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IEP Development and Implementation for Students with ASD

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1 IEP Development & Implementation Road Map to Improved Outcomes for Students with ASD
IEP Development and Implementation for Students with ASD START Training Guide Trainer Requirements: The IEP Development and Implementation Module should be co-presented by approved START Trainer/Coaches with a strong background in special education law, IEP process and compliance, and implementation strategies. In addition, a Special Education Director, Supervisor, and/or Monitor should co-present or at minimum be present in the presentation to assure compliance with local, state, and federal laws, policies, regulations, and procedures. Trainer Guide: Information is provided in the notes pages of each slide to guide START Trainer/Coaches in presenting the content. The IEP Development and Implementation Module is separated into sections (or chunks), and each section is titled with a transition slide that includes the Key Concepts (big ideas) for that section. START Trainer/Coaches can present the entire module at one time or offer mini-trainings by section. In addition, in the notes pages of each slide in the section, the following information is provided: Key Concepts: A summary of the important points for that slide; Considerations: Further explanation of factors that make the concept challenging or complicated or represent potential misunderstandings. Application: Potential activities that serve to increase implementation fidelity or participant understanding of the key concepts. Maintaining Fidelity: In each section, slides can be re-arranged to individualize the training and additional information can be added to provide a detailed presentation of that content; however, the content in each slide must be maintained to protect the fidelity of the information. Any information added must align with MDE OSE-EIS and START practices. In addition, many slides include visuals such as clipart, pictures, cartoons etc. Trainer/Coaches can make any changes to these visual supports necessary to personalize the training; however, the CONTENT should not be altered to maintain the fidelity of the information. To be an effective trainer of this module, you will have to Internalize the Essence of the content. An idea discovered is better than an idea delivered.

2 Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports for Students with ASD
Module Training Guide; AY INTRODUCTIONS Key Concepts: It is important to know who is in the audience in order to adjust examples and frame answers to participant questions. If the audience is too large to have participants introduce themselves, have participants raise their hand to represent their particular group or perspective. Considerations: Application: Autism Education Center; Grand Valley State University ©2010 All Rights Reserved

3 Improving the Journey Wait for Team Time to Talk Cell Phones on Silent
Write / share notes Cell Phones on Silent CONTRIBUTE Everyone has a contribution to make Key Concepts: It is important to establish training norms / guiding principles. Have participants general their own needs relative to training. Considerations: Some participants, despite the development of expectations / guiding principles, will have difficulty following them. Identify “positive nags” in the audience who can assist with prompt to the expectations when participants are having a difficult time. Application: Have participants general their own principles. This will help with implementation and accountability.

4 Your Learning Accountability
NOVICE INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED Key Concepts: It is important to recognize the skill level of all participants. For individuals at the NOVICE level, this information may be very technical. The vocabulary may be difficult as well as the acronyms. As a result, the training could be very overwhelming and frustrating. Give participants who self identify themselves as “novice” in this content some strategies for not getting overwhelmed: Take away the “Big Three” (or Five) ideas… things you can do differently tomorrow than you were doing today. Don’t worry about knowing / understanding EVERYTHING in the module. ASK if you don’t know what a certain word or acronym means. Chances are, for every question you have, there are many others in the audience who ALSO have that question but are not willing to ask. Hopefully, the training is best suited for those at an INTERMEDIATE level. They have the background information necessary to understanding the concepts and thus will be given some new ideas / ways to think about IEPs that should help them improve their processes. For those in the audience who could present this information (ADVANCED), they also can play a role. Ask for their input as to what they can do to support the training. Ideas might include offering ideas / experiences, supporting teams in understanding concepts / vocabulary, and enhancing the information the trainers are providing. Considerations: Application:

5 History Lesson: IEP Module
Purpose of Tools (POC) Implementation in the follow up year Errors in the IEP Process Key Concepts: It is important to recognize when you are presenting this information, that the module was not created to be the MDE standard for IEP training. Rather, it had a very specific purpose within the START Intensive Training process. To help them understand this, a history lesson on the development of the module may be needed. Within START Intensive Training, a tool (POC: Profile of Change) was used to assist teams in assessing implementation of effective practices and developing action plans to improve implementation over time. This worked well within the training year, however, the following year when the student had a new teacher and sometimes a completely new team, implementation decreased dramatically. This occurred primarily because our tool is not a requirement within the special education system, so teams are not obligated to use it. As we (START) discussed how we might improve implementation year to year, we decided to develop an IEP module that would teach teams how to imbed all the effective practices they were learning and implementing into the IEP to increase the probability the following year that those practices would be implemented. As we moved forward in developing the IEP module, we began to realize that we as a special education system were making some considerable errors both in our thinking and principles around the purpose of the IEP but also with respect to the IEP process. The next slide describes those errors. Considerations: Application:

