Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact - claiming the right to self government.
Plymouth Colony The first winter in New England killed over half of the colonists. - Second year’s harvest led to Thanksgiving.
The Pilgrims were led by William Bradford and aided by soldier Miles Standish - a non-puritan. The Plymouth Colony survived but did not prosper.
Charles I (1625 - 1649) Back in England, Charles I dismissed parliament in 1629 and backed the anti-Puritan persecutions of Archbishop William Laud.
Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1630, a more prosperous group of Puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop established the Massachusetts Bay Colony on the Charles River.
Winthrop called for the colony to be a “city upon a hill” - a beacon of Christian light to the world.
The Great Migration The Great Migration of the 1630’s saw 15,000 puritans come to the Massachusetts Bay Colony - which flourished.
The Puritans followed the “Protestant Ethic” of hard work and thrift.
The Economic Nature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Infertile and rocky soil made plantation farming impractical. Small subsistence farms became prevalent.
Cod become a staple fish and fishing a main industry. The colony became a major wood source, and as a result, a big shipbuilding center.
The Creation of Theocracy Although separation of Church and State was officially practiced here, and a legislative assembly was created, called the General Court, the colony was an unofficial theocracy.
Church membership was required to have the right to vote, and church leaders often exercised influence over political affairs, even though they were not allowed to directly hold office.
The Church fathers also tried to exercise strict control over the morals of the colony’s inhabitants.
Religious and political dissent soon gave rise to new colonies.
Anne Hutchinson 1636 - Anne Hutchinson attacked the Church as unnecessary -- she claimed revelations from God and believed in Antinomianism.
The Rhode Island Sewer In 1636 - Salem preacher Roger Williams criticized the Puritan Church and was set to be banished. He fled to Narrangansett Bay.
Rhode Island (Chartered in 1644) became a haven for religious outcasts with complete freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics. Anne Hutchinson fled to Rhode Island and was later killed by Indians in New York.
New England Spreads Out 1636 - Thomas Hooker founded the Hartford Colony in Connecticut – drafting the Fundamental Orders (1st constitution in America).
Charles I 1640 - 1653 -- Long Parliament dominated by Puritans 1642 - 1646 - English Civil War - fought between Roundheads and Cavaliers.
1643 - The New England Confederation The New England Confederation, founded in 1643, was created for the defense of the colonists against Indians, French and Dutch binding four New England colonies together.
Non-Puritan Rhode Island and Maine were excluded. It marked the first steps towards colonial unity.
King Philip’s War The Confederation was successful in ultimately defeating the Indian chief “King Philip” in 1676.
Neighbor Problems The Dutch fought with Indians, the New Englanders and the Swedish on the Delaware. Peter Stuyvesant helped to defeat New Sweden.
The Restoration Charles II returns to England after the death of Oliver Cromwell.
Connecticut 1662 - Charles II chartered the Connecticut Colony by combining the New Haven and Connecticut Valley colonies. Charles punished Massachusetts Bay for supposed disobedience, giving Connecticut a sea to sea charter.
The Middle Colonies 1664 - Charles II offered New Amsterdam to his brother James if he took it from the Dutch – which he did. New York was founded in 1664.
1664- James gave land to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret who founded New Jersey.
Pennsylvania and Delaware. 1681 - William Penn, a Quaker, founded Pennsylvania on the banks of the Delaware River as a haven for persecuted Quakers.
In the mid-1600s, the Religious Society of Friends, known as Quakers, arose in England. The Quaker religion was rather simple and egalitarian. Quaker services are conducted in a fashion where all can speak when they feel moved.
Quakers were pacifists and refused to take oaths. They were often persecuted because they refused to pay taxes for the Church of England or to take oaths declaring they were not Catholics administered by the British government.
Penn heavily advertised his colony and attracted many western Europeans with liberal government and land policies. Philadelphia was one of the most well planned cities in the colonies.
Penn and the Indians The Quakers, at least at the beginning, were fair towards the Indians and bought land from Chief Tammany.
Penn’s Experiment Democratic and social reforms were practiced.
Pennsylvania, unlike many colonies, had no established Church. Religious freedom was guaranteed, although Jew and Catholics could not vote.
Penn’s Legacy William Penn died broken- hearted after spending time in prison for treason. The legacy of religious tolerance, freedom and democracy influenced the future.
Delaware 1685 - former Swedish land on the Delaware River was added to Pennsylvania but the land eventually became the independent colony of Delaware in 1703.
More Troubles for New England In 1684 Charles II revoked the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter.
James II In 1685 “Catholic” James II became of England.
Dominion of New England In 1686, British authorities put in place the Dominion of New England to administer English Navigation Laws. This is run by Sir Edmund Andros, who restricted civil liberties and cracked down on smugglers.
He also taxed without the approval of elected assemblies.
Glorious Revolution - 1688 In 1688, James II is forced to leave England and William and Mary become monarchs.
The Dominion of New England abolished and Sir Edmund Andros was sent packing.
In 1691, Massachusetts became a Royal colony. A period of Salutary Neglect left the colonies unmolested.