Mild climate – produce much bigger harvests than in New England Grew cash crops Farmers sent cargoes of wheat and livestock to NYC and Philadelphia for shipment Busy ports Largest cities in the American colonies
Rich soil, warm climate Large farms producing cash crops Little industry develops
Rice Main crop in South Carolina and Georgia Very strenuous work = reliance on slave labor Very profitable crop – By 1750s South Carolina and Georgia have fastest growing economies in the colonies
Self contained communities Might include slave cabins, barns, stables, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, store rooms, kitchens, chapel, school Independent small farmers outnumber large plantations but plantation owners are wealthier and more influential
Some enslaved Africans might do housework. Most work in the fields under the watch of overseers 1705 – Virginia creates a slave code Helps define relationship between enslaved people and free people Illegal to teach Africans to read or write Can’t leave plantation without written permission Can’t assemble in large groups Whipped for minor offenses Hanged or burned to death for major offenses
More important to economic success of Southern colonies Less support for slavery in Northern colonies Puritans Quakers Mennonites
Answer the Essential Question How did geography affect the economic development of the three colonial regions? New England Middle Southern
Although the American colonies developed some self- government, the British still set many laws, especially those concerning trade American Spirit: Americans were beginning to view themselves differently from the way Britain viewed them England viewed its North American colonies as an economic resource (MERCANTILISM)
Navigation Acts Colonial merchants could not use foreign ships to export goods Colonists could not trade certain products outside England’s empire Controls on trade would later cause more conflict between the American colonies and England
Trial by Jury Government is not all powerful! Limited government Representative government
Type of Colony Charter Characteristics Settlers given a charter to establish the colony Elected governors and members of the legislature Colonies Connecticut, Rhode Island
Type of Colony Proprietary Characteristics Proprietor owned land and made laws Proprietor appointed governors and members of upper house of legislature Colonists elect lower house of legislature Colonies Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania
Type of Colony Royal Characteristics Britain rules directly Conflicts occur when officials try to enforce tax laws and trade restrictions Colonies Georgia, Virginia, NJ, NY, SC, NC, Mass
White men who owned property Proportion of people in colonies participating in government is higher than anywhere in Europe Valuable training for when colonies become independent
Family is basic foundation of colonial society Men are formal heads of household Women run households, care for children, had few rights Widows or unmarried women could run businesses and own property but could not vote
High value on education Many colonies eventually developed schools Harvard College: Established by Puritans in 1636
In what ways was an American culture developing during the colonial period? Limited government, representative government, family is the basis of society
Essential Question: Why did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
Rivalry between Great Britain and France led to a war for control of North America Both wanted control land west of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio River Valley) Fighting breaks out in 1740s
French are interested in fur trade while English are interested in colonization French had many Native American allies; intermarriage is common and customs are followed French missionaries convert many Native Americans to Catholicism Native Americans often help French and raid British settlements
Most powerful group of Native Americans in the East (New York) Five Nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, (Tuscarora, 1722) Iroquois skillfully play French and British against one another and dominate the Great Lakes area Mid 1770s – become British allies
1754 – 22 year old George Washington becomes a lieutenant colonel Washington and 150 militia men sent to build a fort in the Ohio River Valley French already built Fort Duquesne Washington attacked and was defeated Washington is released and becomes colonial hero for striking the first blow against the French
Developed by Benjamin Franklin Representatives adopted a plan of unified colonial government to stand against the French No colonies approved the plan. They didn’t want to give up their power. French and Indian War erupts
Why do you think Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union? How did the Iroquois remain independent from both the British and the French? How did that change? Answer the Essential Question Why did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
Essential Question: How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?
Battle of Quebec (1759) Part of a larger struggle between Britain and France for Control of world trade Power over the seas
French are building forts throughout Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley French network of alliances with native Americans allows them to control large areas of land 1754 – Britain steps in to help colonists fight the French
Fighting in America helps start Seven Years’ War in Europe War is declared in 1756 Early on the French are Capturing British forts Native American allies are raiding frontier farms from NY to PA Killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops Drive many families back toward to coast
William Pitt: Great British military planner Sent forces to recapture fortresses previously taken by French Very successful Captured Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania and renamed it Fort Pitt
The fall of Quebec and Montreal ended the war British troops captured Quebec in 1759
1763 – Forces France to give Canada and most lands west of the Mississippi River to Great Britain Also receives Spanish Florida and the port at New Orleans Marks the end of France as a power in North America
French loss is a great blow to Native Americans British start pushing further west Pontiac’s War Ottawa Chief Pontiac united Native Americans against British 1763 – Killed settlers along PA and VA frontiers 1765 – British forces defeat Pontiac and his allies
To prevent more fighting, British set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary western border Colonists who had already brought land west of the mountains were furious More conflicts would soon arise between Britain and the colonists.
Answer the Essential Question: How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?