Presentation on theme: "Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Dr. Nasir D. Gohar
2Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cell Phone Growth in Pakistan & WorldwideAccording to a Media Report (Goliath, May 25, 2005), Cell Phones in Pakistan to Touch 15M mark in December 2005Another Media Report (Middle East Times, June 20, 2006) Predicts the number of Cell Phones will rise from 2.2 Billion to 3 Billion worldwide by the end of Year 2008According to MOBILEDIA (Jan 20, 2006)U.S. offers more room for growth than Russia, and Japan offers greater future growth than South AfricaThe number of mobile subscribers worldwide reached over 2 billion by the end of 2005, and is predicted to rise to 3.96 billion by 2011The Asia Pacific Region will account for 50% of the total number of subscribers worldwide by the end of this decade with a staggering billion subscribers shared between China and India alone, the world's two biggest mobile markets
3Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Several Types of Mobile Radio SystemsGarage Door Controller [<100 MHz]Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH][Infra-Red: THz]Cordless Telephone [<100 MHz]Hand-Held Radio [Walki-Talki] [VHF-UHF: MHz]Pagers/Beepers [< 1 GHz]Cellular Mobile Telephone[<2 GHz]ClassificationSimplex System: Communication is possible in only one direction : Garage Door Controller, Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH] Pagers/BeepersSemi-Duplex System: Communication is possible in two directions but one talks and other listens at any time[Push to Talk System]: Walki-TalkiDuplex System: Communication is possible in both directions at any time: Cellular Telephone [FDD or TDD]
4Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Paging System: For Transmission of Brief Numeric/Alpha-numeric/Voice Messages [Pages] to SubscriberTo Notify/Alert the UserSimplex ServiceModern Paging Systems Can Send News Head-Lines, Stock Info, or FaxApplication Dependent System Range [2 Km to World-wide]
5Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cordless Telephone System: To Connect a Fixed Base Station to a Portable Cordless HandsetEarly Systems (1980s) have very limited range of few tens of meters [within a House Premises]Modern Systems [PACS, DECT, PHS, PCS] can provide a limited range & mobility within Urban Centers
6Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Limitations of Simple Mobile Radio SystemsThe Cellular ApproachDivides the Entire Service Area into Several Small CellsReuse the FrequencyBasic Components of a Cellular Telephone SystemCellular Mobile Phone: A light-weight hand-held set which is an outcome of the marriage of Graham Bell’s Plain Old Telephone Technology  and Marconi’s Radio Technology  [although a very late delivery but very cute]Base Station: A Low Power Transmitter, other Radio Equipment [Transceivers] plus a small TowerMobile Switching Center [MSC] /Mobile Telephone Switching Office[MTSO]An Interface between Base Stations and the PSTNControls all the Base Stations in the Region and Processes User ID and other Call ParametersA typical MSC can handle up to 100,000 Mobiles, and 5000 Simultaneous CallsHandles Handoff Requests, Call Initiation Requests, and all Billing & System Maintenance Functions
8Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction The Cellular ConceptRF spectrum is a valuable and scarce commodityRF signals attenuate over distanceCellular network divides coverage area into cells, each served by its own base station transceiver and antennaLow (er) power transmitters used by BSs; transmission range determines cell boundaryRF spectrum divided into distinct groups of channelsAdjacent cells are (usually) assigned different channel groups to avoid interferenceCells separated by a sufficiently large distance to avoid mutual interference can be assigned the same channel group frequency reuse among co-channel cells
9Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction An Example of Frequency ReuseSuppose we have spectrum for 100 voice channelsScenario 1: a high power base station covering entire area – system capacity = 100 channelsScenario 2: divide spectrum into 4 groups of 25 channels each; cells (1, 7), (2, 4), (3, 5), 6 are assigned distinct channel groups – system capacity = 175 channels
10Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Frequency Reuse FactorFrequency Reuse Factor N = No. of Distinct Channel Groups = Maximum Cluster Size
11Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Frequency Reuse Example-2Suppose W = 25 MHz and B = 25 KHz/voice channelW/B = 1000 voice channels can be supported over the spectrumScenario 1: a high power base station covering entire area (M = N = 1) system capacity n = 1000 usersScenario 2:Coverage area divided into M = 20 cells with reuse factor N = 4Each cluster accommodate 1000 active users5 clusters in coverage area system capacity n = 5000 usersScenario 3:M = 100 cells, N = 4 system capacity n = usersScenario 4:M = 100 cells, N = 1 system capacity n = users
12Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Common Air Interface (CAI)Common Air Interface: A Standard that defines Communication between a Base Station and MobileSpecifies Four Channels [Voice Channels and Control / Setup Channels]FVC: Forward Voice ChannelRVC: Reverse Voice ChannelFCC: Forward Control ChannelRCC: Reverse Control ChannelForward ChannelReverse Channel
13Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Call Setup ProcedureCellular Phone Codes: Special Codes are associated with each Cell Phone to identify the phone, its owner, and service provider:Electronic Serial Number(ESN) -A Unique 32-bit CodeMobile Identification Number(MIN): A Subscriber’s Telephone NumberStation Class mark (SCM): Indicates the Max Tx Power for the UserWhen a Cellular Phone is turned on and Initiates a Call:[see next slide]Monitors the Control Channels and gets hold on to the strongest oneMakes a Call Initiation Request[Dials the Called part Number, MIN , ESN and SCM automatically transmitted]Validation Procedure at MSC & Voice-Frequency pair AllocationBase Station Pages the Information for the MobileMSC Connects the Mobile with the Called Party[Another Mobile/Landline Phone]Call is Established and Communication Starts
14Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Call Setup Procedure (Cont’d)
15Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Handoff and RoamingHandoffWhen a Mobile is on the edge of a CellRSL of the Mobile in that Cell gets bellow a set LevelBase Station of the Cell originates a Handoff requestMSC gets RSL Info from all the Candidate CellsMSC asks the Originating Cell and the Strongest Candidate Cell to CoordinateIn Case the Handoff is Successful, the Mobile is asked to switch to another VFPAll this happens in a matter of seconds and you hear a little CLICK soundRoamingWhen SID of the Control Channel and that programmed in the Mobile does not match:The Mobile is in another Service Provider’s AreaMSC of the Cell contacts the MSC of the Mobile’s Home SystemAfter Verification, if the Mobile is Allowed, the new MSC is ready to Serve.
16Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Comparison of Common Wireless Communication Systems
17Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cellular Mobile Access TechnologiesFDMA Assigns each Call a Separate FrequencyWorks like Radio StationsMainly Analogue Technology-used by AMPS, NAMPS, E-TACS, NMT-450, JTACSNot an Efficient Method for Digital Transmission849 MHz869 MHz
18Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cellular Mobile Access TechnologiesTDMA Assigns each Call a certain Time-Slot on a Designated FrequencyEach Mobile/User gets one-third of a total Channel Time-Slot[6.7 ms]Courtesy of Compression Techniques: Speech Data in Digital Form takes considerably less timeOptimal Frequency Usage: System Capacity improves by three timesOperates both in 800 MHz[IS-54] and 1900 MHz[IS-136]Digital Access Technology use by GSM, USDC, IDEN, PDC and PCS
19Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cellular Mobile Access TechnologiesCDMA Assigns a Unique Code to each Call and Spreads it over the entire bandwidth availableA form of Spread Spectrum TechnologySpeech Data is sent in small pieces over number of Discrete Frequencies available at any time in a specified rangeReceiver uses the same unique Code to Recover the Speech DataGPS used for Exact Time StampCan handle 8-10 Calls in the same Channel Space as one Analogue ChannelAn Access Technology for 3G Mobile Systems[IMT-2000]Supports both Bands [800 MHz and 1900 MHz]
20Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cellular System vs. Personal Communication System/Network (PCS/PCN)Personal Communication Services [PCS] is a system, very similar to Cellular Phone Service with great emphasis on personal services (such as Paging, Caller ID, and ] and mobilityOriginated in UK, to improve its competitiveness in the fieldPCS has smaller Cell size, therefore, requires more infra-structurePCS works in GHz bandPCS uses TDMA Technology but with 200 KHz Channel Bandwidth with eight time-slots[as compared to 30 KHz and 3 time-slots used by Digital Cellular Phone System IS-54/IS-136]GSM and Cellular Digital Packet Data[CDPD] also use PCS Tech.
21Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Dual Band/Dual Mode Cellular PhonesDual Band Phone: Supports both bands 800 MHz and 1900 MHzDual Mode Phone: Supports both FDMA and TDMA Access TechnologiesDual Band/Dual Mode Phone: Supports both Bands and Both Access TechnologiesTri-Mode Phone: It can Support FDMA/TDMA/CDMA all Access Tech. A popular version of Tri-Mode Cellular Phone is the one which supports GSM [800 MHz as well as 1900 MHz (USA version)] as well as FDMA.
22Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Trends in Cellular radio and Personal CommunicationsPCS/PCN: PCS calls for more personalized services whereas PCN refers to Wireless Networking Concept-any person, anywhere, anytime can make a call using PC. PCS and PCN terms are sometime used interchangeablyIEEE : A standard for computer communications using wireless links[inside building].ETSI’s 20 Mbps HIPER LAN: Standard for indoor Wireless NetworksIMT-2000 [International Mobile Telephone-2000 Standard]: A 3G universal, multi-function, globally compatible Digital Mobile Radio Standard is in makingSatellite-based Cellular Phone SystemsA very good Chance for Developing Nations to Improve their Communication Networks