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E-Business Technologies1 Chapter 5 Wireless Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "E-Business Technologies1 Chapter 5 Wireless Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 E-Business Technologies1 Chapter 5 Wireless Technologies

2 E-Business Technologies2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe the status of wireless e-business today Discuss the origins of wireless communications and the commercialization of the radio range of the electromagnetic spectrum Describe two major short-range wireless technologies Describe a wireless LAN and identify the IEEE family of wireless LAN standards

3 E-Business Technologies3 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe pager, cellular, satellite, and other wireless networks Describe the devices, protocols, and languages of the wireless Web Identify expectations for future wireless e- business

4 E-Business Technologies4 Wireless E-Business Wireless technologies include: –Wireless LANs where laptop computers transmit documents to printers three feet away –Information transmitted between two PDAs –Location positioning from an automobile –Medical images transmitted anywhere via satellite networks As a practical matter, any WAN uses wireless communications since they are ubiquitous to long distance communications Valued Gateway Client:

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6 6 Wireless E-Business Analysts predict a huge explosion in the demand for wireless devices, wireless e-business services, and the number of wireless Web users within the next three to five years Future growth of wireless e-business based on wireless technologies advantages including: –Immediacy - e-business must occur with immediacy –Personalization - rational or not, users believe wireless technologies are personal as opposed to public –Localization - just like a wired connection, a physical location can be determined for each wireless connection

7 E-Business Technologies7 A Brief History of Wireless Communication In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell published his theory of electromagnetic radiation In 1873, Heinrich Hertz corroborated Maxwell’s theory when he proved that electricity could be transmitted via electromagnetic waves In 1895, a young inventor named Guglielmo Marconi began experimenting with radio waves to send messages On December 12, 1901, first wireless transatlantic radio transmission sent from Cornwall, England to Signal Hill, St. John’s, Newfoundland

8 E-Business Technologies8 Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio: lowest frequency; the longest wavelength Microwave: next shortest wavelength Infrared: slightly longer wavelength than visible Visible light: range of colors correspond to frequencies Ultraviolet: just beyond the violet end of visible spectrum X-rays: very short wavelength and high-energy Gamma rays: shortest wavelength, highest frequency radiation

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10 10 Commercialization of the Radio Spectrum 1920: KDKA, Pittsburgh, PA, the first commercial radio station in the U.S. Circa 1920: Vladimir Zworykin developed technology to capture, transmit, and view images via wire 1927: Philo Farnsworth was first to actually transmit images via radio waves Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the radio spectrum in U.S. U.S. commercial radio spectrum is allocated in two parts: the FM band from 88.1 to MHz, and the AM band from 540 to 1700 kHz

11 E-Business Technologies11 Short-Range Wireless Technologies Wireless technologies that work within the range of convenience: –about 10 feet (how does this help security?) Technologies support such devices as: –Remote controls –PDA to PDA signaling –Wireless communication between laptops and printers Two wireless technologies satisfy these needs: IrDA and Bluetooth

12 E-Business Technologies12 IrDA Infrared radiation (IR), part of the electromagnetic spectrum that lies just below the visible red range The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) establishes standards for the IR hardware and software IrDA communications require both devices have a transceiver (a combination transmitter and receiver) IrDA requires a line-of-sight link

13 E-Business Technologies13 Bluetooth Radiofrequency (RF) technology operating at 2.45 GHz Originally created to allow mobile phones to communicate with accessories Requires small, low-power transceivers that can be added to a wireless device for Bluetooth transmissions Operates on an unregulated section of the radio spectrum

14 E-Business Technologies14 Wireless LANs Usually include: –a wired LAN with computers, printers, servers, and other devices –portable devices such as laptops that can connect when necessary –access points (also called base stations) that allow devices to use RF transmissions -- access points are generally connected to a wire

