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LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM.  The satisfactory operation of any engine ______ on adequate ________ of lubricating oil to all its moving parts (supply, depends).

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Presentation on theme: "LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM.  The satisfactory operation of any engine ______ on adequate ________ of lubricating oil to all its moving parts (supply, depends)."— Presentation transcript:

1 LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

2  The satisfactory operation of any engine ______ on adequate ________ of lubricating oil to all its moving parts (supply, depends). A typical lubrcating oil system is shown in Fig  The pump ____the oil from the lubricating tank and it ______ through a ______ and filter to the engine (draws, passes, cooler).  Inside the engine it enters the main gallery on which is situated the pressure regulating valve.  Any excess oil is ______ by this valve into the engine sump (divereted).  The remainder, at the regulated pressure, _______ to the main bearings and to the camshaft and ______ valve rocker gear (passes; feeds).  A part of the oil _______ the main bearings is used to lubricate the bearings themselfs, whilst the remainder is _______ via the central grooves and drillings in the crankshaft to the large end bearings. (entering; conducted)

3  Again, some oil is used to lubricate the large end bearings whilst the remainder leaves via the groove in the centre of this bearing and up the passage in the connecting rod to the small end. Here some of it is used to lubricate the small end and the gudgeoun pin bearings in the piston, whilst the remainder is conducted through the passages in the gudgeon pin and the piston itself, to the cooling belt behind the rings and to the crown of each piston. Oil, which has been used to cool the piston, is then released and falls back into the engine sump. From the sump the oil is drained into the lubricating oil tank for re-use. In most cases this is a gravity drain to a tank in the double bottom.

4  Again, some oil is used to ________ the large end bearings whilst the remainder leaves via the ________ in the centre of this bearing and up the ________ in the connecting rod to the small end. Here some of it is used to ________ the small end and the gudgeon pin bearings in the piston, whilst the remainder is ________ through the passages in the gudgeon pin and the piston itself, to the cooling belt behind the rings and to the ________ of each piston. Oil, which has been used to cool the piston, is then released and falls back into the ________. From the sump the oil is ________ into the lubricating oil tank for re-use. In most cases this is a ________ drain to a tank in the double bottom.

5  Some oil is used to lubricate ___ ___ ___ whilst the remainder leaves via the groove in the centre of this bearing and up the passage in ___ ___ ___.  Here some of it is used to lubricate the small end and ___ ___ ___, whilst the remainder is conducted through the passages in the gudgeon pin and the piston itself, to the cooling belt behind the rings and to ___ ___ ___.  Oil, which has been used to cool the piston, is then released and ___ ___ ___.  From the sump the oil is drained into ___ ___ ___ for ___ ___ ___.  In most cases this is a gravity drain to ___ ___ ___.

6  The lubricating oil supply pumps may be driven directly from the engine, or they may be driven separately. If these pumps are engine driven then a separately driven pump is included with which the lubricating oil system can be fully primed before the engine is restarted after any prolonged shutdown.

7  The lubricating oil supply pumps may be _______ directly from the engine, or they may be driven _______. If these pumps are engine driven then a separately driven pump is _______ with which the lubricating oil system can be fully _______ before the engine is restarted after any prolonged _______.

8  In its passage through the engine the oil picks up a certain amount of heat, and this has to be extracted from it before it next enters the engine. For this purpose it is pumped through a cooler. The cooler consists of a number of closely packed tubes leading from headers, one at each end, enclosed in a casing. The casing contains the passages for the lubricating oil whilst the cooling water is passed through the tubes from one header to another. This arrangement directs the cooling water, which is usually sea water, to the inside of the tubes which are more easily cleaned (by passing rods through them) than the outsides.

9  In its passage through the engine the oil picks up ___ ___ ___, and this has to be extracted from it before it ___ ___ ___.  For this purpose it ___ ___ ___.  The cooler consists of a number of ___ ___ ___ leading ___ ___ ___, one at each end, enclosed in a casing.  The casing contains the passages for ___ ___ ___ whilst the cooling water is passed through the tubes ___ ___ ___.  This arrangement ___ ___ ___, which is usually sea water, to the inside of the tubes which are more easily cleaned (by ___ ___ ___ ) than the outsides.

