Fourth Grade Social Studies Standard The learner will determine the reasons for colonial settlement.
At the end of this presentation: You will write about the reasons the early settlers came to the America.
The Thirteen Colonies When the first people came to America they settled in areas that later became states. States had not been formed yet so these areas of settlement were called colonies.
The Thirteen Colonies A colony is "a region that is ruled by a faraway government." In most of the American colonies, the government that ruled from afar was that of England.
There were many reasons why people wanted to move to the colonies. –Economic problems or difficulty getting and keeping things that people need or want –Human rights problems caused when a person's basic rights are denied A right is "the freedom to do a certain activity" for example freedom of speech or the freedom to practice the religion of your choice.
A New Start The colonists viewed coming to the new world as a way to make a new start and each group had their own reasons for leaving Europe. The differences between the groups were the reasons they went to the New World, for example looking for religious freedom or hoping to get rich, and how each group's colony was set up in the New World.
Reasons for Coming to the New World: They could not find work in Europe. They did not have the opportunity to practice their chosen religion. They could not afford to own land in Europe.
Moving to the New World provided solutions to each problem. There was work for every trade in the New World. In the New World the colonists were able to practice whatever religion they chose. Land was offered for free or at a very low cost to the colonists.
17 th Century Settlers Most settlers who came to America in the 17 th century were English, but there were also: Dutch Swedes Germans in the middle region French Huguenots in South Carolina and elsewhere Slaves from Africa, primarily in the South Spaniards, Italians and Portuguese throughout the colonies
Early Explorers in America Captain Pedro Menendez de Aviles – Spain Count de Frontenac – France
AVILES, PEDRO MENENDEZ DE Captain Pedro Menendez de Aviles (Feb. 15, 1519-Sept. 17, 1574) was a brutal Spanish sailor, soldier, explorer, and conquistador. The King of Spain sent Aviles to Florida in the New World, to start a Spanish settlement (St. Augustine, in northeastern Florida), and to decimate a nearby French settlement (Fort Caroline).Florida
St. Augustine Menendez founded a new city and named it St. Augustine. The year was They built a fort called a presidio for protection, the Castillo de San Marcos.
Ranches and Haciendas Some ranchers in the borderlands of northern Mexico built large estates called Haciendas where they raised cattle and sheep.
Missions The Spanish king wanted to bring the holy Catholic faith to the people. They sent missionaries called Franciscans who built missions for small religious communities. Nombre de Dios is the oldest Spanish Mission in the U.S. Missions were used to spread Christianity.
Indians The Spanish and the Indians learned from one another. The Indians taught the Spanish how to build adobe houses and how to use herbs as medicines. The Spanish taught the Indians how to guide a plow instead of using a stick and hoe in the Indian way. The Indians also learned to use other tools and machines the missionaries brought from Spain. The coming of the Spanish missions changed the way many Indians lived, worked, and worshiped.
France Most French people were not interested in settling North America. From 1608 to 1763 the French built only two towns in New France - Quebec and Montreal. Their interest in fur trading caused conflicts between the English, Dutch, and Iroquois.
Count de Frontenac King Louis XIV declared a royal colony in North America. The king appointed Count de Frontenac as governor-general,who encouraged exploration west. The French learned to build birchbark canoes from the Indians. These canoes could travel over waterfalls. This method of transportation is called portage.
Exploring the Mississippi The Indian peoples often talked with the French traders about a great river, larger than all the others. The Algonkins called it the Mississippi River which means “Big River.” In 1673 Governor-General de Frontenac sent an expedition to explore the rivers and lakes that he hoped would lead French traders to the Mississippi River and then to Asia.
Exploring the Mississippi The members of the expedition were Jacques Marquette, a Catholic missionary who knew several Indian languages; Louis Joliet, a fur trader; and five others.
Founding Louisiana Another French explorer, Rene-Robert Cavelier, known as Sir La Salle, claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France. Sir La Salle named the area Louisiana to honor King Louis XIV. In 1712 the French king made Louisiana a proprietary colony - owned and ruled by one person.
The New England Colonies Ten years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, another group founded an English colony in North America. They wanted to change some of their religious practices and make these more pure. For this reason, they were known as the Puritans.
Contributions of the Puritans Puritans wanted every person to be able to read the Bible so they passed a law, requiring parents to teach their children to read. Some parents paid other people to teach their children, but the children learned only reading. Math and writing lessons cost extra.
Puritan Schools Puritan schools were the first community schools in the English colonies. They were run by women. Schools were open year round. Puritan’s believed that vacations were a waste of God’s precious time. The Puritans also founded the first college, Harvard College.
New England Grows Reverend Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts Bay because he did not like the Puritan leadership. Reverend Hooker thought the colony should be governed by what the “people” wanted not by what the “leaders” wanted. In 1639, the Connecticut colony adopted his beliefs as Fundamental Orders - the first time colonists could elect officials.
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony continued to expand its commerce. From the middle of the 17th century onward it grew prosperous, and Boston became one of America's greatest ports. A Inscription on a Rock in Gloucester, MA Describing the Founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
THE MIDDLE COLONIES Though the Quakers dominated in Philadelphia, elsewhere in Pennsylvania others were well represented. Cottage industries such as weaving, shoemaking, cabinetmaking and other crafts were important. In the middle colonies Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their success to William Penn. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania grew rapidly. The heart of the colony was Philadelphia. The city became one of the thriving centers of colonial America.
THE SOUTHERN COLONIES These colonies were rural southern settlements: Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. Charleston, South Carolina, became the leading port and trading center of the South. The Shenandoah Valley of Virginia was dotted with farms. Living on the edge of the Indian country, frontier families built cabins, cleared tracts in the wilderness and cultivated maize and wheat.
Resources 13 Colonies Map/Quiz Printout13 Colonies Map/Quiz Printout The Thirteen Colonies A Picture of Daily Life in the Colonies Colonial Times The Outline of American History Colonial America
Writing Assignment: Write a letter to a relative in Europe explaining why you traveled by ship to settle in America.