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By: Trajan Cuellar MB BCh MRCSI.  General Surgery  MIS  BMS  CRS  PBS  Vascular  Plastics  Transplant  Trauma.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Trajan Cuellar MB BCh MRCSI.  General Surgery  MIS  BMS  CRS  PBS  Vascular  Plastics  Transplant  Trauma."— Presentation transcript:

1 by: Trajan Cuellar MB BCh MRCSI

2  General Surgery  MIS  BMS  CRS  PBS  Vascular  Plastics  Transplant  Trauma

3 The management of the patient after surgery. This includes care given during the immediate post operative period, both in the operating room and the post anaesthesia care unit (PACU), as well as the days following surgery.

4  Relish in your position  Enjoy the fruits of your labour in medical school  Grow into the physician/surgeon role  You will often stand alone with the family in the room  You are the last line of defense  Nobody will blame you, everyone will cheer you

5  Past Medical History  Past Surgical History  Social History  Family History

6  Past Medical History  CNS – prior TIA, CVAs, mobility post op.  CVS – CHF, prior MIs ▪ Antiplatlet agents ▪ IVF administration  Resp – COPD home O2, CPAP for OSA  FEN/GI - Renal Failure – prescribe/dose all medications appropriately (no Enoxaparin for renal impairment patients), dialysis days?  Endo – DM (no dextrose in IVF, ISS), Steroids – dose stress steroids appropriately

7  Past Surgical History  Prior surgical intervention often makes further surgical intervention more complex  Prior post operative issues are often relevant again

8  Social History  Home support structure, if any  EtOH ▪ Delerium Tremens (not unique to VA system)

9  Family History  Most common bleeding diathesis vWF dysfuction  Best way to determine if

10  If you did the case, you may be asked to…  Write the brief operative note  Talk to the family regarding the outcome of the surgery  Write post operative orders  Dictate the case  Skin/Fascial closure, Final dressings, abdominal binder, transport the patient to PACU

11  Day case surgery  Final review  Appropriate Discharge Paperwork  Discharge Prescriptions  Follow up Appointment For Shands :30am – 5pm, get an appointment for every pt.  Family questions

12  PACU  If called to the PACU attend immediately.  Face to face discussion with MDs or RNs and address their concerns directly  Perform a Post Operative Check  Ordering appropriate investigations – ▪ Labs ▪ ABG, CBC, BMP, etc., ▪ 12-lead EKG ▪ Imaging ▪ CXR, CT brain  Report concern to the Operating Team  Know what room they are in or where they can be found  Come with an Assessment and a PLAN

13  Post Operative Check – to be performed on EVERY patient, ABSOLUTELY NO EXCEPTIONS  Consists of  Chart review ▪ Surgical procedure (EBL, IVFs, intraoperative events) ▪ Pre-Operative medical/surgical conditions ▪ Pre-Admission Medications ▪ Current Post-Operative Medications

14  Review of Vital Sign trends  Pyrexia (Febrile)  HR/BP/O2 Sats ▪ Tachycardia ▪ Tachypnoea  I/O, hourly urine outputs  Analgesic Requirements  RN notes – pt received resting soundly vs. obtunded

15  Finally go see the patient.  Eyeball test – comes with experience  Talk to the patient  Examine the patient  HS 1-2, Lungs, Abdomen, Incision sites ▪ Pulse check, Neurological exam  Don’t for get Drains  Volume, colour, consistency, smell  Check Line sites, IVs, a-lines, CVLs, Urinary catheters, Chest tube sites.

16  Go back to the computer  Final chart review  Check Labs (perhaps order them)  Check Imaging (perhaps order CXR/KUB)  Monitoring (perhaps add a continuous pulse ox or telemetry)  DOCUMENT your findings with a PLAN  With experience this takes 10mins to perform

17  Keep eye on vitals  Certain Chiefs will want to be called with information (i.e. post op checks, CT scan results), make sure you do this.  No major moves overnight, keep watch till morning  A change in condition of a patient, a transfusion, or change level of care mandates a prompt call to the primary team

18  Well its 4am they’ll be in a hour or two I’d rather the primary team handle it.  I’ll call the Chief when things settle down after intubation and transfer to the ICU.  I’ll call when I figure out exactly what’s going on. A plan doesn’t have to be exact.  I have to work on my animal research grant rather than check on patients overnight.

