Presentation on theme: "A.A B.B C.C Section 1-Polling QuestionSection 1-Polling Question In which of the colonies do you feel would be the best place to live? A.The New England."— Presentation transcript:
A.A B.B C.C Section 1-Polling QuestionSection 1-Polling Question In which of the colonies do you feel would be the best place to live? A.The New England Colonies B.The Middle Colonies C.The Southern Colonies
Chapter 4 Growth of the Thirteen Colonies ( ) Section 1 Life in the Colonies
Chapter Time Line
E s s e nt ia l Q u e st io n H o w d i d g e o g r a p h y a f f e c t t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h r e e c o l o n i a l r e g i o n s ?
The Colonial Regions Were very different Were as different as “fire and water” Still they continued to grow , ’s- 2,500,000 African Americans- 28,000 to more than 500,000 Immigration increased Most lived in cities New York, Philadelphia, Charles Town, Savannah, and Newport Freedom of worship was allowed here
New England Colonies Most people lived in well organized towns Meetinghouse- church and town meetings Citizen army trained Farms were smaller New England had a poor growing season and rocky soil subsistence farmingFarmers practiced subsistence farming Just enough to meet their families needs reliedMost Northern farmers relied on their children for labor
Commerce in New England Commerce= trade Many small businesses Water ran mills for grinding grain or sawing lumber Women made cloth, garments, candles, and soap for their families Sometimes to sell Large towns attracted skilled craftspeople Blacksmiths, shoemakers, furniture makers, gunsmiths, metalsmiths, and printers Shipbuilding was important Fishing and whaling was very important
Colonial Trade Northern coastal cities were the centers of trade Linked Northern Colonies with Southern Colonies Also linked to other parts of the world New England ships traded with the West Indies and across the Atlantic Ocean Followed different trading routes England and back Triangular tradeTriangular trade Example: Rum to Africa Slavery was very common in the West Indies
A.A B.B C.C Section 1Section 1 Which part of the coast was the center of the shipping trade? A.Southern coastal cities B.Northern coastal cities C.Coastal cities on the Gulf of Mexico
The Middle Passage Enslaved Africans first went to a European Fort on the West African coast Tied together with ropes around their necks and hands Branded Forced on a ship Middle PassageTrip across Atlantic is called the Middle Passage A young African Olaudah Equiano described his journey: “So crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us…” Chained together for more than a month
More Middle Passage Could hardly sit or stand Given little food or water Africans that died or became sick were thrown overboard Those that refused to eat were whipped When they reached American ports they went to the slave market Examined and prodded Sold as laborers Between the 1400s and mid 1800s about 12 million were forcibly transported to the Americas
The Middle Colonies Better soil and growing season than New England Farms produced bigger harvests cash cropsGrew wheat and other cash crops New York and Philadelphia sold these crops and became busy ports NY- 18,000 people Phily- 24,000 largest cities in the colonies
A.A B.B C.C Section 1Section 1 Which two cities were the largest in the American colonies by 1760? A.New York and Philadelphia B.Charles Town and Savannah C.Newport and Cambridge
Industries in the Middle Colonies Some home based- carpentry and flour making Others larger- lumbering, mining, and small scale manufacturing Iron mills Many were German immigrants 100,000 Germans came to America during the colonial era Most in Pennsylvania Great diversity in the Middle Colonies Germans, Dutch, Swedish, and other non-English
The Southern Colonies and Slavery Good growing season and soil Most settlers made their living from farming Little commerce or industry principalTobacco was the principal cash crop of Maryland and Virginia Most sold in Europe Planters tried to use indentured servants Too expensive and scarce Began using enslaved Africans
Tobacco and Slavery Slaveholders grew wealthy from tobacco SurplusSurplus sometimes made prices fall This caused some farmers to grow other crops (corn and wheat)
South Carolina and Georgia Main cash crop was rice Created rice fields called paddies Work was very hard Standing knee deep in mud all day Blazing sun Biting insects Relied on slave labor Rice was even more profitable that tobacco Rice became popular in Europe and price rose
Tidewater TidewaterMost Southern plantations were located on the Tidewater Flat, low-lying plains along the seacoast Located on rivers so they could take crops to market by boats Each plantation was a self- contained community Planter’s wife supervised the house and house servants Plantation included slave cabins, barns, and stables Also blacksmith shops, storerooms, and kitchens Maybe even a chapel and school
Backcountry Toward the Appalachian Mountains Small farms- grew tobacco and corn Worked alone or with their families May have 1 or 2 slaves Small farmers outnumbered the plantation owners Plantation owners were very wealthy and had more influence Plantation owners controlled economic and political life in the region
Slavery Most slaves lived on plantations Most worked in fields and suffered great cruelty OverseersOverseers kept slaves working hard slave codes1705- Virginia created slave codes Strict rules that governed the behavior and punishments of slaves Couldn’t leave plantations without written permission Could not meet in large groups Allowed whipping slaves For serious crimes, owners could hang or burn to death the slave Slaves that ran away were punished severely
African Traditions Enslaved African families were torn apart Turned to African roots Some learned trades- carpentry, blacksmithing, or weaving Some were able to buy their freedom
Criticism of Slavery Most white Southerners were NOT slaveholders Some did not believe in slavery Less support in Northern colonies Puritans refused to own slaves Quakers condemned slavery
Essential QuestionEssential Question H o w d i d g e o g r a p h y a f f e c t t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h r e e c o l o n i a l r e g i o n s ? -New England: Harsh Climate and rocky soil led to subsistence farming; coastal location led to shipbuilding and other industries, fishing, and trade -Middle Colonies: fertile soil and milder climate led to larger farms and cash crops; availability of natural resources led to small-scale manufacturing, lumbering, and mining; good ports allowed trade. - Southern Colonies: Rich soil and warm climate led to large farms, cash crops, the development of the plantation system, and an economy based on slavery.
Chapter 4 Section 1 Quiz
Which of the following means producing just enough to meet the families' needs, with little left over to sell or exchange? A.harvesting B.subsistence farming C.cash crop D.Tidewater farming
The most inhumane aspect of the triangular trade was the A.Southern Route. B.merchant trade route. C.Middle Passage. D.fishing trade.
Where were most of the large Southern plantations located? A.backcountry B.Tidewater C.coastal areas D.flatlands
The plantation bosses who kept the enslaved Africans working hard were called A.overseers. B.slaveholders. C.employers. D.supervisors.
Which group controlled the economic and political life of the Southern Colonies? A.merchants B.teachers C.farmers D.plantation owners