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16 E-Business Technologies16 IEEE Standards Define the operation of wireless networks Original standard specified transmission rate of one to two Mbps at 2.4 GHz range b specifies up to 11 Mbps a specifies up to 54 Mbps at 5.4 GHz g specifies up to 54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz know how a differs from c - see Table 5-1

17 E-Business Technologies17 Long Distance Wireless Networks Networks that provide wireless communications over longer distances than a wireless LAN include: –Pager –Cellular phone –Mobile data –Fixed wireless and fixed wireless broadband –Free space optics –Satellite networks

18 E-Business Technologies18 Pager and Pager Networks Pager networks include: paging terminals, transmitters, and pagers Paging terminals accept messages and route messages to a transmitter for the local pager area or zone The transmitter sends the message to the appropriate pager Multiple local pager zones can be connected to form a wide area pager network

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20 E-Business Technologies20 Cellular Phones and Cellular Networks Metropolitan areas are divided into transmission areas called cells Base stations service transmissions with cellular phones inside cell and with other cells Base stations negotiate disconnect/connect of cellular phones as they move from cell to cell

21 E-Business Technologies21 Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) Analog cell phone standard used in U.S., Japan, Scandinavia Built on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) standard Each call used two frequencies: one for transmitting and one for receiving Assigned frequencies to one user at a time

22 E-Business Technologies22 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Increases the capacity of a radio frequency (over AMPS) by dividing a frequency or channel into time slots Allows up to six users to send timed, synchronized conversation fragments over a shared channel Supports digital transmissions for voice, fax, data (at rates of 64 Kbps to 120 Mbps), multimedia and videoconferencing, and short text messaging via Short Message Service (SMS)

23 E-Business Technologies23 Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communication Hybrid technology, FDMA and TDMA based Allows multiple users to share an RF channel (up to eight users) Supports digital data transmissions Supports text messaging with SMS Operates at 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz

24 E-Business Technologies24 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Based on direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technology Breaks up digitized and compressed voice data into many pieces, assigns code to each piece, then sends the pieces over many different frequencies — whichever frequencies happen to be available at transmission time Upon arrival at the base station, voice data is then reassembled using these unique codes

25 E-Business Technologies25 3G Digital Cellular Networks Enables users to receive high-speed voice, data, and multimedia transmissions via a cell phone 3G Technologies CDMA 2000 — Enables broadband video and multimedia services; has strong vendor support W-CDMA —Enables superior voice quality and high-speed data transmissions TD-SCDMA —Enhances roaming capabilities Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) — Enables high-speed IP data and voice transmissions from anywhere

26 E-Business Technologies26 Mobile Data Networks MDNs provide data services to organizations with mobile employees Subscribers can transmit data from their mobile devices to base stations positioned in specific areas Base stations then forward the transmissions to a central messaging switch which is cabled to an organization’s LAN or mainframe

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28 E-Business Technologies28 Fixed Wireless Broadband Systems Provide wireless communications to or from a fixed location Operate between 90 MHz to 40 GHz Require line-of-sight positioning of antennae over relatively short ranges Fixed Wireless Broadband (FWB) supports a data transmission rate of about 1 Mbps

29 E-Business Technologies29 Free Space Optics Uses laser to send light pulses through the air to a detector that can be up to three miles away High transmission speeds (144 Mbps – 10 Gbps) over an unregulated portion of the radio spectrum Can provide the “last mile of connectivity” between fiber- optic cable and nearby office buildings

30 E-Business Technologies30 Communication Satellite Networks Satellite networks consist of: –strategically positioned Earthbound antennae –ground control facilities –thousands of weather, scientific, military, and navigational satellites orbiting the Earth Communications satellites act as orbiting radio relay stations, containing thousands of transponders that receive voice, video, or data transmissions from Earth on one frequency and then relay them back to Earth on another frequency

31 E-Business Technologies31 Geostationary Orbit (GEO) Satellite Network Positioned 22,300 miles from Earth above the equator Support two-way voice, video, and data communications GEO satellites’ speed matches the Earth’s rotation, keeping a GEO satellite positioned directly above the same spot on Earth

