strictly controlling its trade. A country should export more than it imported. exports goods sent to markets outside a country imports goods brought into a country To enforce mercantilism, England passed the Navigation Acts, laws that regulated trade between England and the colonies so that England benefited. Only colonial or English ships could carry goods to and from the colonies. Colonial merchants could ship goods such as tobacco and cotton only to England. Colonists were encouraged to build their own ships.

28 Chapter 4, Section 4 England Regulated Colonial Trade Yankees—a nickname for New England traders—dominated colonial trade. Colonial merchants developed many trade routes. One route was known as the triangular trade. Colonial merchants sometimes defied the Navigation Acts by buying goods from the Dutch, French, and Spanish West Indies.

29 Chapter 4, Section 4 Part of GovernmentHow ChosenWhat They Did Governorappointed by the king or by the colony’s proprietor directed the colony’s affairs and enforced laws Legislature upper house—a group of advisers appointed by the governor lower house—an elected assembly people who had the power to make laws made laws approved laws; protected the rights of citizens; approved taxes What Colonial Governments Were Like

30 Chapter 4, Section 4 Rights Under Colonial Governments Colonists had rights as English Subjects In the Glorious Revolution, Parliament replaced King James II with William and Mary William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights. protected rights of individuals guaranteed right to trial by jury said the ruler could not raise taxes or army without approval of Parliament Some colonists had the right to vote. white Christian men over the age of 21 who owned property in some colonies, only members of a particular church bill of rights—a written list of freedoms the government promises to protect

31 Chapter 4, Section 4 Limits on Liberties of Colonists Women had fewer rights than free, white males. Married women had fewer rights than unmarried women and widows. Africans had almost no rights. Native Americans had almost no rights.

32 Chapter 4, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment England passed the Navigation Acts to see to it that a) colonial merchants would become wealthy. b) only England benefited from colonial trade. c) England would import more than it exported. d) colonial merchants had to compete with foreign merchants. Colonial legislatures included an assembly elected by a) Christian white men over 21 who owned property. b) all colonists who owned property. c) married Christian men and women. d) all colonists who went to church. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

33 Chapter 4, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment England passed the Navigation Acts to see to it that a) colonial merchants would become wealthy. b) only England benefited from colonial trade. c) England would import more than it exported. d) colonial merchants had to compete with foreign merchants. Colonial legislatures included an assembly elected by a) Christian white men over 21 who owned property. b) all colonists who owned property. c) married Christian men and women. d) all colonists who went to church. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

34 Chapter 4, Section 5 Life in the Colonies What class differences existed in colonial society? How did the Great Awakening affect the colonies? How did the colonists educate their children? How were the colonies affected by the spread of new ideas?

35 Chapter 4, Section 5 Social Classes in Colonial Society Gentry wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, successful lawyers, royal officials Middle Class farmers, skilled craftsworkers, some tradespeople Lower Class farmhands, indentured servants—people who signed contracts to work without wages in return for their ocean passage—and slaves

36 Chapter 4, Section 5 The Great Awakening Touched the Colonists In the 1730s and 1740s, a religious movement known as the Great Awakening swept through the colonies. The Great Awakening began with powerful ministers. It led many people to split from their old churches and start new ones. The growth of so many churches forced people to be more tolerant of different beliefs. New preachers argued that formal training was less important than a heart filled with the holy spirit. This thinking encouraged a spirit of independence. If people could learn to worship on their own, they could govern themselves. People felt freer to challenge political authority.

37 Chapter 4, Section 5 Education in the Colonies New England Massachusetts required all parents to teach their children “to read and understand the principles of religion.” Massachusetts set up the first public schools, or schools supported by taxes. The earliest schools had one room for students of all ages. Middle Colonies Southern Colonies Apprenticeships Churches and families set up private schools. Only wealthy families could educate their children. Some planters hired tutors, or private teachers. Sons of the very wealthy went to school in England. Slave were usually denied education. Boys might serve as apprentices to learn a trade or craft by living with a master and working for free in return for training.

38 Chapter 4, Section 5 The Spread of New Ideas The Enlightenment was a movement started in Europe by thinkers who applied reason and logic instead of superstition to understand the world. English philosopher John Locke wrote that people could gain knowledge by observing and experimenting. Benjamin Franklin demonstrated the spirit of the Enlightenment. He used reason to invent useful devices and improve his world. City life encouraged the development of cultural events, such as the theater and the growth of the newspaper. The growth of colonial newspapers led to a dispute over freedom of the press. Newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger was tried for libel—the act of publishing a statement that may unjustly damage a person’s reputation. The jury agreed that since the stories were true, Zenger had not committed libel—a step toward freedom of the press.

39 Chapter 4, Section 5 Section 5 Assessment The Great Awakening encouraged people to a) remain in the churches they had grown up with. b) worship in a calm, quiet atmosphere. c) separate religion and politics. d) think more independently about their political rights and governments. Benjamin Franklin is a good example of the Enlightenment spirit because he a) used reason to invent practical devices and create public services. b) used reason to argue that John Peter Zenger had not committed libel. c) rose from the lower class to the middle class. d) published the first regular weekly newspaper in the English colonies. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

40 Chapter 4, Section 5 Section 5 Assessment The Great Awakening encouraged people to a) remain in the churches they had grown up with. b) worship in a calm, quiet atmosphere. c) separate religion and politics. d) think more independently about their political rights and governments. Benjamin Franklin is a good example of the Enlightenment spirit because he a) used reason to invent practical devices and create public services. b) used reason to argue that John Peter Zenger had not committed libel. c) rose from the lower class to the middle class. d) published the first regular weekly newspaper in the English colonies. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.


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