6 Errors in the IEP Process
PLAAFP Goals and Objectives not related to ASD Laundry list of SAS Standard Time for Service Placement decisions predetermined Lack of LRE in the Process Key Concepts: PLAAFP: It appeared as we read PLAAFP after PLAAFP that educators viewed the purpose of the IEP to be a tool to remediate every deficit area the student was presenting often regardless of their identified disability (give examples). In addition, the PLAAFPs often were just a list of standardized scores that rarely related to access to or progress in general education. Since the PLAAFP is the foundation for the entire IEP, it was no wonder that the goals and objectives were often misguided. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: In many reviewed IEPs, goals and objectives were either written so broadly they could not be measured or included skill areas that had little or nothing to do with the student’s identified disability area or access to general education (give examples). SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS AND SERVICES: Supplementary aids and services in a number of reviewed IEPs were simply a laundry list of general or typical ones rather than a list of meaningful supports the student needs. For example, almost every reviewed IEP included “extended time”, yet often this was not identified in the PLAAFP as an area of concern. STANDARD TIME FOR SERVICE: In many reviewed IEPs, the time for identified special education services such as speech and language or social work were identical. There didn’t appear to be discussion about how much time the student actually needed in order to make progress on the goals and objectives but was either determined because it’s the standard or based on caseload. PLACEMENT DECISIONS PREDETERMINED: As we looked at how placement decisions were made, we discovered that often IEPs pre-determined placement and even brought the teacher from the pre-determined program to the IEP. Additionally, there didn’t appear to be any discussion in many IEPs about access to general education or increase of time in general education from the previous IEP. Instead, everyone offered an “opinion” about placement and a decision was made as opposed to using data, information, and LRE as the decision-making factors. Considerations: Be very careful in this section. When you start talking about mistakes participants may be making currently, they may get defensive. It’s better to frequently utilize “in my experience” or “in the IEPs we reviewed”, etc. rather than assuming participants are doing it wrong. Then ask them if their experience is similar. Application:

7 NOT Compliance Training in IEP Development “Results will no longer
Purpose of this Module NOT Compliance Training in IEP Development “Results will no longer take a back seat to compliance.” Eleanor White, Michigan State Director of Special Education Key Concepts: It is very important to point out that this training is not a compliance training on IEPs. There are compliance monitors for that. This module should be presented with an administrator / monitor present at as frequently monitoring questions come up. Since ISDs and districts often differ slightly in their monitoring rules, it is important to make sure participants go to their administration for answers to these questions. It’s also important to point out that this training is not intended to cover all aspects of the IEP. For example, the current module does not address ESY or Transition. Those sections may be developed for future training, but at this time are not included. Additionally, this training is not intended to include all disabilities, although many participants will see that when you say “ASD”, they could plug in the name of any disability and in most cases, it will fit. It is important to let participants know that although there will be time to work on parts of the IEP for target students, this module is not intended to serve as the IEP meeting. It should be thought of as a “pre-IEP planning” as there are monitoring rules about conducting an IEP and those rules may or may not be followed within this training. Considerations: This module was developed to improve IEP processes around LRE, ASD, and Implementation. Point out that IEP implementation is the number one litigated issue in special education in Michigan. Namely, we are not doing what we say we are doing on the IEP or at least we don’t have data to show it. As such, this module will include tools to assist IEP teams in implementing IEPs with fidelity and document the implementation. Application:

8 Purpose of this Module IS NOT IS
Compliance training in IEP development Cover ALL aspects of IEP development Address issues related to ALL disabilities An IEP; Considered Pre-IEP Planning IS Focus on PROCESS not FORMS Consider LRE throughout the process Address the unique needs of students with ASD Improve IEP Implementation “IEP Implementation CONTINUES to be the most frequent state (MDE) complaint…” OSE Update Key Concepts: It is very important to point out that this training is not a compliance training on IEPs. There are compliance monitors for that. This module should be presented with an administrator / monitor present at as frequently monitoring questions come up. Since ISDs and districts often differ slightly in their monitoring rules, it is important to make sure participants go to their administration for answers to these questions. It’s also important to point out that this training is not intended to cover all aspects of the IEP. For example, the current module does not address ESY or Transition. Those sections may be developed for future training, but at this time are not included. Additionally, this training is not intended to include all disabilities, although many participants will see that when you say “ASD”, they could plug in the name of any disability and in most cases, it will fit. It is important to let participants know that although there will be time to work on parts of the IEP for target students, this module is not intended to serve as the IEP meeting. It should be thought of as a “pre-IEP planning” as there are monitoring rules about conducting an IEP and those rules may or may not be followed within this training. Considerations: This module was developed to improve IEP processes around LRE, ASD, and Implementation. Point out that IEP implementation is the number one litigated issue in special education in Michigan. Namely, we are not doing what we say we are doing on the IEP or at least we don’t have data to show it. As such, this module will include tools to assist IEP teams in implementing IEPs with fidelity and document the implementation. Application:

