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Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Chapter Thirteen Creating and Pricing Products that Satisfy Customers 13 | 1
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Learning Objectives 1.Explain what a product is and how products are classified. 2.Discuss the product life cycle and how it leads to new product development. 3.Define product line and product mix and distinguish between the two. 4.Identify the methods available for changing a product mix. 5.Explain the uses and importance of branding, packaging, and labeling. 13 | 2
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Learning Objectives (cont’d) 6.Describe the economic basis of pricing and the means by which sellers can control prices and buyers’ perceptions of prices. 7.Identify the major pricing objectives used by businesses. 8.Examine the three major pricing methods that firms employ. 9.Explain the different strategies available to companies for setting prices. 10.Describe three major types of pricing associated with business products. 13 | 3
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Classification of Products Product –Everything one receives in an exchange, including all tangible and intangible attributes and expected benefits –A good, service, or idea Consumer product –A product purchased to satisfy personal and family needs Business (industrial) product –A product bought for resale, for making other products, or for use in a firm’s operations 13 | 4
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Consumer Product Classifications Convenience product –A relatively inexpensive, frequently purchased item for which buyers want to exert only minimum effort Shopping product –An item for which buyers are willing to expend considerable effort on planning and making the purchase Specialty product –An items that possesses one or more unique characteristics for which a significant group of buyers is willing to expend considerable purchasing effort 13 | 5
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Business Product Classifications Raw material –A basic material that becomes part of a physical product; usually comes from mines, forests, oceans, or recycled solid wastes Major equipment –Large tools and machines used for production purposes Accessory equipment –Standardized equipment used in a firm’s production or office activities Component part –An item that becomes a part of a physical product and is either a finished item ready for assembly or a product that needs little processing before assembly 13 | 6
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Business Product Classifications (cont’d) Process material –A material that is used directly in the production of another product but is not readily identifiable in the finished product Supply –An item that facilitates production and operations but does not become part of the finished product Business service –An intangible product that an organization uses in its operations 13 | 7
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved The Product Life Cycle A series of stages in which a product’s sales revenues and profits increase, reach a peak, then decline –Introduction Customer awareness and acceptance are low –Growth Sales increase rapidly as the product becomes well known –Maturity Sales are still increasing but at a slower rate; later in this stage, sales and profits begin to slowly decline –Decline stage Sales volume decreases sharply and profits continue to fall 13 | 8
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Product Life Cycle Source: William M. Pride and O. C. Ferrell, Marketing: Concepts and Strategies, 15 th ed. (Mason, Ohio: South- Western/Cengage Learning, 2010). Adapted with permission. 13 | 9
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Using the Product Life Cycle Marketers should be aware of the life-cycle stage of each product for which they are responsible and should try to estimate how long the product is expected to remain in that stage –Both must be taken into account in making decisions about the marketing strategy for a product 13 | 10
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Product Line and Product Mix Product line –A group of similar products that differs only in relatively minor characteristics Product mix –All of the products that a firm offers for sale –Width of the mix The number of product lines the mix contains –Depth of the mix The average number of individual products within each line 13 | 11
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Managing the Product Mix Managing existing product –Product modification: quality, functionality, or aesthetic characteristics –Line extensions: development of a product closely related to one or more products in the existing product line but designed specifically to meet somewhat different customer needs Deleting products Developing new products –Imitations, adaptations, or innovations –Consists of seven phases 13 | 12
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Phases of New Product Development Source: William M. Pride and O. C. Ferrell, Marketing: Concepts and Strategies, 15 th ed. (Mason, Ohio: South-Western/Cengage Learning, 2010). Adapted with permission. 13 | 13
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Why Do Products Fail? The product and its marketing program are not planned and tested as completely as they should be –For example, a firm tries to save product development costs and only market-tests a product and not its entire marketing mix The firm markets a new product before all the “bugs” are worked out When problems show up in testing, a firm tries to recover its costs by pushing ahead anyway A firm tries to market a product with inadequate financing 13 | 14
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Examples of Product Failures 13 | 15 Source: accessed January 23, 2006; Robert M. McMath, “Copycat Cupcakes Don’t Cut It,” American Demographics, January 1997, p. 60; Eric Berggren and Thomas Nacher, “Why Good Ideas Go Bust,” Management Review, February 2000, pp. 32–36.
