11The Middle ColoniesMild climate – produce much bigger harvests than in New EnglandGrew cash cropsFarmers sent cargoes of wheat and livestock to NYC and Philadelphia for shipmentBusy portsLargest cities in the American colonies
12The Southern Colonies and Farming Rich soil, warm climateLarge farms producing cash cropsLittle industry develops
13Tobacco and RiceTobaccoMain crop in Maryland and Virginia
14Tobacco and Rice Rice Main crop in South Carolina and Georgia Very strenuous work = reliance on slave laborVery profitable crop – By 1750s South Carolina and Georgia have fastest growing economies in the colonies
15Plantations Self contained communities Might include slave cabins, barns, stables, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, store rooms, kitchens, chapel, schoolIndependent small farmers outnumber large plantations but plantation owners are wealthier and more influential
17SlaverySome enslaved Africans might do housework. Most work in the fields under the watch of overseers1705 – Virginia creates a slave codeHelps define relationship between enslaved people and free peopleIllegal to teach Africans to read or writeCan’t leave plantation without written permissionCan’t assemble in large groupsWhipped for minor offensesHanged or burned to death for major offenses
18Criticisms of SlaveryMore important to economic success of Southern coloniesLess support for slavery in Northern coloniesPuritansQuakersMennonites
19Making Connections Answer the Essential Question How did geography affect the economic development of the three colonial regions?New EnglandMiddleSouthern
20Government, Religion and Culture Although the American colonies developed some self- government, the British still set many laws, especially those concerning tradeAmerican Spirit: Americans were beginning to view themselves differently from the way Britain viewed themEngland viewed its North American colonies as an economic resource (MERCANTILISM)
21Government, Religion and Culture Navigation ActsColonial merchants could not use foreign ships to export goodsColonists could not trade certain products outside England’s empireControls on trade would later cause more conflict between the American colonies and England
22Colonial Government Trial by Jury Government is not all powerful! Limited governmentRepresentative government
23Type of Colony Type of Colony Characteristics Colonies Charter Settlers given a charter to establish the colonyElected governors and members of the legislatureColoniesConnecticut, Rhode Island
24Types of Colonies Type of Colony Characteristics Colonies Proprietary Proprietor owned land and made lawsProprietor appointed governors and members of upper house of legislatureColonists elect lower house of legislatureColoniesDelaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania
25Types of Colonies Type of Colony Characteristics Colonies Royal Britain rules directlyConflicts occur when officials try to enforce tax laws and trade restrictionsColoniesGeorgia, Virginia, NJ, NY, SC, NC, Mass
26Voting Rights White men who owned property Proportion of people in colonies participating in government is higher than anywhere in EuropeValuable training for when colonies become independent
27Family Roles Family is basic foundation of colonial society Men are formal heads of householdWomen run households, care for children, had few rightsWidows or unmarried women could run businesses and own property but could not vote
28Education High value on education Many colonies eventually developed schoolsHarvard College: Established by Puritans in 1636
29Answer the Essential Question In what ways was an American culture developing during the colonial period?Limited government, representative government, family is the basis of society
30France and Britain Clash Essential Question:Why did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
31British and French Rivalry Rivalry between Great Britain and France led to a war for control of North AmericaBoth wanted control land west of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio River Valley)Fighting breaks out in 1740s
32Native Americans Take Sides French are interested in fur trade while English are interested in colonizationFrench had many Native American allies; intermarriage is common and customs are followedFrench missionaries convert many Native Americans to CatholicismNative Americans often help French and raid British settlements
33The Iroquois Confederacy Most powerful group of Native Americans in the East (New York)Five Nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, (Tuscarora, 1722)Iroquois skillfully play French and British against one another and dominate the Great Lakes areaMid 1770s – become British allies
35Washington’s First Command 1754 – 22 year old George Washington becomes a lieutenant colonelWashington and 150 militia men sent to build a fort in the Ohio River ValleyFrench already built Fort DuquesneWashington attacked and was defeatedWashington is released and becomes colonial hero for striking the first blow against the French
36The Albany Plan of Union Developed by Benjamin FranklinRepresentatives adopted a plan of unified colonial government to stand against the FrenchNo colonies approved the plan. They didn’t want to give up their power.French and Indian War erupts
37Making ConnectionsWhy do you think Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union?How did the Iroquois remain independent from both the British and the French? How did that change?Answer the Essential QuestionWhy did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
38The French and Indian War Essential Question:How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?
39The French and Indian War Battle of Quebec (1759)Part of a larger struggle between Britain and France forControl of world tradePower over the seas
40The British Take Action French are building forts throughout Great Lakes and Ohio River ValleyFrench network of alliances with native Americans allows them to control large areas of land1754 – Britain steps in to help colonists fight the French
41Britain Declares War on France Fighting in America helps start Seven Years’ War in EuropeWar is declared in 1756Early on the French areCapturing British fortsNative American allies are raiding frontier farms from NY to PAKilled settlers, burned farmhouses and cropsDrive many families back toward to coast
42Pitt Takes Charge William Pitt: Great British military planner Sent forces to recapture fortresses previously taken by FrenchVery successfulCaptured Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania and renamed it Fort Pitt
43The Fall of New France The fall of Quebec and Montreal ended the war British troops captured Quebec in 1759
44The Treaty of Paris1763 – Forces France to give Canada and most lands west of the Mississippi River to Great BritainAlso receives Spanish Florida and the port at New OrleansMarks the end of France as a power in North America
45Trouble on the Frontier French loss is a great blow to Native AmericansBritish start pushing further westPontiac’s WarOttawa Chief Pontiac united Native Americans against British1763 – Killed settlers along PA and VA frontiers1765 – British forces defeat Pontiac and his allies
46Proclamation of 1763To prevent more fighting, British set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary western borderColonists who had already brought land west of the mountains were furiousMore conflicts would soon arise between Britain and the colonists.
47Answer the Essential Question How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?