10  As the oil becomes very viscous when cold, it is essential to have a temperature control so that it is kept at a level which is neither too hot nor too cold. A thermostatic valve is mounted on the cooler which senses the temperature of the lubricating oil and regulates the flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water accordingly.  Pressure gauges are fitted to show the lubricating oil pressure before and after the filter. Any abnormally high difference in reading between the two gauges indicates that the element is blocked and should be changed or cleaned according to the type.

11  As the oil becomes very _______ when cold, it is essential to have a temperature control so that it is kept at a _______ which is neither too hot nor too cold.  A thermostatic valve is _______ on the cooler which _______ the temperature of the lubricating oil and _______ the flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water accordingly.  Pressure _______ are fitted to show the lubricating oil pressure before and after the _______.  Any abnormally high difference in _______ between the two gauges indicates that the element is _______ and should be changed or _______ according to the type.

12  Large slow speed engines are provided with the separate lubrication system for the cylinder liners. Oil is injected between the liner and the piston by mechanical lubricators which supply their individual cylinder. A special type of oil is used which is not recovered. As well as lubricating, it assists in forming a gas seal and contains additives which claean and protect against cold and hot corrosion of the cylinder liner.

13  ___ ___ ___ are provided with the separate lubrication system for the cylinder liners.  ___ ___ ___ between the liner and the piston by mechanical lubricators which supply their individual cylinder.  ___ ___ ___ is used which is not recovered.  ___ ___ ___, it assists in forming a gas seal and contains additives which ___ ___ ___ against cold and hot corrosion of the cylinder liner.

14  What does the lubricating oil system provide ?  Where does the lube oil pass before entering the engine ?  What is the role of the pressure regulating valve ?  What are the main lubricating points inside the engine ?  Describe the flow of the lubricating oil to the camshaft and valve rocker gear.  How is the piston cooled ?  What is a gravity drain ?  How is a supply pump driven ?  In which case should the lubricating oil system be primed ?  How is the lubricating oil cooled ?  What control instruments is the lubricating system supplied with ?  How are the cylinder liners of large slow speed engines lubricated ?

15 I. Say which of the following statements are TRUE and which are FALSE. If FALSE state why. 1. The function of the lubricating system is not only to provide a film of oil between the moving parts in the ngine but also to use oil as cleaner and a coolant. 2. Large marine diesel engines generally have two systems of lubrication: a total loss system feeding the cylinders and a circualting system lubricating the running gear and cooling the piston. 3. The lube oil tank is a “drain tank” situated in the structure of the vessel high above the engine. 4. A pressure regulating valve is used to increase the pressure of the oil before it enters the engine. 5. The lubricating oil supply pump can be either engine driven or separately driven. 6. The lube oil supply pump driven directly from the engine is also known as the priming pump. 7. If the lube oil supply pump is driven independently it is necessary to include also a priming pump. 8. The lube oil is cooled making it pass through a bundle of tubes surounded by sea water. 9. In the cooler sea water is circulated at a lower pressure than the oil to prevent the contamination of the lube oil in case of leakage.

16 II. The auxiliary equipment of the lubricating system is listed below in a descriptive form. Give appropriate single words or compounds for each of them. 1. The bottom of the crankcase where lube oil is collected __________________________________ 1. The device that forces oil through the lubricating system __________________________________ 2. Fine mesh strainers used to free oil from solid matter __________________________________ 3. The container under the engine for storing lube oil __________________________________ 4. The automatic temperature-sensitive device in the cooling system __________________________________ 5. Instruments for measuring pressures __________________________________ 6. The device for expelling air pockets from the pipe-line __________________________________ 7. The heat exchanger arranged to remove heat from lube oil __________________________________ 8. Instruments for measuring temperatures __________________________________ 9. Rotary machine used for centrifugating contaminants from fuel or lube oil __________________________________ 10. The container where oil and water or sludge separate naturally __________________________________ 11. Mechanical device for controlling pressure __________________________________

17 III. State which equipment is used to: 1. Control and measure the oil pressure 2. Control and measure the oil temperature 3. Keep oil clean 4. Provide the oil supply to the system

18 IV. Find in List B one-word synonyms to the two-word verbs given in List A. A 1. go into 2. get out from 3. set running 4. turn away 5. flow off 6. take out 7. fall back 8. let go 9. carry off B 1. absorb 2. divert 3. draw 4. enter 5. drain 6. release 7. leave 8. return 9. start

