Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Development Memorize Fig. 13.1(m171): Comparing the stage theories. The stage concept is useful because the human brain does experience growth."— Presentation transcript:
Prenatal Development Memorize Fig. 13.1(m171): Comparing the stage theories. The stage concept is useful because the human brain does experience growth spurts during childhood and puberty that roughly correspond to Piaget. (f5.23 c200) Temperament is biologically based, and is stable. New Zealand preschoolers who were low in conscientiousness and self-control were more vulnerable to ill health, substance abuse, arrest, and single parenthood by age 32. (Moffitt et al., 2011 m 171, c 213) Adults, tested 40 years after their elementary school lives, had the same talkativeness, impulsiveness, and humility that their elementary school teachers had noted. (Nave et al., 2010 m 171 c 213).
Prenatal Development 2 Memorize Fig. 13.3: at each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development. (m 173 f5.2 c 169) At month 6: the foetus is responsive to sound and can recognize its mother's voice. (Hepper, 2005 m p174, c 170). After birth, the newborn will prefer its mother's voice to its father's or another woman's. (DeCasper et al., 1994 m p174, c 170). If the mother spoke two languages during pregnancy, the newborn will prefer both. (Byer-Heinlein et al., 2010 m p174, c 170). The newborns melodic up and down cries bear the signature of the mother's native tongue. (Mampe et al., 2009 m p174, c 170)
Teratogens Teratogens are harmful substances that can pass through the placental barrier. They include viruses and particularly alcohol. Many psychoactive compounds, such as methamphetamine, also pass through (m p174, c 170). Even light drinking, and occasional binge drinking can affect the brain of the foetus. (Sayal et al., 2009 m p174, c 170) Persistent heavy drinking can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, in 1 in 800 births. These children can be noted by their small, misproportioned heads and lifelong brain abnormalities. (May & Gossage, 2001 m p174, c 170). Fetal damage is an epigenetic effect. The presence of alcohol leaves marks on DNA, that will switch genes on and off (creating proteins) abnormally. (Liu et al., 2009 m p174, c 170).
The Competent Newborn Newborns come equipped to survive, as exemplified by the rooting reflex. Newborns exhibit habituation: a decrease in responses to repeated (unchanging) stimulus. Fig. 13.4 Infants focus on the face, not the body. (Quinn, 2002 m175 c171). Newborns prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness, as in Fig. 13.5 Remember this point when discussing autism on your exam.(m 175 c 171) Newborns become attuned to the smell of their mother's body, as attested to by the chamomile balm experiment. (Delaunay- El Allam, 2010 m 175 c 171).
Smiles Predict Marital Stability In one study of 306 college alums, those students whose expression exhibited a true (Duchenne) smile had only 1 divorce in 20, while those exhibiting false smiles (where eyes and mouth oppose each other) had 1 in 4. (Hertenstein et al., 2009 m171 c 213) We all adapt to changing environments. Most shy, fearful toddlers being opening up by age 4, and most people become conscientious, stable, agreeable and self- confident in the years after adolescence. (Shaw et al., 2010 m 172 c214)