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Communications Why communicate?

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Presentation on theme: "Communications Why communicate?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communications Why communicate?
The communications process and characteristics Barriers to effective communications Improving communications Communications and gender

2 Why Communicate? To convey information To receive information
To determine what information needs to be sent or obtained To gain acceptance for you or your ideas To motivate other people To maintain relationships with coworkers, clients, etc. To establish trust To keep people involved in a project To produce action or change To understand the wants and needs of your stakeholders To express your emotions or feelings

3 The Communications Process
Sender Noise Barriers Message Barriers Feedback Receiver

4 Types of Communications
Forms of communication Verbal Written Non-verbal To Whom Immediate coworkers Supervisor / subordinates Others within own organization Customers and clients Suppliers / vendors

5 Communications Channels
Face-to-face Telephone Grapevine Memos, letters Formal reports

6 Channel Richness Channel Richness
A channel’s ability to transmit information, including the ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, encourage feedback, and focus personally on the receiver. Why Is It Important? More cues (i.e., words, tone of voice, and non-verbals) allow more information to be transmitted Feedback ensures that listener has opportunity to obtain additional information or clarify any uncertainties Personal focus permits customizing message and encourages listener attention

7 Channel Richness: Specific Channels
High Channel Richness Phone call Face to face Memos, Letters , voic Formal Report Low Channel Richness

8 Non-Verbal Communications
Voice Appearance Face and eyes Posture and movement Personal space and distance Time Physical environment Voice Volume, pitch Expressiveness Pauses, stammering Emphasis on words Appearance Clothing (style, quality, uniforms, logo clothing) Weight, age Face and eyes Expressions Eye contact (or lack thereof) Posture and movement Posture -- how you sit, stand Gestures - shuffling papers, clipping nails, turning away from work Personal space and distance Personal space Touching Seating arrangement Time Arriving early, staying late (or the reverse) Physical environment Windows, office location, walls, furniture, accessories Furniture / office arrangement

9 Rumors and the Grapevine
The informal network About 75% accuracy Purpose Reduce anxiety Make sense of ambiguity Organizing coalitions Signal status Managing rumors, gossip and the grapevine Communicate openly -- the good and the bad Deliberate rumors ?? Purpose Reduce anxiety Make sense of ambiguity (especially when management isn’t communicating) Organizing coalitions Signal one’s status (“I have the inside scoop”) Managing rumors, gossip and the grapevine Communicate openly -- the good and the bad Deliberate rumors -- Can management use rumors as a warning or as a trial balloon??

10 Barriers to Communications
Information overload Noise Language Filtering Selective perception Defensiveness

11 Information Overload Multiple communications
Phone and voic Pager Cellphone Reports and memos What price peace and quiet ??

12 Noise Physical noise and distractions Environment (cold, heat, dust)

13 Language Issues Actual language Accents, etc. Volume and speed Jargon

14 Filtering Sending on the news you think your audience wants to hear
Impression management What happens to the messenger bringing bad news…...

15 Selective Perception Stereotypes Halo Effect Projection
Primacy and Recency Effects Perceptual Readiness Perceptual Defense Attribution Stereotypes Women are fluffy, Asians good with math, etc. Halo Effect Generalizing from one aspect of the person to another; she’s sloppily dressed, therefore, she’s not too bright Projection Assuming one’s own motives apply to others; he’s not too honest, so he assumes others will not be, either. Primacy and Recency Effects Bad / good first impressions or most recent perceptions Perceptual Readiness We hear what we expect or want to hear or what we’re told to hear. For example, if you're told the professor is good, you’ll perceive her favorably. Perceptual Defense We ignore threatening information. Attribution I’m creative; you’re disorganized; he’s a slob. Also, external and internal attributions for success and failure (I failed because of circumstances; you failed because you didn't try).

16 Defensiveness A response to perceived threat or criticism What is it?
Personal attacks Sarcasm Questioning motives

17 Supportive and Defensive Climates
Evaluation Control Strategy Neutrality Superiority Certainty SUPPORTIVE Description Problem Orientation Spontaneity Empathy Equality Provisionalism

18 The Three Hardest Things to Say
I Was Wrong I Don’t Know I Need Help

19 Improving Communications
Listening Openness Feedback Trust

20 The Levels of Listening
“Did you hear that Chuck and Mary are getting a divorce?” Unrelated Response Level 2: “Cars are a pain; my air is out.” Tangential Response Level 3: “Were you on Nonconnah when it happened?” Furthering Response “I had a bad accident yesterday, but nobody was hurt” Level 4: “I know you must be relieved to be safe” Feeling Response

21 Listening Guides for Display at the Workplace
Stop talking. You cannot listen if you are talking ! Put the talker at ease. Show the talker that you want to listen. Remove distractions. Empathize. See the situation from the other person’s point of view. Be patient. Hold your temper. Go easy with arguments and criticisms. When you argue, even if you win, you lose. Ask questions to show interest and encourage response. Stop Talking. This is both first and last, because all other guides depend on it.

22 How to Listen Nature gave people two ears but only one tongue, which is a gentle guide that they should listen more than they talk. Listening requires two ears, one for meaning and one for feeling. Decision makers who do not listen have less information for making sound decisions.

23 Giving Effective Feedback
STRENGTHS Descriptive Feelings evoked Specific Controllable Timely Effect Positive and negative Help WEAKNESSES Evaluative Do it indifferently General Uncontrollable Late Analyze Negative only Punish

24 Receiving Effective Feedback
STRENGTHS Elicit Listen Check Clarify Ask others WEAKNESSES Wait Wonder Assume Justify Discount

25 The Three Elements of Trust
Benevolence Integrity Ability

26 What Encourages the Development of Trust?
Correspondence between word and deed Demonstrations of concern for others’ well-being and needs Willingness to see the other person’s point of view Demonstrated skills and abilities - showing that you can be counted on to accomplish the job Rewards for openness and disagreement No reprisals for speaking your mind Freely expressing your opinion - but with tact Not being afraid to show your emotions Honesty and fairness in business dealings

27 Communications and Gender
Are the differences genetic or learned? Does it matter? Typical patterns: this doesn’t apply to all women or all men Rapport vs. report Women use language to create connections, establish goodwill, show support, and build community. Men talk to express information and facts, to claim attention, show status and take a position or stand. Expressive vs. instrumental Women express feelings; men talk to get things done. Supportive vs. advising Women offer support, understanding and sympathy to someone with a problem, while men offer advice. Tentative vs. certain Women express doubt: hedging, disclaimers, expressing ideas as questions (and, thus, creating an impression -- to men -- of incompetence or lack of authority). Men are assertive, direct, authoritative, and certain. Initiate and maintain vs. control Women get the conversation started, ask questions and liste; men interrupt

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