# Lecture Thirteen Subordination (I). Coordination vs. subordination Cf. If you agree, we shall leave tonight. = We shall leave tonight, if you agree. He.

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Lecture Thirteen Subordination (I)

Coordination vs. subordination Cf. If you agree, we shall leave tonight. = We shall leave tonight, if you agree. He tried hard, but he failed. * But he failed, he tried hard. Cf. Although she felt ill, my mother said nothing. She felt ill, and my mother said nothing. Cf. He failed the exam not because he was lazy, but because it was too difficult.

Coordination establishes a relationship between ideas of approximately equal importance. Subordination establishes a relationship which indicates that one idea is more important than the other. the main/superordinate clause, the dependent/subordinate clause

Then the bear got hungry. He came out of his den. He remembered the honey tree. And he started walking toward the honey tree. -- The hungry bear came out of his den, and remebered the honey tree, started walking toward it.

Ways of Subordination As they were curious about their new neighbors, the Johnsons went and visited them at the first opportunity. (finite clause) Being curious about their new neighbors, the Johnsons … (non-finite clause) Curious about the new neighbors, the Johnsons … (verbless clause) With curiosity, the Johnsons … (phrase)

Subordinators Simple subordinators Wh-words: how(ever), what(ever), when(ever), where(ever), whether, which, while, who(ever), whom, whose, why, etc Others: after, although, as, because, before, for, if, lest, once, since, that, though, till, unless, until, etc

Complex subordinators With that: assuming (that), but that, considering (that), except (that), for all (that), given (that), granted (that), in that, in order that, insofar that, now (that), provided (that), save that, seeing (that), such that, supposing (that), etc With as: according as, as far as, as long as, as soon as, etc Others: as if, as though, in case, etc

Correlative subordinators as … as, as … so, barely … when, hardly … when, scarecely … when, more … than, less … than, no sooner … than, so … as, so … that, such … as, such … that, the more … the more, whether … or, etc

Marginal subordinators even if, if only, just as, only if, every time (that), the instant (that), the moment (that), due to the fact that, for the reason that, by reason that, for fear (that), in spite of the fact that, in the light of the fact that, on account of the fact that, on the ground that, regardless of the fact that, in the sense that, etc

Finite subordinate clauses Nominal clauses Adverbial clauses Relative clauses

Nominal clauses introduced by that or by wh-word such as who, what, which, where, when, how, why, etc

That-clause That the invading troops have been withdrawn has not affected our government ’ s trade sanctions. (subject) It has not affected our government ’ s trade sanctions that the invading troops have been withdrawn. It is important that he be here tomorrow. It seems/appears that …

I noticed that he spoke English with an Australian accent. (object) We find it odd that Mary married him. (object) The belief/idea/news that … (appositive) Your criticism, that on account has been taken of psychological factors, is fully justified. (appositive) My assumption is that interest rates will soon fall. (complement) We are glad that you are able to join us on our wedding anniversary. (complement) * She insisted on that she had done it right. She insisted that she had done it right.

Wh-clause How the book will sell depends on the reviewers. (subject) What I want is a cup of hot cocoa. (subject) Whoever did that should admit if frankly. (subject) I can ’ t imagine what they want with yor address. (object) You should see whoever deals with complaints. (object) They didn ’ t say whether it will rain or be sunny. (object) I asked them if they wanted meat or fish. (object)

if vs. whether Whether (* If) they ’ ll go or stay is still unknown. It depedns on whether (* if) they ’ ll go or stay. I ought to discuss the question whether (* if) we should do it. Please tell us whether (* if) to go or stay. I don ’ t know whether (* if) or not it will rain.

The problem is who will water my plants. (complement) April is when the lilacs bloom. (complement) I ’ m not sure which she prefers. (complement) You can call me what(ever) you like. (complement) They did not consult us on whose names should be put forward. (complement) You should vote for which(ever) candidate you think the best. (complement)

Your original question, why he did not repair it to the police earlier, has not yet been answered. (appositive) I ’ ll pay you the whole debt: what I originally borrowed and what I owe you in interest. (appositive) The question whether … (appositive)

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