Presentation on theme: "Chapters Thirteen and Fifteen Community Tourism and E-Commerce and Culture in Global Electronic Commerce."— Presentation transcript:
Chapters Thirteen and Fifteen Community Tourism and E-Commerce and Culture in Global Electronic Commerce
Culture and Global E- Commerce International/Cross-national National Regional/Industry Firm Individual(?!)
The Role of Culture in Global electronic Commerce LevelsRepresentative Factors International/Cross -national level World Trade organization (WTO) International Trade Policies Historical Political Barriers (War or alliances e.g..; EEC) Currency Exchange National Level Issues Language Geography/Weather Emphasis on Regional VS. national Technology Infrastructure Legislative/Legal Framework (Cross-border data flows; content rules) Censorship to protect national Identity Regional/ Industry Level Issues Infrastructure Support Industry Legislation and Protection Competitive Structure (alliances & information sharing VS. direct competition Type of industry : Commodity VS: Customizes Firm Level Issue Leadership strategies for role of Internet Organizational Culture Individual Level Issues Socialization (gender issue; social practices) Security Issues Product Availability Income Relative Costs of On-line access and Internet Access Idiosyncratic Preferences
Book Retailing Industry Example General and special interest Convenience and availability via diverse inventory: difficult, costly Mail-order bookstores Innovative social strategies –Coffee and food –Community outreach programs –Extend to internet
Book Retailers and E-tailors Amazon.com (USA) On-line only Centralized distribution: reliance on shippers Culture of innovation, risk Foyle ’ s bookstore Charring Cross (UK ) Literary lunches Cultural icon Resistance to change
Book Retailers and E-tailers Cont Innwa Bookstore (Burma) Military government Internet caf é with CD ’ s Products subject to government approval Brazil Publishers Few consumers with adequate income –Target on upper and middle class Focus on affluent youth Book fairs Great potential for e- commerce
Waterstone’s and Yahoo UK and Ireland Strategic alliance –Lower internet costs On-line expert recommendations Personalized services –Out-of-print book searches –Signed First Editions Keep company culture, overcome infrastructure barrier (high internet costs)
Porter’s 5 Competitive Forces Traditional Rivalry Among Firms SuppliersBuyers Lock in via switching costs Substitutes New Entrants Lock out via barriers to entry Where does IT contribute? Do things work differently “internationally”? What’s going on?
Porter Revisited, Upgraded Porter speaks of barriers to ENTRY to keep out those nasty competitors… What Porter forgot was the expensive barriers to EXIT that prevent graceful takedown It’s cheap to get into E-Commerce. What’s expensive is getting out: loss of prestige, face, actual money for contracts, loss of customers’ confidence, etc.
Issues for Community Website Development Content Source: Developers or Community? Acceptability Risk: Is community ready to accept risk of change? Commitments: Does the community have the time to commit? Cultural Values: Clash between open information and closed societal values wrt. Information Rewarding Efforts: Unequal costs and rewards create problems Measurement: What are the effects? Is the website successful? How do we know?
Dual Interest Web Methodology Get Operator Commitment Align Business Offerings Refine and Revise Offerings Define Community Image Get Community Involvement Monitor and Approve Community Content Measure Need Create Community Support Content Launch Website Record Responses
Agency Theory Managers act as agents for owners In community tourism, the community is the “owner” of the “property”, although this is questionable. The operators “manage” the business. There is an inherent conflict of interest.
Generalizability What is a “community”? To what extent does EVERY community require a dual or even multi-interest approach? Is the standard SDLC problematic? How do various “communities” differ? Is any business a “community”?