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Influence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit)

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1 Influence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit)
Chapter Thirteen Influence, Power, and Politics (An Organizational Survival Kit)

2 “Getting Things Done” Sequence
Leadership Managing Change Influence, Power, and Politics Managing Conflict Note: menu of options available to you in an organizational setting

3 How does one get things done, even if one has formal authority?
Power How does one get things done, even if one has formal authority?

4 Chapter Thirteen Outline
Influencing Others Nine Generic Influences Three Influence Outcomes Practical Research Insights Strategic Alliances and Reciprocity Social Power and Empowerment Five Bases of Power Practical Lessons from Research Employee Empowerment Making Empowerment Work

5 Chapter Thirteen Outline (continued)
13-1b Chapter Thirteen Outline (continued) Organizational Politics and Impression Management Definition and Domain of Organizational Politics Impression Management Keeping Organizational Politics in Check

6 Nine Generic Influence Tactics
Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts. Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values. Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes. Ingratiation. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery. Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.

7 Nine Generic Influence Tactics
13-2b Nine Generic Influence Tactics Exchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors. Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats. Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.

8 Three influence outcomes
Commitment – will gladly do it Compliance – will grudgingly do it Resistance – will refuse in one way or another to do it We all know what “no” means? At least most of the time. What does a “yes” mean? Note results of research

9 Basis of strategic alliances
Reciprocity – people should be paid back for their positive and negative acts Social power – ability to get things done with human, informational, and material resources

10 13-3 Skills and Best Practices: How to Turn Your Coworkers into Strategic Allies Mutual respect. Openness. Trust. Mutual benefit.

11 Five Bases of Power Reward power: Promising or granting rewards.
Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment. Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority. Expert power: Sharing of knowledge or information. Referent power: Power of one’s personality (charisma).

12 Ritti: where does power come from?
Formal power – see previous slide Informal power held by individuals Perception that one has power Friendship network Intimate knowledge of key process IOUs Informal power held by superiors For upwardly mobile, these superiors provide opportunities for advancement

13 Ritti: continued How else can power exist in an organization (or why can some rank and file members give their superiors headaches?) Those how have reached a plateau and are not going anywhere (or care to) Hold key positions like secretaries Non-mobile middle managers who handle key details their bosses do not want to deal with or who have expert knowledge Controls a key part of the process – can enforce bureaucratic adherence to rules

14 Empowerment Two way street:
Management must be willing to allow employees to make key decisions Employees must be receptive to the idea

15 Randolph’s Empowerment Model
The Empowerment Plan Share Information Create Autonomy Through Structure Let Teams Become The Hierarchy Remember: Empowerment is not magic; it consists of a few simple steps and a lot of persistence.

16 Organizational Politics and Impression Management
13-7 Organizational Politics and Impression Management Organizational politics: “Involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.” Political Tactics: Attacking or blaming others. Using information as a political tool Creating a favorable image. Developing a base of support. Praising others (ingratiation). Forming power coalitions with strong allies. Associating with influential people. Creating obligations (reciprocity). Impression management: “The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas.”

17 Levels of Political Action in Organizations
13-8 Figure 13-2 Levels of Political Action in Organizations Distinguishing Characteristics Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests Network Level Coalition Level Cooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issues Individual Level Individual pursuit of general self-interests

18 Practical Tips for Managing Organizational Politics
13-9 Table 13-1 Practical Tips for Managing Organizational Politics Reduce System Uncertainty Reduce Competition Or establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes Break Existing Political Fiefdoms deal with overly political individuals Prevent Future Fiefdoms Screen out overly political individuals

19 Pursuing Political Change
City, State, or National Level Resistance to change Comes from bureaucracy and other stakeholders Exhibits similar characteristics as discussion on why change is resisted Difficulty in “unfreezing” aspect Enabling legislation or similar mechanism to facilitate unfreezing

20 Pursuing Political Change
Leadership issues Lead/coordinate diverse group of “advocates” Lead person within bureaucracy to champion the change Role of influence and politicking to build coalition of “advocates”, allies, etc. and to obtain support for change Managing conflict among allies, etc.

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