9 Materials for this Road Trip
3 years of IEPs for target student (current IEP and 2 years previous) Progress Reports, Grades, etc. Most recent MET report Most recent REED (Review of Existing Evaluation Data) Curriculum for target student’s grade level: K-8 GLCEs (http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,4615, _ ,00.html) High School Curriculum (http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,1607, ,00.html) District / ISD data report for SPP #5: Education Environments: https://www.mischooldata.org/ Key Concepts: It is critical that participants bring the necessary materials to best benefit from the learning in the module. Considerations: Be sure to address issues of confidentiality when participants are bringing specific student information to the training. Application: It often helps to send an in advance of the training reminding participants of needed materials. Without this information, participants have difficulty benefiting from the activities in the training.

10 AGENDA Understanding Special Education Developing the IEP
History of Special Education Vocabulary Lesson Purpose of the IEP Ed Benefit Review Developing the IEP The PLAAFP Supplementary Aids / Services / Personnel Supports Goals and Objectives S. E. Programs/Services and Ancillary/Related Services IEP Implementation Implementation Fidelity Measuring Progress Key Concepts: Briefly walk participants though the basic 2-day agenda. The 2 day format allows time for participants to work on different sections as they walk though the content. This information can be presented in a 1-day format that includes the content, but not the activities. Additionally, this module can be broken up into smaller sections depending on the purpose / outcome of your particular training. Considerations: Application:

11 Navigating the Acronyms
LRE Navigating the Acronyms FAPE MET REED IDEA BIP FBA ASD Key Concepts: It’s helpful to participants to recognize that not only to educators not have clarity about the meaning of the acronyms we use, but that is especially true of parents. Reviewing the acronyms and vocabulary used in this module is crucial in creating a foundation of common language for all participants. Considerations: Application:

12 COMMON LANGUAGE ACTIVITY
Define / Describe FAPE Define / Describe LRE What is the purpose of an IEP? Describe Special Education Key Concepts: This activity allows participants to do some pre-thinking about the concepts that will be discussed in the module. Have participants work as a team in coming up with their definitions. Considerations: Some participants may have strong reactions to disagreements about these concepts. It is important for activity to not “correct” any misconceptions, but rather point out that these reactions are the very reason we need to have common language. Application: Have participants use the “Common Language Activity” form and then report out on whether they agreed with each other or disagreed and where their disagreements were. Be careful not to correct misunderstandings at this point as the purpose of the next section is to do just that.

13 OUR DECISIONS HAVE TO ALIGN WITH:
THE LAW THE RESEARCH THE DATA Key Concepts: Point out human tendencies to express opinions, and how these tendencies result in opinion debates, especially relative to ASD and IEP programming. Because we do not have time to waste on opinion debates, it is critical for IEP teams to focus on what the Law, the Research, and the Data (meaning student / program specific data) supports in educating students with ASD. Discuss how in many IEPs, team members begin sentences with “I think we should…..” or “I feel like……” rather than “The data supports….,” “My observations resulted in…..,” or “the law states that……” As such, “No Opinions unless Informed by Data / Information” is the resounding principle of IEP decision-making. In the first few sections of this module, the law, the research, and the data will be covered relative to educating students with ASD. Considerations: Application:

14 PRACTICE IS NOT NECESSARILY
WARNING I heard that…. I was told…. PRACTICE IS NOT NECESSARILY LAW, POLICY, or RULE

15 History of Education Horace Mann: Common Schools / Teach Common Values
Father of American Education Common Schools / Teach Common Values EQUALITY Compulsory Education Tax $$$ Key Concepts: It is important for trainers of this module to have a solid understanding of the history of education as it provides the foundation for the law suits that followed. One review of the history of Horace Mann and the American education system can be found on Wikipedia Common schools were developed at the turn of the 20th century to teach common values to children during a time of immigrant influx. The settlers in the U.S. at that time were fearful that such an influx would bring a diversity of opinions, beliefs, and traditions so quickly that it would disrupt and change the core values that America was founded upon. Requiring all children to attend school (funded with tax dollars) and then teaching them American values such as equality for all was one way to prevent this from occurring Considerations: Application: Ask participants to provide information from their knowledge about this period of time.

