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Ripley-Ohio-Dearborn Special Education Cooperative

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1 Ripley-Ohio-Dearborn Special Education Cooperative
Enhancing Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans Ripley-Ohio-Dearborn Special Education Cooperative

2 Training Objectives To ensure all schools in the cooperative know when to conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) To improve the quality and usefulness of the FBAs created by school personnel To present new FBA and BIP data collection methods To teach educators how to better link FBAs to Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs) and IEPs. To provide educators with tools for improving outcomes for student behavior.

3 Training Agenda The Foundations of FBA
Data collection, forms, and summarizing FBA findings Examples and scenarios conducting FBAs Linking the FBA to BIP Writing the BIP Linking FBA, BIP, and IEP Examples and scenarios writing FBAs and BIPs

4 The Foundations of FBA - When to do an FBA -
When Do I HAVE to conduct an FBA (or review current FBA)? As part of a Manifestation Determination Before an initial evaluation for Emotional Disability After 3 days of suspension if student is a special education student To be a legal FBA, it has to “use data to identify patterns in the student behavior and the purpose or function of the behavior for a student.” Research on behavioral interventions have demonstrated strong evidence that interventions based on the function of behavior result in meaningful behavior change. Identifying the function(s) of behavior problems is critical to intervention design and success. (Watson and Steege, 2003).

5 The Foundations of FBA - When to do an FBA -
When should I ALWAYS have a current FBA? FBAs should be conducted or reviewed when a student’s behavior is Precluding the teacher from teaching Preventing other students from learning Frequent Noncompliance Verbally or physically aggressive Results in property destruction ALWAYS do an FBA based on a legal review of due process hearings and court cases (Drasgow, Yell, Bradley, and Shriner, 1999).

6 The Foundations of FBA - When to do an FBA -
When else should I consider an FBA? When the functions of a problem behavior are unknown When the current behavior intervention plan is not improving behavior or primary behavior concerns change When the student’s behavior impedes his or her learning When the student fails to make progress toward behavior goals in the IEP As part of the school’s PBIS for regular education students who exhibit the same behaviors which would result in an FBA being conducted for special education students When the primary concerns are anxiety, depression, inattention, hyperactivity, or other non-aggressive behaviors that impede learning Not all behaviors that need FBAs are conduct related. Depression: positive reinforcers aren’t working; Anxiety: task avoidance/ escape motivated frequently. ADHD: responding to immediate stimuli, not delayed

7 The Foundations of FBA - The components of an FBA -
The purpose of an FBA is to: Identify target behavior(s) Describe the target behavior clearly and objectively Identify antecedents that make target behavior more likely to occur Identify consequences that reinforce target behavior Identify setting events that influence behavior Identify individual variables that influence behavior Inform the BIP by targeting positive replacement behaviors and other interventions

8 The Foundations of FBA - The components of an FBA -
The Function of Behavior is its: CAUSE EFFECT RELATIONSHIP

9 The Foundations of FBA Antecedents – are the triggers that “set the behavior off” They precede the behavior’s occurrence. Antecedents include: Environmental Variables (e.g., time of day, room arrangement, visual or auditory stimuli) Instructional Variables (e.g., task difficulty, subject mater, type of task Social Variables (e.g., number of people, specific people present, proximity to others) Transition Variables (e.g., changes in routine, transitions between tasks or settings)

10 The Foundations of FBA Consequences of behavior are the events that follow a behavior that make it more likely or less likely it will occur again in the future. Consequences follow the target behavior Consequences fall in four categories Attention Obtainment of desirable activity or reward Escape or avoid Sensory The “consequence” of a negative outburst in class may be to lose a point on a reinforcement schedule, but the consequences as it pertains to the FBA might include other or additional happenings (e.g., teacher attention or task avoidance) which make it more likely the behavior will occur in the future.

11 The Foundations of FBA - The components of an FBA -
How many functions of behavior are there? Positive reinforced functions (behaviors that serve to increase access to a positive reinforcement): Social attention Access to desirable activities Access to tangible reward Negative reinforced functions (behaviors that serve to avoid or escape negative stimuli or situations) Escape Avoidance Sensory Stimulating (both positive and negative) Self-injurious behaviors, sometimes Ticks Habits Is it sensory stimulating? It might be if the student engages in the behavior whether or not he or she is interacting with another person.

12 The Foundations of FBA - The components of an FBA -
Positive Reinforced Functions Attention – When the student becomes the focus of a situation; draws attention to self; may be attention from peer, teacher or both Examples? Obtain preferred activity or tangible reward – The student’s behavior functions to get to a desired activity or to prevent a desirable activity from being stopped.

