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Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users Presented at the AoIR5 Conference University of Sussex, U.K 20, September 2004 Yaron Ariel.

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Presentation on theme: "Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users Presented at the AoIR5 Conference University of Sussex, U.K 20, September 2004 Yaron Ariel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users Presented at the AoIR5 Conference University of Sussex, U.K 20, September 2004 Yaron Ariel University of Haifa

2 Outline Uses and Gratifications a relevancy approach U&G basic assumptions & criticisms Defining Gratification Expectancy Interactivity Web sites’ Interactivity Expectations towards Web sites’ interactivity Some research evidence Some implications

3 Uses and Gratifications - Relevancy Dominant in Users/Audience studies  Human centered approach Re-mentioned when new media develops  Electronic Bulletin Board, Pager, Interactive TV, Cellular phone, ICQ New media & its various uses Enables comparison  Traditional Media Vs New Media

4 U&G Assumptions & Criticisms Individuals are active & rational players  Using the media in order to obtain gratifications (Katz, Blumler & Gurevitch, 1974) Main Criticisms: Assumption of rationality  Or maybe Habitual, Ritual, Normative? Humanistic Approach  Goal oriented towards fulfillments and growth? Functionalism Oriented  Categorization as status quo Introspective Capabilities  Can they really tell us?

5 Expectations towards traditional media Genres conventions (Content, Style & Form ) Expectations towards Web Sites Functionalities Expectancy Differentiate Sought & Obtained gratification (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 1982) Emphasizing Expectancy Towards what?

6 Gratification Expectancy A persons' belief that using a web site can fulfill specific voids in his/her life Gratification Expectancy EscapistEmotionalIntegrativeCognitive

7 Interactivity Various definitions of Interactivity Rafaeli’s Definitions of Interactivity (Rafaeli, 1988)  characteristic of communication settings not the medium  emphasizing the interaction between users  Considering levels of interactivity Interactivity - A functionality that facilitates users' expectations? Defining Web sites interactivity

8 Interactivity operationalized Three identical news-portal ‘look-alike’ web-sites Except - Declarative Interactivity No feature of message transmission. Reactive Interactivity Includes an Electronic Forum within. Full Interactivity Includes a Synchronic chat.

9 Hypothesis Does & to what extent the interactivity that Web Sites enabled their users is relating to their expectations gratifications? H1 Positive correlation between the level of Web Sites' interactivity & the level of EG’s H2 Significant difference between users' experience level within their level of EG’s along levels of interactivity. H3 Positive correlation between any individual EG to others. [Variables: Socio-Demographic, Usages characteristics & attitude towards internet]

10 Research Design Sample of 464 participants Non representative Personal codes with web address Web questionnaire Simulation Example of a web site Likert scale statements Semantic differential

11 Results High gratifications expectations in all three sites High to low expectancy:  Cognitive, Integrative, Escapist & Emotional Advanced users Vs Whole Sample  Expectancy ----Web experience Gratifications Expectancies are highly correlated

12 More Results Women have higher GE’s as compared to men Income, Martial status, Education -no impact General positive attitude toward the Internet Higher gratification expectancy [Using logistic regression]

13 Discussions & Implications Examine Subjective expectations & perception of gratifications. Study Medium functionalities - rather than studying its conventions Web user's usages relate characteristics -rather than other personal factors Expectations gratifications are in the beholders eyes

14 Thanks Yaron Ariel University of Haifa

15

16 References Ebersole, S. (2000). "Uses and Gratification of the Web among students". JCMC. 6(1)

17 Heeter, C. (1989). Implications of new interactive technologies for conceptualizing communication. In: J. L. Salvaggio., J. Bryant (Eds.). Media use in the information age: Emerging patterns of adoption and consumer use. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Kang, M.H. (2002). "Interactivity in television: use and impact of an interactive program guide". Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 46(3),

18 Katz, E., Blumler, J.G., Gurevitch, M. (1973). "Uses and Gratifications research". Public Opinion Quarterly. 37(4), Kwasnik, H.B., Crowston, K., Nilan, M., Roussinov, D. (2001). "Identifying document genre to improve Web search effectiveness". Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 27(2)

19 Leung, Louis & Wei, R (1998). "The gratifications of pager use: Sociability, information seeking, entertainment, utility, and fashion and status" Telematics and Infomatics, 15(4):

20 Leung, L., Wei, R (2000). "More than just talk on the move: Uses and Gratifications of cellular phone". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. 77(2): Liebes, T. (2003). "Herzog's "On borrowed experience": Its place in the debate over the active audience". In: Katz, E., Peters, D.J., Liebes, T., Orloff, A. (Eds.). Canonic texts in media research: Are there any? Should there be? How about these? Cambridge: Polity Press & Blackwell Publishing

21 Lin, A. C. (2002). "Perceived gratifications of online media service use among potential users". Telematics and Informatics. 19(1), Livaditi, J., Vassilopoulou, K., Lougos, C., Chorianopoulos, K. (2002). "Needs and Gratifications for interactive TV application: Implications for designers". Presented at the 36th Hawaii international Conference on System Sciences

22 Luo, X. (2002). "Uses and Gratifications theory and E-consumer behaviors: A structural equation modeling study". Journal of Interactive Advertising. 2(2) Palmgreen, P., Rayburn, J.D. (1982). "Gratifications sought and media exposure: an expectancy model". Communication research. 9(4),

23 Rafaeli, S. (1988)."Interactivity: From new media to communication". In: Sage Annual Review of Communication Research: Advancing Communication Science, Vol. 16. R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann., S. Pingree. (Eds). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Rafaeli, S., Sudweeks, F. (1997). "Networked Interactivity" Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 2(4)

24 Ruggiero, E. T. (2000). "Uses and gratification theory in the 21st century". Mass Communication & Society. 3(1), Schultz, T. (2000). "Mass Media and the concept of interactivity: An exploratory study of online Forums and reader ". Media, Culture & Society. 22 (2),

25 Sherry, J., Lucas, K., Rechtsteiner, S., Brooks, C., Wilson, B. (2001). "Video Game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference". Paper presented at the ICA convention May 2001


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