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Chapter 13 Infectious Diseases © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1
The Process of Infection Infection: a disease or condition caused by a microorganism Microorganisms are the tiniest living organisms on earth that eat, reproduce, and die An infection is considered an illness or disease if it interferes with your usual lifestyle or shortens your life The process of infection often follows a typical course © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.2
Stages of Infection © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.3 Stages of infection.
The Chain of Infection Chain of infection: the process by which an infectious agent, or pathogen, passes from one organism to another Pathogen: infectious agent capable of causing disease –They often live in large communities, called reservoirs –Some cannot survive in the environment and require a living host –To cause infection, they must have a portal of exit from the reservoir or host, and a portal of entry into a new host © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.4
The Chain of Infection Vector: animal or insect that transmits a pathogen from a reservoir or an infected host to a new host Breaking the chain of infection at any point can either increase or decrease the risk of infection Virulence: speed and intensity with which a pathogen is likely to cause an infection Epidemic: widespread outbreak of a disease that affects many people © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.5
The Chain of Infection © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.6 The chain of infection
Types of Pathogens © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.7 Main types of pathogens.
West Nile 2006 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
West Nile 2009 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
West Nile 2012 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
External Barriers Skin is the body’s first line of defense Nasal passages and ear canals are protected by hair Lungs are protected by the cough reflex and cilia Saliva contains special proteins that break down bacteria Stomach acids make it difficult for most organisms to survive Small intestines contain bile and enzymes that break down pathogens Vagina is slightly acidic, discouraging the growth of abnormal bacteria © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.11
Physical and Chemical Barriers © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.12 Physical and chemical barriers to infection.
The Immune System Immune system: a complex set of cells, chemicals, and processes that protects the body against pathogens when they succeed in entering the body –Innate immune system: part of the immune system designed to rapidly dispose of pathogens in a nonspecific manner –Acquired immune system: part of the immune system that recognizes specific targets © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.13
Innate Immune System Cells of the innate immune system: –Neutrophils and macrophages: white blood cells that travel to areas of infection or tissue damage and digest damaged cells, foreign particles, and bacteria –Natural killer cells: white blood cells that recognize and destroy virus-infected cells or those that have become cancerous © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.14
Immune System © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Acquired Immune System Cells of the acquired immune system: –Lymphocytes: white blood cells that circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system –T cells: type of lymphocyte that monitor events Helper T cells “read” cells’ infection messages and trigger production of killer T cells and B cells Killer T cells attack and kill foreign cells and infected body cells Suppressor T cells slow down and halt the immune response when the threat has been handled –B cells: monitor the blood and tissue fluids When they encounter a specific antigen, they mature and produce antibodies: proteins that bind to specific antigens and trigger their destruction © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.16
Immunization After surviving infection by a pathogen, a person often acquires immunity to future infections by the same pathogen B and T cells become memory cells when exposed to an infectious agent, allowing recognition and quick action to destroy the invader before the illness begins Vaccine: a preparation of weakened or killed microorganisms administered to confer immunity to various diseases –Protects you by stimulating an immune response –Protects society by shrinking the reservoir of infectious agents © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.17
Recommended Adult Immunizations © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.18 Recommended adult immunizations.
Risk Factors for Infection Controllable Eating a balanced diet Exercising Getting enough sleep Managing stress properly Receiving vaccinations, when available Uncontrollable Age Undergoing surgical procedures Having chronic diseases Genetic predispositions Sociocultural issues –Overcrowded living conditions –Poverty © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.19
Disruption of Immunity The immune system can malfunction due to the following: –Autoimmune diseases Mistaken identity in the body that allows the immune system to create an immune response, causing damage to body cells and tissues –Allergies Body identifies a harmless foreign substance as an antigen and creates an immune response –Stress Long-term stress can suppress the immune system, causing illness © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.20
Food Production and Distribution Changes Changes in food production and distribution can affect disease transmission –The widespread distribution of food may: Decrease the nutrient value of food Increase the risk that contaminated food will cause infectious disease –More than 250 organisms are associated with food-related illnesses Viruses Bacteria Prions Parasites © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.21
Behavior-Related Changes Behavior-related changes can have an affect on disease transmission –Travel SARS outbreak (2003) –Sexual behavior Sexually transmitted diseases –Illicit drug use Use of contaminated needles and syringes –Body art Insertion of needles breaks down the body’s protective skin barrier, and equipment and dyes can be contaminated © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.22
Death Rate from Infectious Diseases, United States © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.23 Death rate from infectious diseases, United States, 20th century.
Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic: drug that works by killing or preventing the growth of bacteria Antibiotic resistance: lessened sensitivity to the effects of an antibiotic –Two factors are believed to account for resistance: Frequency with which resistant genes arise naturally among bacteria through mutation Extent of antibiotic use © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.24
Reducing Antibiotic Resistance © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.25 Reducing Antibiotic Resistance (Consumer Clipboard)
Vaccination Controversies As vaccine-prevented diseases become less common, people begin to question the necessity and safety of the vaccines –Serious reactions to currently recommended vaccinations are very rare If rates of vaccination drop, the likelihood of a disease recurrence increases © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.26
Global Infectious Diseases Four leading causes of global infectious disease mortality: –Pneumonia: infection of the lungs or lower respiratory tract Can be viral or bacterial –Diarrhea: kills an estimated 1.5 million children per year –Tuberculosis: world’s most common infectious disease –Malaria: mosquito-borne disease that caused 655,000 deaths in 2010 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.27
Infectious Diseases on Campus Pertussis (Whooping Cough): infection of the respiratory tract that is highly contagious Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: infection from a common bacterium carried on the skin or in the noses of healthy people Urinary tract infections: most common bacterial infection in women © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.28
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted disease (STD): infection spread predominantly through sexual contact –Also called sexually transmitted infection (STI) –Primary pathogens: viruses and bacteria © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.29
HIV/AIDS Cause: HIV virus attacks the helper T cells (CD4) and macrophages of the immune system Methods of transmission: –Direct contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids (blood, semen, vaginal secretions) –Sharing of hypodermic needles –Through infected blood products –Perinatal transmission (mother to fetus) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.30
HIV/AIDS Most infected people are asymptomatic or can remain symptom-free for years, even though antibodies have been formed within weeks of infection Eventually the following symptoms may appear: –Rapid weight loss –Cough –Night sweats –Diarrhea –Rashes or skin blemishes –Memory loss © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.31
People Living with HIV in 2010 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.32 Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV in 2010.
HIV Testing Strongly recommended for anyone who has engaged in or has a partner who has: –Injected drugs, including steroids –Had unprotected sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) –Had multiple partners or has exchanged sex for drugs or money –Been diagnosed with an STD Tests include: –Enzyme immune assay (EIA) –Western blot test –Home Access HIV-1 Test System (home test kit) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.33
Management of HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral agents: do not cure the infection, but slow the rate of replication and destruction, prolonging life and improving quality of life Drug cocktails: complicated drug combinations that combat the development of resistant viral strains –Complexity, cost, and risk of side effects increase New prevention possibilities –Vaccine trails are under way © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.34
Disproportionate Risk for HIV Infection © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.35 Disproportionate Risk for HIV Infection (Who’s at Risk?)
Other STDs Chlamydia Gonorrhea Pelvic inflammatory disease Syphilis Bacterial vaginosis Human papillomavirus Genital herpes Hepatitis Trichomoniasis Candidiasis Pubic lice and scabies © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.36
Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases Support your immune system by adopting a healthy lifestyle –Eat a balanced diet, exercise, sleep, manage stress, and do not smoke Vaccinate yourself and children Be proactive when you have been exposed to an infectious disease –Follow good hygiene, stay home from work, avoid crowds Minimize your use of antibiotics More… © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.37
Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases Practice the ABCDs of STD prevention –Abstain –Be faithful –Use Condoms –Promote Detection; Learn about common infectious diseases if you are about to travel to a particularly high- risk area Participate in efforts to reduce the likelihood of infectious diseases in your community © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.38
Hand Washing © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 13 Infectious Diseases © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1.
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