13 The Foundations of FBA - The components of an FBA -
Negative Reinforced Functions Escape/ Avoidance – The students behavior functions to delay having to do an undesirable task; escape a consequence, or leave an undesirable or aversive setting. Examples? Sensory Stimulating Functions The behavior fulfills a positive or negative reinforcement without outside stimuli. It may feel good (positive reinforcement) or reduce or remove a negative sensation (negative reinforcement) Sensory stimulating – “private events.” They may have social consequences (e.g., sucking thumb leads to social isolation), but its function is to fulfill a sensory need. Positive – it feels good (masturbation). Negative – it avoids a bad sensation (scratching self to relieve an itch)

14 The Foundations of FBA Setting Events
Setting Events are different than antecedents because alone, they do not elicit the target behavior. Rather, they augment the likelihood the antecedent will trigger the behavior (e.g., a noisy classroom may not trigger a verbal outburst, but it may make it more likely a student will react negatively to a difficult task demand) Setting Events may have happened long before the antecedents (e.g., lack of sleep the night before) Setting Events may include the following: Changes in sleep Medication changes Hunger Satiation of rewards (e.g., he just ate so food rewards become less rewarding) Dieting and quitting smoking increases aggressive behavior in adults.

15 The Foundations of FBA Individual Variables are those personal characteristics that influence a students behaviors. Individual variables to consider when conducting an FBA include: Skills deficits – individual variables where the student does not have the knowledge or ability to perform a particular task or behavior. Skill deficits may be instructional related (e.g., the student has not been taught how to perform a particular behavior) or may be disability /deficit related (e.g., cognitive, language, impulsivity, social skills). Performance Deficits – The student “knows how” to perform the desired behavior, but does not consistently do so. Personal preferences – individual variables explaining which items/activities are positive and negative reinforcements.

16 The New ROD FBA-BIP forms
Frequently Asked Questions about FBA-BIP form use: Q – When do you use this form? A – Use it just as you would use the old form. Consent has to be obtained if new data collection is being done or if this is the first time it is being completed. Always use this for (1) ED evaluations, (2) following 3 days suspension for Special Education students, and (3) as part of a Manifestation Determination Q – Who completes the FBA-BIP? A – It should be completed by a team comprised of multiple school personnel, the parent, and the student. Q – Can this be used for non-special education students? A – Yes, but be sure to get consent first. Q – Where is the FBA-BIP located? A – It, along with the data collection resources, is located under resources on the ROD website ( and a ROD: FBA.BIP Folder will be given to each school.

17 The New ROD FBA-BIP forms
Frequently Asked Questions about FBA-BIP form use: Q – Does a new FBA have to be done every time the Behavior Plan changes? A– No, it should be reviewed frequently, at least annually, but it does not have to be redone every time the behavior plan changes. Q – If we do a FBA and/or BIP, does it have to be uploaded into the student’s IEP? A – Yes. The FBA and BIP should be documented in the Behavior considerations section of the IEP. It should also be referenced in the present levels of performance, and the discussion the CCC had of the FBA and/or behavior plan should be summarized in the notes section of the IEP. Q – How often should the behavior plan be updated? A – At least annually at the ACR and whenever the student’s behavior is not adequately being addressed by the provisions of the IEP. Q – How do I add this information to the IEP in IIEP? A – There are instructions for cutting and pasting the Behavior plan into IEP if you fill it out electronically. Those instructions are found in the ROD: FBA.BIP folder or on under resources . You may choose to manually type this in if you completed the forms in pen. Also, follow the IIEP procedures for uploading a document into the student record and attach the FBA, data sources, an BIP into IIEP.

18 The New ROD FBA form (overview)
Description of Target Behavior Up to three behaviors on this. Use objective language so it can be quantified easily. You do not have to choose 3 behaviors Description of Present Levels For each target behavior, establish the present levels, or current functioning. You don’t have to mark something for all the present levels columns.

19 The New ROD FBA form (overview) - continued
Indicate Data Collection method This is different than the previous data collection methods. The previous ones (1) Motivation Assessment Scale, and (2) interviews are still options, but the FBA team has more and different data sources to choose from. It is important that at least one primary data source is used and at least two sources are used. For complicated issues, more data sources and multiple observations or may be needed. The different data sources can be found under the ROD: FBA.BIP resources on or in the ROD: FBA.BIP folder at your school. Indicate which data sources were used then attach them to the end of the FBA

20 The New ROD FBA form (overview) - continued
Antecedents, consequences, and skill/performance deficits For each target behavior and based on the data collection, complete the matrix. Remember antecedent = trigger Consequence does not just mean negative consequences (punishment) Indicate setting events There may not be setting events Setting events aren’t “triggers,” but they do precede the behavior Setting events themselves don’t trigger a behavior, but they change how trigger’s are handled by the student Being hungry; changing medications, tired.

21 The New ROD FBA form (overview) - continued
Hypothesized functions of target behavior Possible functions include: Attention Tangible reward Access to desirable activity Avoidance Escape Sensory stimulation Behaviors can have multiple functions

22 The New ROD FBA form (overview) - continued
FBA signatures Who created the FBA? If the FBA was reviewed, date reviewed can be noted on the bottom of page 3.

23 Linking the FBA to BIP The ROD BIP form I. Target behaviors (from FBA)
II. Hypothesized functions of target behaviors (from FBA)

24 Linking the FBA to BIP III. Replacement Behavior(s)
We will not be successful if our interventions only target decreasing negative behaviors We have to increase positive We have to first TEACH positive behaviors then REINFORCE them Replacement behaviors should fit into one of the following: Alternative Behaviors serve the same function as target behaviors but are more acceptable (e.g., removing self to calming area for escape vs. flipping a desk) Incompatible Behaviors that cannot occur at the same time as target behaviors (e.g., reinforce student sitting at desk to address running around the room) Children can’t behavior in a vacuum. You can’t reduce negative behavior without giving a positive alternative option. Incompatible behaviors might be “on task” behaviors.

