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Izzo. Self-Determination and Advocacy Self-Determination and Career Development: Enhancing the Post-School Success of Youth with Disabilities Margo Izzo,

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Presentation on theme: "Izzo. Self-Determination and Advocacy Self-Determination and Career Development: Enhancing the Post-School Success of Youth with Disabilities Margo Izzo,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Self-Determination and Advocacy Self-Determination and Career Development: Enhancing the Post-School Success of Youth with Disabilities Margo Izzo, Ph.D. Ohio State University

3 Izzo Understanding Self-Determination (SD) SD is a combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enables a person to engage in goal- directed behavior. It includes: Self-awareness Self-advocacy Self-efficacy Decision-making Independent performance Self-evaluation Adjustment

4 Izzo Understanding Career Development (CD) CD is the coordination of school, family, and community resources to foster a person’s potential for economic, social, and personal fulfillment. It includes: Career awareness Career exploration Career decision- making Career preparation Career placement

5 Izzo The Nature of the Problem Self-determination (SD) and career development (CD) skills are often not cultivated at the secondary level because of limited opportunities to make self- directed choices and explore careers. Students must understand their own interests and abilities prior to entering postsecondary and employment settings to be self-determined.

6 Izzo Finding #1: The Need to Integrate SD into Learning SD can be taught through credit-bearing classes and integrated into the general curricula. Equipping students with knowledge of their disability improves their ability to self-advocate, which is a major component of SD.

7 Izzo Finding #2: Current IEP Process Does Not Promote the Development of SD Only 22% of teachers reported that all of their students had SD skills included in their Individualized Education Plan (IEP). 31% of teachers reported that no SD skills were included in their students’ IEP.

8 Izzo Finding #3: The Impact of Career-Oriented High Schools Research suggests that career-oriented high schools have a positive impact on students’ SD and career planning, as evidenced by increased motivation, persistence, and decision-making among students enrolled in these schools.

9 Izzo Finding #4: The Relationship Between SD and CD Sufficient evidence exists to suggest that programs that teach career development and self-determination skills in context of self-directed, work-based learning experiences have improved employment outcomes. Work-based learning can result in better school performance, increased motivation to learn, and the opportunity to develop and refine career interests and make job contacts.

10 Izzo StudyMalesFemales NPercentN National Longitudinal Transition Study* (1991) Youth with disabilities194153%100530% Youth without disabilities Comparison Population** 632565%259748% General Population632568%259754% Great Oaks (1991-94)*** Experimental Group2968%1458% Control Group2050%1338% Oregon/Nevada Follow-up (1991)**** Youth with disabilities27571%14740% Youth without disabilities6865%6360% Comparison of Employment Outcomes Across Comparable Transition Studies

11 Izzo Finding #5: The Need for Follow-Up Supports School and agency personnel who pool funds and resources and deliver follow-up services gain improved employment outcomes. Students who receive extended transition services are significantly more likely to be employed or in a training program than those without extended transition supports.

12 Izzo Implications Involve students in a coordinated assessment and planning process so that students can gain knowledge of their strengths, needs, and related accommodations, such as assistive technology (AT) supports. Facilitate student-centered IEP meetings and self-directed learning models.

13 Izzo Implications Infuse SD and CD into the curricula and offer work-based learning experiences for all students. Integrate training on SD and CD into teacher pre-service and in-service trainings, as well as trainings for disability service providers, parents, and other members of the community.

14 Izzo Implications Extend transition services beyond high school graduation. Develop collaborative relationships among school and agency personnel that use follow-up data from a coordinated management information system to improve services and outcomes.

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16 Self-Determination and Advocacy Self-Advocacy for Youth with Disabilities Megan A. Jones, Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa

17 Jones Definition of Self-Advocacy Ability to Assertively state wants, needs and rights Determine and pursue needed supports Conduct ones own affaires (Martin and Huber-Marshall, 1995)

18 Jones Finding Individuals with disabilities in postsecondary school and employment are required to be self- advocates for their assistance needs. Youth with disabilities are often not given the opportunity within secondary school to learn and practice self-advocacy skills.

19 Jones Finding Students with disabilities will seek accommodations but are often reluctant to fully utilize them. Students are concerned that they are singled out from other students, faculty do not believe they are qualified for college, and they do not know how to advocate for their needs.

20 Jones Implication Youth with disabilities in secondary school should be required to actively participate in the IEP planning process with a focus on Articulating the nature of their disability Understanding how their disability relates to their assistance needs Learning and practicing skills needed in the post-school environment

21 Jones Finding Students with disabilities in postsecondary education say that “other people’s attitudes” are one of the most significant barriers that they face.

22 Jones Implication Efforts to increase the self-determination skills of youth with disabilities must be coupled with educating others about valuing and respecting individuals with disabilities.

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24 Self-Determination and Advocacy Self-Determination and Youth with Disabilities of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Heritage David Leake, Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa

25 Leake Self-Determination: Autonomy Empowerment Independence Internal locus of control Intrinsic motivation Self-competence Self-direction Self-efficacy Self-expression Self-regulation Self-realization Self-reliance Commonly associated with “individualistic” values or personal characteristics, such as:

26 Leake Human Development Ideals CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD ImmatureMature IrresponsibleResponsible Independent? Dependent Interdependent?

27 Leake Both capacity and opportunity for self- determination are less likely to be present in conditions of poverty...and CLD groups tend to experience higher poverty rates. Poverty

28 Leake What is really missing for many youth with disabilities is not so much a sense of individual achievement as a sense of being a valued member of a group. Group Identity

29 Leake In the end, self-determination for CLD youth with disabilities requires adherence to another universal (and closely linked) value in the social services: individualization. Individualization

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