19 V. Replace the boldface words in the following sentences with their corresponding one-word alternatives: 1. The heat produced by frictional resistance in the bearings is picked up by the circulating lubricating oil and this heat is carried off by sea water passing through the oil cooler. 2. Used lubricating oil flows off to the crankcase and then through strainers to a tank by gravity. 3. The lubricating oil is taken out from the sump or drain tank and passed through a cooler and filters before returning to the engine. 4. The pressure regulating valve turns away any excessive amount of oil returning it to the engine sump. 5. After the exhaust has been used to drive the turboblower, it is let go out into the atmosphere. 6. Air, after getting out from the impeller, goes into the diffuser. 7. Before a large diesel is set running it must be warmed through by circulating hot water through the jackets. 8. Oil, which has been used to cool the piston, falls back into the engine sump.

20 VI. Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions: AT, FROM, IN, INTO, OF, ON, PER, THROUGH, TO, UP, WITH. Each preposition is used only once.  Modern diesel engines are built ____________ pressure lubricating systems. The crankcase is oiltight and all the rubbing or sliding surfaces have a continuous flow _______________ clean, cool lube oil pumped _________ them. The lube oil which drips off the running gear is usually collected ___________ the bottom of the crankcase _____________ which it flows _____________ sump tank. A lubricating oil pump picks ______________ the oil from the tank and is passed ____________ a strainer and cooler before entering ______________ the engine. The pump discharges 1 to 2 gallons of oil _________ hour _________ a pressure of 2.3 to 3.6 kp/cm, depending ____________ the builder’s design.

21 VII. Translate into English: 1. Ulje za podmazivanje ne služi samo da smanji mehaničko trenje već i da hladi ležajeve tako da održava temperaturu u dopuštenim granicama. 2. Temperatura ulja kod sporohodnih motora iznosi od 50 0 do 60 0 C, a kod brzohodnih od 70 0 do 85 0 C; temperaturna razlika ulazno-izlaznog ulja iznosi od 10 0 do 15 0 C. 3. Sisaljka za podmazivanje siše ulje iz kartera preko usisnog ventila I tlači ga kroz dvostruki čistilac i hladnjak u sabirnu cijev, odatle u ležajeve, a iz ležaja curi u karter. 4. Kod motora manjih snaga ulje se dovodi u jedan temeljni ležaj, a odalte se kanalima koljenastog vratila provodi u sve leteće i ostale temeljne ležaje.

22 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION

23 To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear.

24 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION

25 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING

26 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING In passing through the engine, part of the heat is absorbed / picked up by the circulating oil. Therefore, it is made to pass through the cooler before being recirculated.

27 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING In passing through the engine, part of the heat is absorbed / picked up by the circulating oil. Therefore, it is made to pass through the cooler before being recirculated. 2.2 NEUTRALISATION OF ACID PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION (sulphuric acid)

28 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING In passing through the engine, part of the heat is absorbed / picked up by the circulating oil. Therefore, it is made to pass through the cooler before being recirculated. 2.2 NEUTRALISATION OF ACID PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION (sulphuric acid) 2.3 CLEANING

29 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING In passing through the engine, part of the heat is absorbed / picked up by the circulating oil. Therefore, it is made to pass through the cooler before being recirculated. 2.2 NEUTRALISATION OF ACID PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION (sulphuric acid) 2.3 CLEANING  Washing away of wear detritus due to surface rubbing / friction. Therefore, the oil is filtered and centrifuged.

30 1.PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION To keep a clean layer of lubricating oil film / luboil film between the contacting surfaces of the running parts / moving components in order to prevent friction, heat & metal-to-metal wear / abrasive wear. 2. SECONDARY PURPOSE OF LUBRICATION 2.1 COOLING In passing through the engine, part of the heat is absorbed / picked up by the circulating oil. Therefore, it is made to pass through the cooler before being recirculated. 2.2 NEUTRALISATION OF ACID PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION (sulphuric acid) 2.3 CLEANING  Washing away of wear detritus due to surface rubbing / friction. Therefore, the oil is filtered and centrifuged.  Oil also cleanses hot moving parts from carbonaceous deposits.