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding What is a brand? –A name, term, symbol, design, or any combination of these that identifies a seller’s products as distinct from those of other sellers –Brand name The part of a brand that can be spoken –Brand mark The part of a brand that is a symbol or distinctive design –Trademark A name or brand mark that is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and is legally protected from use by anyone else –Trade name The complete and legal name of an organization 13 | 16
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding (cont’d) Types of Brands –Manufacturer (producer) brand A brand that is owned by a manufacturer –Store (private) brand A brand that is owned by an individual wholesaler or retailer –Generic brand A product with no brand at all 13 | 17
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding (cont’d) Benefits of branding –Because brands are easily recognizable, they reduce the amount of time buyers must spend shopping –Brands help consumers judge quality –Branding helps a firm introduce a new product with the same brand name –Branding aids in promotional efforts because promotion of each branded product indirectly promotes others with the same brand 13 | 18
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding (cont’d) Benefits of branding (cont’d) –Brand loyalty The extent to which a customer is favorable toward buying a specific brand Recognition, preference, and insistence –Brand equity The marketing and financial value associated with a brand’s strength in a market Brand-name awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty 13 | 19
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding (cont’d) Choosing a brand –It should be easy to say, spell, and recall –It should suggest, in a positive way, the product’s uses, special characteristics, and major benefits –It should be distinctive enough to set it apart from competing brands Protecting a brand –Should be protected through registration –Guard against a brand name’s becoming a generic term 13 | 20
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Branding (cont’d) Branding strategies –Individual branding A firm uses a different brand for each of its products For example, Procter & Gamble uses Ivory, Camay, Zest, Safeguard, etc., for its line of bar soaps A problem with one product will not affect another product Different brands can be directed at different market segments –Family branding A firm uses the same brand for all or most of its products For example, Xerox uses family branding for all its product mixes The promotion of any one item helps all other products A new product has a head-start when its brand name is already known and accepted by customers 13 | 21
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Packaging All of the activities involved in developing and providing a container with graphics for a product Functions of packaging –Protect the product and maintain its functional form –Offer consumer convenience –Promote the product by communicating its features, uses, benefits, and image Design considerations –Cost –Single or multiple units –Consistency among package designs (family packaging) –Promotional role –Needs of intermediaries –Environmental responsibility 13 | 22
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Labeling The presentation of information on a product or its package May include –Brand name and mark –Trademark symbol –Package size and contents –Product claims –Directions –Safety precautions –Ingredients –Name and address of manufacturer –Universal Product Code (UPC) symbol for automated checkout and inventory control 13 | 23
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Labeling (cont’d) Must include –For garments, name of manufacturer, country of manufacture, fabric content, cleaning instructions –Nutrition labeling in standard format for any food product for which a nutritional claim is made –For food, number of servings, serving size, calories per serving, calories derived from fat, and amounts of specific nutrients –For nonedible items such as shampoo and detergent, safety precautions and instructions Express warranty –A written explanation of the producer responsibilities in the product is found to be defective or otherwise unsatisfactory 13 | 24
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Products Meaning and use of price –The amount of money a seller is willing to accept in exchange for a product at a given time and under certain circumstances –Price allocates goods and services among those who are willing and able to buy them –Price allocates financial resources (sales revenue) among producers according to how well they satisfy customers’ needs –Price helps customers allocate their own financial resources among various want-satisfying products 13 | 25
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Products (cont’d) Supply and demand affects prices –Supply The quantity of a product that producers are willing to sell at each of various prices Quantity supplied by producers increases as the price increases –Demand The quantity of a product that buyers are willing to purchase at each of various prices Quantity demanded increases as the price decreases –Equilibrium Where the supply and demand curves intersect and quantity and price for buyers and sellers are equal 13 | 26
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Supply and Demand Curves 13 | 27
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Products (cont’d) Price and nonprice competition –Price competition An emphasis on setting a price equal to or lower than competitors’ prices to gain sales or market share –Nonprice competition Competition based on factors other than price Buyers’ perceptions of price –Buyers will accept different ranges of prices for different products –A premium price may be appropriate if a product is considered superior or has inspired strong brand loyalty 13 | 28
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Objectives Survival –Pricing the firm’s products (perhaps at a loss) in order to attract customers to establish the firm in a market Profit maximization –Pricing with the intent to reap profits as large as possible from a market—usually an unattainable goal Target return on investment (ROI) –Pricing that allows the firm to attain its profit goal, which is a percentage of the investment the firm has made 13 | 29