25 Linking the FBA to BIP IV Intervention Strategies
You don’t have to write out every detail of the interventions used in the BIP. Summarize them and note the purpose of the interventions (e.g., reward system to increase on-task behaviors will be used; or consequences to follow school-wide PBIS plan) However, if detailed intervention plans are needed, these may need to be created separately from the BIP. Replacement Behaviors Token rewards for increasing use of positive behaviors Teaching, modeling, coaching the acquisition and use of replacement behaviors

26 Linking the FBA to BIP IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
Interventions for Setting Events and Triggers Modifications to environment (e.g., setting by teacher desk) Curriculum accommodations or modifications (e.g., read instructions to student) Transition interventions (e.g., visual schedule; previewing transitions and expectations) For setting events that occur at home, home-school communication interventions (e.g., call ahead from parent if morning or evening was rough)

27 Linking the FBA to BIP IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
Consequences Should be based on the hypothesized functions of target behavior and interventions should be tailored to block the student’s access to those desirable reinforces attached to target behaviors. Don’t allow escape for negatively reinforced behaviors (e.g., student tantrums to get out of work, the student has to finish work when they stop the tantrum. Or, student tantrums and thus does not earn positive reinforcement in token economy. Block access to positively reinforced behaviors Ignore attention seeking behaviors Attention seeking behavior can be tricky. You know there are some students that WONT be ignored and they will escalate until you HAVE to attend to them. The plan for these students is to give them the least attention you can give while directing them to a desirable behavior for which you will give additional attention. It is usually the case that it isn’t that the student is going for POSITIVE or NEGATIVE attention, they are going for MEANINGFUL and sometimes entertaining or provocative attention. We have to develop a program for which we give meaningful, positive attention in a reinforcement rich environment so that the student has no need for NEGATIVE attention seeking behaviors.

28 Linking the FBA to BIP IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
Consequences (continued) If you use negative reinforcement (i.e., do abc, or you’ll face xyz consequence), make sure the student has the ability to do abc. List steps 1st occurrence = ignore , 2nd occurrence = warning, of negative consequence, 3rd, occurrence = loss of privilege, points, or activity.

29 Linking the FBA to BIP IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
Crisis Plan Does this target behavior need a crisis plan or severe clause? Most target behaviors wont If it does, state the plan or reference the safety plan that will be created/used so that the anyone who reviews this BIP knows what to do in case of an emergency.

30 Linking the FBA to BIP V Progress Monitoring
How will you keep track of this BIP? What data will you use? Who is responsible for this BIP? When will the plan be revised? The severity of the behavior issue will dictate how often this will need to be monitored and what types of data should be collected. The behavior plan, like the goals in an IEP should be looked at as if they were a subject in a general education class. If the issue wasn’t tantruming, but it was Algebra, how often should the Algebra teacher collect and look at data (homework, class participation, quizzes, tests) in order to determine if the student is getting it or not? Quarterly?

31 Linking the FBA to BIP VI Signature line
This should be the team of people who are responsible for this student. It should NOT fall on the special education teacher, solely, for developing and implementing the BIP. For general education students, who is responsible for the managing the behavior of a student? Everyone right? Why then, when the issues become more severe, we tend to let people shrug those responsibilities and lay them predominately on the special education teacher?

32 Adding the BIP to IIEP Behavior concerns should be addressed in the IEP in this order: Progress Monitoring Data /Present Levels of Academic and functional Performances Do not write that social/emotional functioning are appropriate, if they are not. Add meaningful statement to present levels summarizing how the student’s behavior affects his or her involvement and progress in general education curriculum This can be cut and pasted from the ROD: FBA.BIP. Refer to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP Instruction document located in the resource tab of or in the FBA.BIP folder.

33 Adding the BIP to IIEP Special Considerations
The behavior of the student impedes his or her learning or that of others This is where the FBA and BIP are located in the IEP Special Considerations is a sub-tab under the IEP PROCESS TAB Answer the question: “Does the behavior impede his or her learning or learning of others?” Data for this is to be uploaded from the ROD: FBA.BIP. Refer to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP Instruction document located in the resource tab of or in the FBA.BIP folder.

34 Adding the BIP to IIEP Annual Goals
Linked to BIP This should be based on the ROD: FBA.BIP. Refer to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP Instruction document located in the resource tab of or in the FBA.BIP folder Accommodations/Services and Other Provisions Written Notes and Other Relevant Factors Did the CCC discuss / review FBA and BIP? Were changes made?

35 ROD: FBA.BIP This new form should begin to be used starting December 1st, 2014. Questions should be directed to Alex Brewer, Missy Jones, or your ROD assigned School Psychologist, Consultant, or Social Worker All Forms and training material can be located under resources on or at your building in the ROD: FBA.BIP folder by December 1,

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