31 2.4 SEALING

32 This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication.

33 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION

34 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium

35 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium  Cold corrosion is caused by sulphur

36 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium  Cold corrosion is caused by sulphur 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR A TROUBLE-FREE ENGINE OPERATION

37 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium  Cold corrosion is caused by sulphur 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR A TROUBLE-FREE ENGINE OPERATION 3.1 The type of lubricating oil recomended by the manufacturer must be used.

38 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium  Cold corrosion is caused by sulphur 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR A TROUBLE-FREE ENGINE OPERATION 3.1 The type of lubricating oil recomended by the manufacturer must be used. 3.2 The lubricant to be supplied in proper qantities & at the right temperature.

39 2.4 SEALING This is the case with the piston & liner where the oil provides a gas seal sa well as lubrication. 2.5 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION  Hot corrosion is caused by vanadium  Cold corrosion is caused by sulphur 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR A TROUBLE-FREE ENGINE OPERATION 3.1 The type of lubricating oil recomended by the manufacturer must be used. 3.2 The lubricant to be supplied in proper qantities & at the right temperature. 3.3 Provisions must be made to remove any impurities entering the system.

40 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS

41 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM:

42 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping.

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48 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping. 4.2 EXTERNAL PART OF THE SYSTEM:

49 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping. 4.2 EXTERNAL PART OF THE SYSTEM: Sump, pumps, coolers, strainers & filters and purifiers. This system is of pressure type or forced lubrication type.

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53 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping. 4.2 EXTERNAL PART OF THE SYSTEM: Sump, pumps, coolers, strainers & filters and purifiers. This system is of pressure type or forced lubrication type. 5. LUBRICATING SYSTEMS IN LARGE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES OF CROSSHEAD CONSTRUCTION

54 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping. 4.2 EXTERNAL PART OF THE SYSTEM: Sump, pumps, coolers, strainers & filters and purifiers. This system is of pressure type or forced lubrication type. 5. LUBRICATING SYSTEMS IN LARGE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES OF CROSSHEAD CONSTRUCTION 5.1 A TOTAL LOSS SYSTEM ( feeding the cylinders )

55 4. LUBRICATING SYSTEM DIVISIONS 4.1 THE INTERNAL DIVISION OR ENGINE PART OF THE SYSTEM: Passages / ducts & piping. 4.2 EXTERNAL PART OF THE SYSTEM: Sump, pumps, coolers, strainers & filters and purifiers. This system is of pressure type or forced lubrication type. 5. LUBRICATING SYSTEMS IN LARGE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES OF CROSSHEAD CONSTRUCTION 5.1 A TOTAL LOSS SYSTEM ( feeding the cylinders ) 5.2 A CIRCULATING SYSTEM ( lubricating the running gear & cooling the piston )

56 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE

57  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.

58 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)

59 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)  L.O. thermostatic valve, mounted on the cooler, regulates the oil temperature flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water.

60 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)  L.O. thermostatic valve, mounted on the cooler, regulates the oil temperature flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water.  Regulating valves control the oil distribution and its pressure in all moving components.

61 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)  L.O. thermostatic valve, mounted on the cooler, regulates the oil temperature flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water.  Regulating valves control the oil distribution and its pressure in all moving components.  Pressure gauges are fitted before and after the filter(s)

62 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)  L.O. thermostatic valve, mounted on the cooler, regulates the oil temperature flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water.  Regulating valves control the oil distribution and its pressure in all moving components.  Pressure gauges are fitted before and after the filter(s)  The system is fitted with a number of alarms: pressure loss alarm, oil level alarm in drain tank, temperature alarm, pressure relief valves ( usualy mounted at pump discharge.)

63 6. DESCRIPTION OF A LUBRICATION PROCEDURE  L.O. pressure pumps draw the oil from the drain tank / lub oil tank / pan through the suction strainers. The drain tank is fitted with a level gauge.  Pumps discharge oil through fine filters to the cooler ( the discharge pressure ensures that there will be no leakage of salt water into the oil in the event of faulty cooler.)  L.O. thermostatic valve, mounted on the cooler, regulates the oil temperature flow of either the lubricating oil or the cooling water.  Regulating valves control the oil distribution and its pressure in all moving components.  Pressure gauges are fitted before and after the filter(s)  The system is fitted with a number of alarms: pressure loss alarm, oil level alarm in drain tank, temperature alarm, pressure relief valves ( usualy mounted at pump discharge.)  Oil should be permanently purified at sea. It may be also heated to assist purification.

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