Presentation on theme: "Completing the Thirteen Colonies 1619 – 1700. Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism."— Presentation transcript:
Completing the Thirteen Colonies 1619 – 1700
Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism
Luther's Ninety-five Theses Martin Luther, a German monk, begins the Reformation in 1517 by posting his 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Luther's opposition to the sale of indulgences prompted his fight with Rome.
An indulgence was a release from the penalties to be paid for sin.
His Ninety-five Theses raised many theological issues and initiated a long period of debate in Europe.
Luther rejected the idea that salvation could be achieved by good works, such as indulgences.
He concluded that faith was central to Christianity and the only means of salvation.
He stated that religious authority rests with the Bible, not the pope.
Luther rejected all of the sacraments except baptism and communion.
Calvinism John Calvin, a French scholar who became a leading preacher and dominant force in the Reformation of the sixteenth century, was a church leader in Geneva, Switzerland.
Calvinism Calvin, in his Institutes of Christian Religion, taught the doctrine of predestination -- that some souls were Elect and chosen by God to go to heaven.
Calvinists looked for signs of a visible conversion. Those who had this act of grace were the Visible Saints and were expected to act accordingly.
Many Englishmen became followers of John Calvin of Geneva.
Puritans Many Calvinists in England sought to purify the Church of England of its “Papist” trappings.
Separatists Some Puritans believed the Church to be beyond redemption and wanted to separate themselves from the church.
New England English Separatists (called Pilgrims) gained permission from the Virginia Co. to settle in the New World.
The Pilgrim’s ship the Mayflower landed at Plymouth in Massachusetts Bay outside the Virginia territory.
Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact - claiming the right to self government.
Plymouth Colony The first winter in New England killed over half of the colonists. - Second year’s harvest led to Thanksgiving.
The Pilgrims were led by William Bradford and aided by soldier Miles Standish - a non-puritan. The Plymouth Colony survived but did not prosper.
Charles I ( ) Back in England, Charles I dismissed parliament in 1629 and backed the anti-Puritan persecutions of Archbishop William Laud.
Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1630, a more prosperous group of Puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop established the Massachusetts Bay Colony on the Charles River.
Winthrop called for the colony to be a “city upon a hill” - a beacon of Christian light to the world.
The Great Migration The Great Migration of the 1630’s saw 15,000 puritans come to the Massachusetts Bay Colony - which flourished.
The Puritans followed the “Protestant Ethic” of hard work and thrift.
The Economic Nature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Infertile and rocky soil made plantation farming impractical. Small subsistence farms became prevalent.
Cod become a staple fish and fishing a main industry. The colony became a major wood source, and as a result, a big shipbuilding center.
The Creation of Theocracy Although separation of Church and State was officially practiced here, and a legislative assembly was created, called the General Court, the colony was an unofficial theocracy.
Church membership was required to have the right to vote, and church leaders often exercised influence over political affairs, even though they were not allowed to directly hold office.
The Church fathers also tried to exercise strict control over the morals of the colony’s inhabitants.
Religious and political dissent soon gave rise to new colonies.
Trouble in Paradise
Anne Hutchinson Anne Hutchinson attacked the Church as unnecessary -- she claimed revelations from God and believed in Antinomianism.
The Rhode Island Sewer In Salem preacher Roger Williams criticized the Puritan Church and was set to be banished. He fled to Narrangansett Bay.
Rhode Island (Chartered in 1644) became a haven for religious outcasts with complete freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics. Anne Hutchinson fled to Rhode Island and was later killed by Indians in New York.
New England Spreads Out Thomas Hooker founded the Hartford Colony in Connecticut – drafting the Fundamental Orders (1st constitution in America).
Charles I Long Parliament dominated by Puritans English Civil War - fought between Roundheads and Cavaliers.
The New England Confederation The New England Confederation, founded in 1643, was created for the defense of the colonists against Indians, French and Dutch binding four New England colonies together.
Non-Puritan Rhode Island and Maine were excluded. It marked the first steps towards colonial unity.
King Philip’s War The Confederation was successful in ultimately defeating the Indian chief “King Philip” in 1676.
Charles I was Beheaded Charles II was proclaimed king by royalists (in exile) New Hampshire gained a charter and broke from Massachusetts.
Interregnum Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector Navigation Acts were passed Maine was joined to Massachusetts.
The Dutch in the New World The Dutch hired English sailor Henry Hudson who discovered the Hudson River and New Netherlands for Holland.
New Netherlands The Dutch West India Company planted a colony at the mouth of the Hudson after buying Manhattan Island for $24 in trade goods.
The Dutch colony was an Aristocratic society controlled by the company. Feudal estates, called Patroonships, were established up the Hudson.
New Amsterdam A city was established on Manhattan and became a cosmopolitan center for the Dutch fur trade.
Neighbor Problems The Dutch fought with Indians, the New Englanders and the Swedish on the Delaware. Peter Stuyvesant helped to defeat New Sweden.
The Restoration Charles II returns to England after the death of Oliver Cromwell.
Connecticut Charles II chartered the Connecticut Colony by combining the New Haven and Connecticut Valley colonies. Charles punished Massachusetts Bay for supposed disobedience, giving Connecticut a sea to sea charter.
The Middle Colonies Charles II offered New Amsterdam to his brother James if he took it from the Dutch – which he did. New York was founded in 1664.
1664- James gave land to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret who founded New Jersey.
Pennsylvania and Delaware William Penn, a Quaker, founded Pennsylvania on the banks of the Delaware River as a haven for persecuted Quakers.
In the mid-1600s, the Religious Society of Friends, known as Quakers, arose in England. The Quaker religion was rather simple and egalitarian. Quaker services are conducted in a fashion where all can speak when they feel moved.
Quakers were pacifists and refused to take oaths. They were often persecuted because they refused to pay taxes for the Church of England or to take oaths declaring they were not Catholics administered by the British government.
Penn heavily advertised his colony and attracted many western Europeans with liberal government and land policies. Philadelphia was one of the most well planned cities in the colonies.
Penn and the Indians The Quakers, at least at the beginning, were fair towards the Indians and bought land from Chief Tammany.
Penn’s Experiment Democratic and social reforms were practiced.
Pennsylvania, unlike many colonies, had no established Church. Religious freedom was guaranteed, although Jew and Catholics could not vote.
Penn’s Legacy William Penn died broken- hearted after spending time in prison for treason. The legacy of religious tolerance, freedom and democracy influenced the future.
Delaware former Swedish land on the Delaware River was added to Pennsylvania but the land eventually became the independent colony of Delaware in 1703.
More Troubles for New England In 1684 Charles II revoked the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter.
James II In 1685 “Catholic” James II became of England.
Dominion of New England In 1686, British authorities put in place the Dominion of New England to administer English Navigation Laws. This is run by Sir Edmund Andros, who restricted civil liberties and cracked down on smugglers.
He also taxed without the approval of elected assemblies.
Glorious Revolution In 1688, James II is forced to leave England and William and Mary become monarchs.
The Dominion of New England abolished and Sir Edmund Andros was sent packing.
In 1691, Massachusetts became a Royal colony. A period of Salutary Neglect left the colonies unmolested.