Presentation on theme: "Communications Why communicate?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Communications Why communicate? The communications process and characteristicsBarriers to effective communicationsImproving communicationsCommunications and gender
2 Why Communicate? To convey information To receive information To determine what information needs to be sent or obtainedTo gain acceptance for you or your ideasTo motivate other peopleTo maintain relationships with coworkers, clients, etc.To establish trustTo keep people involved in a projectTo produce action or changeTo understand the wants and needs of your stakeholdersTo express your emotions or feelings
3 The Communications Process SenderNoiseBarriersMessageBarriersFeedbackReceiver
4 Types of Communications Forms of communicationVerbalWrittenNon-verbalTo WhomImmediate coworkersSupervisor / subordinatesOthers within own organizationCustomers and clientsSuppliers / vendors
6 Channel Richness Channel Richness A channel’s ability to transmit information, including the ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, encourage feedback, and focus personally on the receiver.Why Is It Important?More cues (i.e., words, tone of voice, and non-verbals) allow more information to be transmittedFeedback ensures that listener has opportunity to obtain additional information or clarify any uncertaintiesPersonal focus permits customizing message and encourages listener attention
7 Channel Richness: Specific Channels HighChannelRichnessPhonecallFace tofaceMemos,Letters,voicFormalReportLowChannelRichness
8 Non-Verbal Communications VoiceAppearanceFace and eyesPosture and movementPersonal space and distanceTimePhysical environmentVoiceVolume, pitchExpressivenessPauses, stammeringEmphasis on wordsAppearanceClothing (style, quality, uniforms, logo clothing)Weight, ageFace and eyesExpressionsEye contact (or lack thereof)Posture and movementPosture -- how you sit, standGestures - shuffling papers, clipping nails, turning away from workPersonal space and distancePersonal spaceTouchingSeating arrangementTimeArriving early, staying late (or the reverse)Physical environmentWindows, office location, walls, furniture, accessoriesFurniture / office arrangement
9 Rumors and the Grapevine The informal networkAbout 75% accuracyPurposeReduce anxietyMake sense of ambiguityOrganizing coalitionsSignal statusManaging rumors, gossip and the grapevineCommunicate openly -- the good and the badDeliberate rumors ??PurposeReduce anxietyMake sense of ambiguity (especially when management isn’t communicating)Organizing coalitionsSignal one’s status (“I have the inside scoop”)Managing rumors, gossip and the grapevineCommunicate openly -- the good and the badDeliberate rumors -- Can management use rumors as a warning or as a trial balloon??
10 Barriers to Communications Information overloadNoiseLanguageFilteringSelective perceptionDefensiveness
11 Information Overload Multiple communications Phone and voicPagerCellphoneReports and memosWhat price peace and quiet ??
13 Language IssuesActual languageAccents, etc.Volume and speedJargon
14 Filtering Sending on the news you think your audience wants to hear Impression managementWhat happens to the messenger bringing bad news…...
15 Selective Perception Stereotypes Halo Effect Projection Primacy and Recency EffectsPerceptual ReadinessPerceptual DefenseAttributionStereotypesWomen are fluffy, Asians good with math, etc.Halo EffectGeneralizing from one aspect of the person to another; she’s sloppily dressed, therefore, she’s not too brightProjectionAssuming one’s own motives apply to others; he’s not too honest, so he assumes others will not be, either.Primacy and Recency EffectsBad / good first impressions or most recent perceptionsPerceptual ReadinessWe hear what we expect or want to hear or what we’re told to hear. For example, if you're told the professor is good, you’ll perceive her favorably.Perceptual DefenseWe ignore threatening information.AttributionI’m creative; you’re disorganized; he’s a slob. Also, external and internal attributions for success and failure (I failed because of circumstances; you failed because you didn't try).
16 Defensiveness A response to perceived threat or criticism What is it? Personal attacksSarcasmQuestioning motives
17 Supportive and Defensive Climates EvaluationControlStrategyNeutralitySuperiorityCertaintySUPPORTIVEDescriptionProblem OrientationSpontaneityEmpathyEqualityProvisionalism
18 The Three Hardest Things to Say I WasWrongI Don’tKnowI NeedHelp
20 The Levels of Listening “Did you hear that Chuck and Mary are getting a divorce?”Unrelated ResponseLevel 2:“Cars are a pain; my air is out.”Tangential ResponseLevel 3:“Were you on Nonconnah when it happened?”Furthering Response“I had a bad accident yesterday, but nobody was hurt”Level 4:“I know you must be relieved to be safe”Feeling Response
21 Listening Guides for Display at the Workplace Stop talking. You cannot listen if you are talking !Put the talker at ease.Show the talker that you want to listen.Remove distractions.Empathize. See the situation from the other person’s point of view.Be patient.Hold your temper.Go easy with arguments and criticisms. When you argue, even if you win, you lose.Ask questions to show interest and encourage response.Stop Talking. This is both first and last, because all other guides depend on it.
22 How to ListenNature gave people two ears but only one tongue, which is a gentle guide that they should listen more than they talk.Listening requires two ears, one for meaning and one for feeling.Decision makers who do not listen have less information for making sound decisions.
23 Giving Effective Feedback STRENGTHSDescriptiveFeelings evokedSpecificControllableTimelyEffectPositive and negativeHelpWEAKNESSESEvaluativeDo it indifferentlyGeneralUncontrollableLateAnalyzeNegative onlyPunish
25 The Three Elements of Trust BenevolenceIntegrityAbility
26 What Encourages the Development of Trust? Correspondence between word and deedDemonstrations of concern for others’ well-being and needsWillingness to see the other person’s point of viewDemonstrated skills and abilities - showing that you can be counted on to accomplish the jobRewards for openness and disagreementNo reprisals for speaking your mindFreely expressing your opinion - but with tactNot being afraid to show your emotionsHonesty and fairness in business dealings
27 Communications and Gender Are the differences genetic or learned? Does it matter?Typical patterns: this doesn’t apply to all women or all menRapport vs. reportWomen use language to create connections, establish goodwill, show support, and build community. Men talk to express information and facts, to claim attention, show status and take a position or stand.Expressive vs. instrumentalWomen express feelings; men talk to get things done.Supportive vs. advisingWomen offer support, understanding and sympathy to someone with a problem, while men offer advice.Tentative vs. certainWomen express doubt: hedging, disclaimers, expressing ideas as questions (and, thus, creating an impression -- to men -- of incompetence or lack of authority). Men are assertive, direct, authoritative, and certain.Initiate and maintain vs. controlWomen get the conversation started, ask questions and liste; men interrupt