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- Where is the gap?. Litigation & Legislation Earlier, many students with disabilities were being excluded or participated in inferior educational programs.

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Presentation on theme: "- Where is the gap?. Litigation & Legislation Earlier, many students with disabilities were being excluded or participated in inferior educational programs."— Presentation transcript:

1 - Where is the gap?

2 Litigation & Legislation Earlier, many students with disabilities were being excluded or participated in inferior educational programs PL was implemented to help with Education for All Handicaped Children act; initially defined and funded special education practices

3 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (94-142) Passed in 1975 Most significant piece of legislation related to special education to date PL & its subsequent amendments & reauthorizations provide guidelines, requirements, funding Amendments & reauthorizations were made – these directly / indirectly affected current law Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (PL ), passed in 2004 (IDEA 04)

4 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (94-142) 6 major principles to guide the education of individuals with disabilities i. Provision of a free, appropriate, provisional education (FAPE) ii. Use of nondiscriminatory evaluation iii. Development of IEP iv. Implementation of due process procedures v. Right of parental Participation

5 Free Appropriate Public Education All children between the age of 3-21 including children with disabilities must receive; free, appropriate, public education Appropriate education varies on the unique needs of each student Every attempts must give students they require based on their unique needs Have laws that require schools to provide more than the standards set by the law Educators to maintain high expectation for student disabilities

6 Special Education in Singapore ICP only for 3-6 years old, available in selected childcare centres Caters only to visually impaired, physical disability, hearing impaired and development delay Fees varies, only subsidies available EIPIC, CEL etc.

7 Child Find States that all children with disabilities, including those who are homeless, wards of the state, and who attend private schools, be identified and evaluated to determine if they need special education services Accomplished through community awareness - advertising, large-scale screening programme All levels of disabilities and those who are at risk for having disabilities

8 Child Find – identify and evaluate No database/statistic on children who have disabilities / risk of having disability Basic children vaccination and check ups Government provides means-testing subsidies for disability services to ensure affordability for all

9 Child Find – special education services Has not passed a legislation for special education and to include these children with disabilities in regular classroom There are only policy guidelines Enabling Masterplan : Children with Special Needs - shall receive a quality education that maximise potential

10 The Individualized Educational Program (IEP) in America All children with disability must have an IEP IEP is developed at the beginning at age 3

11 Infants& Toddlers - Inidividualized Family Service Plan ( IFSP) Include child's development program and the role of the family as well

12 Individual Education Plan (IEP) – In Singapore Set up with a separate learning goals for the child Help the child to be educated based on his/her specific needs Receive help and training from paramedical professionals such as psychologists, occupational therapists etc.

13 Conclusion on IEP IEP - is to set up teaching programs Reviewed every 6 months Important during IEP meeting sessions with parents

14 The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) States that students with disabilities be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate.

15 Rights of Parents and Procedures rights and responsibilities of both parents of child with disability & LEA(local education agency) have been specified by number of procedural safeguards into IDEA04(individuals with disabilities education act 2004) parents can; - examine all records relating to their child - participate in meeting( identify, evaluate & educational placement of child) - obtain educational evaluation

16 Rights of Parents and Procedures safeguard system - mechanism to ensure decisions regarding educational program for student with disability are fair

17 Rights of Parents and Procedures i. disagreement between parents & LEA - process hearing & hearing officer who determines (i) if student not receiving FAPE (ii) parents unable to make decision of child's FAPE (iii) deprivation of students education benefit

18 Rights of Parents and Procedures Due to cost and time, additional safeguards included that are designed to avoid process hearing - include resolution session> filing due to process complaint & dispute resolution process

19 Evaluation Procedures Guidelines relating to Evaluation Time frame Initial; Follow-up etc Guidelines in place regarding reevaluation Determine educational needs of a student Guidelines in place when assessing a student Use variety of assessment tools & strategies Determine content of IEP Evaluation cannot be a single measure or assessment

20 Evaluation Procedures Nondiscriminatory evaluation procedures. Assessments & evaluation materials are: Selected & administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis Administered in the language and form - to yield accurate information Valid & reliable Administered by trained & knowledgeable personnel Administered in accordance with instruction provided by producer of assessment Students must be assessed in all areas of suspected disability


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