32 E-Business Technologies32 Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite Networks Positioned from 400 – 1,600 miles above the Earth Due to their proximity to the Earth, LEO satellites orbit the Earth in 1.5 – 2 hours to avoid the pull of gravity A LEO satellite network is designed so that more than one satellite in the network is always visible There are two kinds of LEO satellite networks: little LEO and big LEO

33 E-Business Technologies33 Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) Satellite Networks Positioned from 1,500 – 6,500 miles above the Earth Require fewer satellites per coverage area than LEO networks Less transmission latency than GEO networks Two MEO networks currently under development by: Teledesic LLC and ICO Global Communications, Inc. Both networks are designed for high-speed IP data transmissions, voice, and broadband Internet access

34 E-Business Technologies34 Global Positioning System (GPS) Uses a network of 24 satellites to establish position of people, objects, etc. Location-based services enable e-businesses to target offerings to customers based upon physical location Use restricted by law to: –Locating people in emergencies –Providing telecommunications services –Requires customer consent to receive location- based service offerings

35 E-Business Technologies35 The Wireless Web Improvements in digital cellular technologies enabled processing of data, pictures, and voice on wireless handhelds Long-term success of the wireless Web hinges on three major issues: 1.Improving view-ability of Web-based information on hand-held wireless devices 2.Mitigating slow transmission speeds 3.Ease of navigation

36 E-Business Technologies36 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Protocol suite or stack that makes it possible to access Internet resources from a hand-held wireless device WAP was developed as a standard for the wireless Web by the WAP Forum, a consortium of wireless vendors The WAP standard defines the wireless application environment and protocols which work across different platforms WAP suite functions similarly to the protocols in the TCP/IP suite, but not compatible Requires WAP gateway to communicate between wireless and TCP/IP networks IP

37 E-Business Technologies37 WAP Protocol Suite WAP SuiteDescription Wireless Application Environment (WAE) Presentation layer: where WML and WMLScript tools reside Wireless Session Protocol (WTP) Session layer: makes and maintains the connection Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) Transaction layer: keeps data moving logically and smoothly; confirmations Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) Security layer: data integrity checks, encryption, and authentication Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) Data Transport layer: provides common interface between bearers Bearer MethodNetwork Carrier: SMS, GPRS, GSM, etc.

38 E-Business Technologies38 Wireless Markup Language Wireless applications are created with the Wireless Markup Language and the WMLScript The Wireless Markup Language (WML), based on XML, is used to design content for small-screen devices A WML document (page) is called a deck Each deck contains one or more cards containing text, images, markup instructions, etc. WMLScript, similar to JavaScript, manipulates the content on small screens and performs math functions

39 E-Business Technologies39 WAP Gateway A WAP-enabled client issues a request for a WML page The request is sent to a WAP gateway The WAP gateway formats the HTTP request, forwarding it to the Web server The Web server sends a response to the WAP gateway The WAP gateway formats the data, and sends it to the wireless device

40 E-Business Technologies40 Accessing the Wireless Web Palm VII PDA was first hand-held wireless device to make wireless data transmissions possible PDA not equipped for phone calls, users needed separate cellular phone to get both wireless voice/data Wireless industry developing hybrid wireless devices

41 E-Business Technologies41 Effects of Wireless Technologies on E-Business U.S. consumers see no compelling reason to make purchases using a wireless device Neither the technologies nor the content exist to ensure positive wireless purchasing experience Service providers and equipment vendors are moving ahead with developing, testing, and implementing variety of trial wireless e-business propositions

42 E-Business Technologies42 Effects of Wireless Technologies on E-Business Wireless becoming a larger part of vendor/enterprise/customer integration for B2B purchasing and production Knowledge management simplified by wireless Improvements in wireless technology make it cheaper/faster/more convenient to use


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