Presentation on theme: "Influence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Influence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit) Chapter ThirteenInfluence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit)
2 “Getting Things Done” Sequence LeadershipManaging ChangeInfluence, Power, and PoliticsManaging ConflictNote: menu of options available to you in an organizational setting
3 How does one get things done, even if one has formal authority? PowerHow does one get things done, even if one has formal authority?
4 Chapter Thirteen Outline Influencing OthersNine Generic InfluencesThree Influence OutcomesPractical Research InsightsStrategic Alliances and ReciprocitySocial Power and EmpowermentFive Bases of PowerPractical Lessons from ResearchEmployee EmpowermentMaking Empowerment Work
5 Chapter Thirteen Outline (continued) 13-1bChapter Thirteen Outline (continued)Organizational Politics and Impression ManagementDefinition and Domain of Organizational PoliticsImpression ManagementKeeping Organizational Politics in Check
6 Nine Generic Influence Tactics Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values.Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.Ingratiation. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery.Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
7 Nine Generic Influence Tactics 13-2bNine Generic Influence TacticsExchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors.Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.
8 Three influence outcomes Commitment – will gladly do itCompliance – will grudgingly do itResistance – will refuse in one way or another to do itWe all know what “no” means? At least most of the time. What does a “yes” mean?Note results of research
9 Basis of strategic alliances Reciprocity – people should be paid back for their positive and negative actsSocial power – ability to get things done with human, informational, and material resources
10 13-3Skills and Best Practices: How to Turn Your Coworkers into Strategic AlliesMutual respect.Openness.Trust.Mutual benefit.
11 Five Bases of Power Reward power: Promising or granting rewards. Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment.Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority.Expert power: Sharing of knowledge or information.Referent power: Power of one’s personality (charisma).
12 Ritti: where does power come from? Formal power – see previous slideInformal power held by individualsPerception that one has powerFriendship networkIntimate knowledge of key processIOUsInformal power held by superiorsFor upwardly mobile, these superiors provide opportunities for advancement
13 Ritti: continuedHow else can power exist in an organization (or why can some rank and file members give their superiors headaches?)Those how have reached a plateau and are not going anywhere (or care to)Hold key positions like secretariesNon-mobile middle managers who handle key details their bosses do not want to deal with or who have expert knowledgeControls a key part of the process – can enforce bureaucratic adherence to rules
14 Empowerment Two way street: Management must be willing to allow employees to make key decisionsEmployees must be receptive to the idea
15 Randolph’s Empowerment Model The Empowerment PlanShare InformationCreate Autonomy Through StructureLet Teams Become The HierarchyRemember: Empowerment is not magic; it consists of a few simple steps and a lot of persistence.
16 Organizational Politics and Impression Management 13-7Organizational Politics and Impression ManagementOrganizational politics: “Involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.”Political Tactics:Attacking or blaming others.Using information as a political toolCreating a favorable image.Developing a base of support.Praising others (ingratiation).Forming power coalitions with strong allies.Associating with influential people.Creating obligations (reciprocity).Impression management: “The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas.”
17 Levels of Political Action in Organizations 13-8Figure 13-2Levels of Political Action in OrganizationsDistinguishing CharacteristicsCooperative pursuit of general self-interestsNetworkLevelCoalitionLevelCooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issuesIndividualLevelIndividual pursuit of general self-interests
18 Practical Tips for Managing Organizational Politics 13-9Table 13-1Practical Tips for Managing Organizational PoliticsReduce System UncertaintyReduce CompetitionOr establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processesBreak Existing Political Fiefdomsdeal with overly political individualsPrevent Future FiefdomsScreen out overly political individuals
19 Pursuing Political Change City, State, or National LevelResistance to changeComes from bureaucracy and other stakeholdersExhibits similar characteristics as discussion on why change is resistedDifficulty in “unfreezing” aspectEnabling legislation or similar mechanism to facilitate unfreezing
20 Pursuing Political Change Leadership issuesLead/coordinate diverse group of “advocates”Lead person within bureaucracy to champion the changeRole of influence and politicking to build coalition of “advocates”, allies, etc. and to obtain support for changeManaging conflict among allies, etc.