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Objectives (cont’d) Market share goals –Pricing that will increase a firm’s proportion of total industry sales Status quo pricing –Pricing the firm’s products so as not to disturb the stability of prices in the industry 13 | 30
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Methods Cost-based pricing –The seller determines the total cost of producing one unit of the product then adds an amount to cover additional costs and profit (markup) –Markup may be calculated as a percentage of total costs –Flaws Difficulty of determining an effective markup percentage; price may be too high, resulting in lost sales, or price may be too low, resulting in lost profit Separates pricing from other business functions that impact marketing decisions 13 | 31
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Methods Breakeven analysis –Breakeven quantity The number of units that must be sold for total revenue (from all units sold) to equal the total cost (of all units sold) –Total revenue The total amount received from sales of a product –Fixed cost A cost incurred no matter how many units are produced or sold –Variable cost A cost that depends on the number of units produced –Total cost The sum of the fixed costs and the variable costs attributed to a product 13 | 32
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Breakeven Analysis What is the lowest level of production and sales at which a company can break even on a particular product? 13 | 33
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Methods (cont’d) Demand-based pricing –Based on the level of customer demand for the product –Product prices are high when demand is high and low when demand is weak –Price differentiation Setting different prices in segmented markets based on segment characteristics (e.g., time of purchase, type of customer, or distribution channel) Competition-based pricing –Based on meeting the challenge of competitors’ prices in markets where products are quite similar or price is an important customer consideration 13 | 34
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Types of Pricing Strategies 13 | 35
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Strategies New-product strategies –Price skimming Charging the highest possible price for a product during the introduction stage of its life cycle –Penetration pricing Setting a low price for a new product to quickly build market share and discourage competitors 13 | 36
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Strategies (cont’d) Differential pricing –Charging different prices to different buyers for the same quality and quantity of product –The market must consist of multiple segments with different price sensitivities –Negotiated pricing Establishing a final price through bargaining –Secondary-market pricing Setting one price for the primary target market and a different price for another market –Periodic discounting Temporary reduction of prices on a patterned or systematic basis –Random discounting Temporary reduction of prices on an unsystematic basis 13 | 37
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Strategies (cont’d) Psychological pricing –Odd-number pricing Setting prices using odd numbers that are slightly below whole- dollar amounts –Multiple-unit pricing Setting a single price for two or more units –Reference pricing Pricing a product at a moderate level and positioning it next to a more expensive model or brand –Bundle pricing Packaging two or more complementary products and selling them for a single price –Everyday low prices (EDLPs) Setting a low price for products on a consistent basis –Customary pricing Pricing on the basis of tradition 13 | 38
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Strategies (cont’d) Product-line pricing –Establishing and adjusting the prices of multiple products within a product line –Captive pricing Pricing the basic product in a product line low, but pricing related items at a higher level –Premium pricing Pricing the highest-quality or most versatile products higher than other models in the product line –Price lining Setting a limited number of prices for selected groups or lines of merchandise 13 | 39
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Strategies (cont’d) Promotional pricing –Price leaders Products priced below the usual markup, near cost, or below cost –Special-event pricing Advertised sales or price cutting linked to a holiday, season, or event –Comparison discounting Setting a price at a specific level and comparing it with a higher price 13 | 40
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Business Products Geographic pricing –Deals with delivery costs –FOB (free-on-board) origin pricing The seller’s pricing is exclusive of delivery costs; the buyer pays the transportation costs –FOB destination pricing The seller includes transportation costs in the product pricing Transfer pricing –Prices charged in sales between an organization’s units 13 | 41
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Pricing Business Products (cont’d) Discounting –Trade discounts Discounts offered to intermediaries or middlemen –Quantity discounts Discounts for large volume purchases –Cash discounts Discounts for prompt payment –Seasonal discounts Price reductions for buyers who purchase out of season –Allowances Price reductions to achieve certain goals such as returning used equipment or increasing sales of a particular item 13 | 42
Chapter Ten Creating and Pricing Products that Satisfy Customers.
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Fourteen Creating and Pricing Products That Satisfy Customers.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 | 1 Product “…everything one receives in an exchange, including all tangible and intangible.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 | 1 Pricing …the amount of money a seller is willing to accept in exchange for a product.
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