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The Conquest of New France Causes of the Conquest.

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1 The Conquest of New France Causes of the Conquest

2 The Rivals: Britain and France In the 1700’s, Britain and France were the major powers in Europe The French (Fre) wanted control over Europe The English (Eng) wanted a world empire They both wanted power, so there was conflict!

3 First Intercolonial War French raided villages in Thirteen Colonies (1690) English forts were captured in Acadia and Newfoundland (Nfld.) Treaty of Rijswijk – no territorial change and the French gave back the forts to the English

4 Second Intercolonial War French raided the Thirteen Colonies, captured forts in Nfld. and Hudson Bay English captured Port-Royal (Nova Scotia) Treaty of Utrecht – the Fre. ceded Acadia, Nfld., and Hudson Bay Both sides constructed forts: – France – Louisbourg (to protect St.Lawrence) – England – Fort William Henry

5 The French fort at Louisbourg

6 Third Intercolonial War Colonists from the Thirteen Colonies captured Fort Louisbourg (1745) Treaty of Aie-la-Chapelle – Louisbourg returned to the French Renewed conflict ( ) British deport 6, 000 Acadiens

7 Seven Years War French victorious at first British regained Fort Duquesne, victory at Oswego, Frontenac, Louisbourg (1758) Seige of Quebec in 1759… Wolfe (English) vs. Montcalm (French) at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

8 James Wolfe Marquis de Montcalm

9 Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759) Wolfe wanted to draw Montcalm into a fight before winter – he decided to attack at Quebec City Wolfe led elite troops up the cliffs outside Quebec to the Plains of Abraham Instead of waiting inside the fort for Wolfe, Montcalm led his men out on the plains to meet Wolfe Montcalm’s men were tired, the Fre. were defeated, they lost Quebec Wolfe died during the battle, and Montcalm died from a wound the next day

10 Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759)

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12 The End of New France… Montcalm and the French defeated at Quebec (1759) Montreal surrenders and succumbs to British rule (1760) War is over in N.A. Treaty of Paris (1763) – France gives up all territory in N.A except St. Pierre and Miquelon. Britain controlled all territory east of the Mississippi River

13 The Differences Between France and the Thirteen Colonies The population of New France grew slowly – there were 70,000 people in 1760 The population was much higher in the Thirteen Colonies, the population was 1, 500, 000. The economy of New France was based on the fur trade – dependent on France The economy of the Thirteen Colonies was more diverse – independent and prosperous

14 Differences continued... New France had a Royal Government – power was centralized in France In the Thirteen Colonies, there was a different administration for each colony (this made it difficult to make unanimous decisions However, people had a say in the government of the Thirteen Colonies

15 The Conquest in New France Fighting in North America

16 The Introduction British settlers wanted the Ohio Valley to themselves The Fre. wanted to keep it because it was a good area for furs The two sides wanted the same thing, so a conflict was inevitable For a while, the Fre. and their Native allies had kept the settlers out War broke out in July 1754 – The Seven Years War

17 The Rising Action The two empires, France and Britain were at war in Europe When they were at war, most of the colonies were at war In Europe, Britain made an alliance with Prussia – this helped them in Europe, so they could concentrate on fighting in the colonies The British Prime Minister wanted New France because he thought it could give Britain commercial supremacy

18 British Prime Minister – on the left French King (Louis XV) – on the right

19 Rising Action--continued The administration in the American colonies decided to unite against the Fre. in North America The British lost some battles at the beginning of the war The Fre. didn’t have a good navy, they had fewer soldiers and the Fre. commander’s (General Montcalm) defensive strategy was ineffective General Wolfe (British commander), to get Montcalm to leave his defensive positions, adopted a “scorched earth” policy – burn everything: towns, villages, etc. – the Fre. wouldn’t leave

20 Montcalm & Wolfe

21 The Falling Action In the spring of 1760, the Fre. Won a battle at Sainte-Foy, but it didn’t have a huge impact The British fleet arrived in New France, the Fre. retreated to Mtl. The British (General Murray, Brigadier Haviland, General Amherst) surrounded Mtl. The French surrendered to avoid more bloodshed


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