19  Early post operative period  Mobilization  Incentive Spirometers  Anaglesia Plan  Diet/Nutrition Plan  Wound Care Plan  Antibiotics Plan  Urinary Catheter Plan  Drain Plan

20  Surgery Specific Management  MIS - Swallow studies  BMS - Drain care, Physical Therapy  CRS - NG management, Ostomy volume consistency management  PBS - Drains for amylase, nutrition plan (TPN)  Vascular - Wound care, dialysis  Transplant - Immunosuppressive therapy, dialysis  Trauma - Disposition

21  Plans by System  Neurological  CVS  Respiratory  FEN/GI  Endo  ID  Haematological  Communication with ICU service

22  Write everything down on your list  Have tick boxes or equivalents to help you manage your patient related tasks  Do not move on to the next patient until your questions are answered  Plans may change during rounds with the Attending Surgeon  You may be asked to ‘run the list’ and list out your jobs with the patients

23  Daily notes to be written on all in-patients no exceptions  Daily notes on consults  Laboratory investigations  AM labs ordered?  AM CXR ordered?  Electrolytes replaced?  Daily contact with consulting Services

24  Identify with your team your ‘sickest’ patients and ensure their tasks are performed first  Put in all orders on all patients at once  Call consults early (UF Surgery is not like certain services that drop the 5:30pm bombshell)  Half fill in boxes of tasks that have follow up  CT scan order and reviewed

25  Gradual return to preoperative state  Improved mobility and mood  Reduction in IVF, toleration of PO intake  Return to home medication regiment  Return of Bowel Activity (flatus then BMs)  Reduced Analgesia requirements and transition to oral pain medications.  Wound healing  Disposition and home environment

26  Look better/feels better  No fever, normal VS, normal WCC, stable HCT/plt count, normal electrolytes  Mobilisation of fluid  Spontaneously negative I/O fluid balance  Patient crosses legs in bed and starts to complain about hospital food

27  Fever  Rising WCC  Drop in HCT, Hb  Electrolyte imbalance  Drain output change  Reduced Urine Output  Pt has little to say for him/herself  Surgery Specific Concerns  POD 5 Colorectal pt with fever, elevated WCC  Salmon coloured fluid escaping from a previously dry abdominal wound

28  Arrest  Sudden change in mental status  Sudden respiratory compromise  Sudden cardiovascular embarrassment  Audible Bleeding

29  Bleeding, bleeding, bleeding  Surgical bed  GI tract  Anticoagulation  Sepsis  Myocardial Infarction  Cerebrovascular Accident  Acute Urinary Retention  Confusion  Atelectasis  Pneumothorax  Mucus plug

30 Surgery specific complications…  MIS – anastomotic leak  BMS – haematoma  Colorectal – anastomotic leak  PBS – Bleeding, Sepsis  Transplant – Organ rejection  Vascular – bypass occlusion, pseudoaneurysms  Trauma – DTs, withdrawal

31  Know your surgical procedures and their expected post operative courses  Attention to detail  Check vitals carefully looking for clues ▪ Tachycardia (gradually developing) ▪ Tachypnoea (gradually developing)  Dare to think

32  Eyeball  Distressed, obtunded, tachypnoeic, tachycardic  Vital Signs  IV access?  Lines working  Finger stick glucose  Labs  Imaging  Monitoring (continuous pulse ox, telemetry)  Level of care (floor, IMC, ICU)

33  Contact senior resident early with concerns and Plan  Communication continues until resolution of the concern (may occur over days)  Follow through on plan – CT scan etc…

34  PACU  During Transfer  CT scanner  Interventional Radiology

35  Date/Time/Venue on all notes  Time of incident to time of initiation of trial averages 18 months, how good is your memory?

36  Call your covering chief with information regarding –  Current state of patient  Your working diagnosis  Your plan of action  You will receive gentle guidance  Calling is what you are expected to do  As your experience level increases you will feel more confident and identify routine calls from serious pathology.

37  Tertiary Level University Teaching and Academic Center  We take the cases that local hospitals refer to us for ‘Complexity of Care’  Level 1 Trauma care for local population

38  Standards are high  Expectations are high  You are all here for a reason  Everyone here is capable of performing the tasks required

39 QUESTIONS? Trajan A. Cuéllar MB BCh MRCSI (pager) (mobile)

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