171. Sexual reproduction is common among higher animals & flowering plants.
182. Sexual reproduction requires sex cells produced by two parents 2. Sexual reproduction requires sex cells produced by two parents. (sperm from males & eggs from females)
193. Sexual reproduction is more complex & slower than asexual reproduction.
204. The offspring produced by sexual reproduction have genetic variation. They may look like their parents, but they are not identical.
215. Amongst populations of wild animals & plants, individuals show variation as a result of sexual reproduction. This variation allows them to adapt to the environment.
22SexualAsexualDefinitionSexual reproduction always requires fertilization so it requires the sex cells of two parents.Asexual reproduction does not require fertilization so only one parent is involved.
23Less complex and more reliable. SexualAsexualAdvantagesThe offspring will be different from its parents. This variation allows the species to adapt to its surroundings.“Good” traits are passed on and strengthen the species which increases their survival rate.The fertilized egg (zygote) can sometimes survive in adverse conditions (drought).Asexual reproduction is usually faster and easier, so a new plant or animal can colonize an area more quickly.A mate does not have to be found so no travel is involved which saves energy.Less complex and more reliable.
24Organisms with no variation that cannot adapt it may become extinct. SexualAsexualDis-advan-tagesOften slower than asexual reproduction, more complex, and less reliable.The new organisms are genetically identical to their parents. (they will all look exactly the same as each other).Organisms with no variation that cannot adapt it may become extinct.
25Sexual Asexual Plants that make spores (moss, ferns). ExamplesMost animals reproduce sexually (fly, human, snake, frog).All flowering plants and those that make seeds reproduce sexually. (daffodil, grass, rose, oak tree).Plants that make spores (moss, ferns).Fungi make spores (mold, mushrooms).Single cells, which reproduce by binary fission or splitting in two (amoeba, bacteria).Budding (spider plant, hydra).Runners (grass, strawberries).Fragmentation (planarians).Regeneration (starfish).
31Budding: Some bacteria, plants, fungi, yeast, sponges, corals and hydras form new organisms when part of the parent breaks off to form a daughter cell that grows into a new individual that is identical to the parent.
33Runners: Potatoes, strawberries, some grasses and other plants can form horizontal stems that grow on top of or just below the ground which can produce new plants horizontally at nodes or tips along the stem.