16 SPECIAL EDUCATION HISTORY
1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Schools inherently unequal “…… human tendencies to prejudge, discriminate against, and stereotype other people by their ethnic, religious, physical, or cultural characteristics…..” Key Concepts: Fast forward 50 years after compulsory education was instituted, and a group of individuals sued the government stating that education was founded on equality and yet schools were inherently unequal. The suit surmised that schools for African American students were inferior in a number of ways to those for white students. The Brown opinion stated that because there are human tendencies to judge others, laws and processes must be put in place to assure that those tendencies don’t interfere with the implementation of our core value system. Rather than saying “Don’t be Judgmental,” we should be saying “We ARE Judgmental” and because of that, we needed rules, processes, and laws to protect our rights despite ourselves. Considerations: The concept of ‘We ARE Judgmental and as such need processes and laws to protect us from ourselves’ is often helpful to participants who possess a lot of judgmental behavior. It gives them a pass to have those beliefs or feelings and thus are more open to the remainder of the module than if they were told not to be so judgmental. Application:

17 Impact of the Brown Decision
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (underprivileged students) PARC and MILLS: Exclusion of students with disabilities Congressional Investigation 1972 of education of children with disabilities Millions not served 1975: Congress enacted P.L Children with disabilities have a RIGHT to education Ensure ACCESS to education Key Concepts: A number of law suits ensued after the Brown Decision that led the way to legislation for the education of students with disability. Trainers should review the reference list and become familiar with these cases. The congressional investigation in 1972 was a direct result of the PARC and MILLS cases and directly resulted in P.L. (Public Law) or IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act). This act was civil rights legislation that indicated students with disabilities had a RIGHT to public education. That they needed to “benefit” from that education came in later legislation, but initially, it was just the concept of their RIGHT to be there. Considerations: Application: Wright & Wright, 2009

18 IDEA Regulations Two fundamental requirements:
That the child will receive FAPE In the least restrictive environment (LRE). Key Concepts: In the original IDEA legislation, the two primary fundamental requirements of the act where FAPE and LRE. These two concepts have existed in every revision of IDEA but refined with each revision based on case law. It is these two concepts that create the biggest challenges in implementing IDEA as well as the greatest disagreements among educators and parents, and yet, they are the CORE of IDEA. As such, considerable time in the module will be spent clarifying these two concepts. Considerations: Application:

19 FAPE: What Does the “Appropriate” Mean. Rowley v. Hendrick Hudson Dist
FAPE: What Does the “Appropriate” Mean? Rowley v. Hendrick Hudson Dist. (USSC 1982) 1. The state has "complied with the procedures set forth in the Act." (ex. procedural safeguards / legal requirements, etc.) 2. The IEP is “reasonably calculated to enable the child to receive educational benefits.” ---more than negligible / minimal, but does not require maximizing potential--- Key Concepts: Like many concepts in federal law, clarity of their meaning occurs over time through case law. FAPE is no different in that regard. The first case to challenge the concept of FAPE occurred in 1982 and is commonly known as the Rowley case. In this case it was determined that a student has received FAPE if two core variables exist: 1. Compliance with the rules outlined in IDEA are followed and 2. The IEP is reasonably calculated to allow the child to receive “educational benefits.” Educational benefit was further defined as “more than minimal progress” in the curriculum Benefit also includes adequate progress toward IEP goals and objectives Considerations: Trainers should be familiar with this case in order to answer any potential questions. Application:

20 What is FAPE? IDEA 2004 An educational program that is individualized to a specific child, designed to meet that child's unique needs, provides access to the general curriculum, meets the grade-level standards established by the state, and from which the child receives educational benefit. 20 U.S.C. §1401(9). Ed Benefit = progress over time (IEP goals, curriculum, social, communication, behavior, etc.) To provide FAPE, schools must provide students with an education that prepares the child for further education, employment, and independent living. 20 U.S.C. §1400(c)(5)(A)(i) Key Concepts: In the 2004 revision of IDEA, FAPE was further defined to include post-secondary outcomes. Considerations: Application:

21 National Outcome Data: Housing
2008 Easter Seals Study: More than 80% of adults with ASD ages live at home with their parents Compared to approximately 50-59% of typical youth ages (2011 data) (http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/families_households/cb html) Adults with Autism With parents or guardian 81% Independently, with spouse or partner 3% With other family member/spouse/partner 0% Supported residence for ppl with special needs 14% Other 2% Adults with Asperger With parents or guardian 71% Independently, with spouse or partner 9% With other family member/spouse/partner 5% Supported residence for ppl with special needs 7% Other 7% Key Concepts: Review the data and ask participants if this is reflective of their experiences. Considerations: Application: Easter Seals, 2008

22 National OUTCOME DATA: Employment
A University of Wisconsin-Madison 2002 study of 405 adolescents and adults with ASD found that only 10% were in competitive employment. Barnard, et.al. 2001 As few as 6% of individuals with ASD have fulltime employment 12% of individuals with Asperger Syndrome are employed despite having average or high than average IQs 2008 Easter Seals Study (Living with Autism): About 6 in 10 children with ASD aged 16 or older have not looked for work, yet 75% of typical children are already working. Even compared to individuals with other disabilities, the employment outcomes for individuals with ASD is significantly lower. Key Concepts: Review the National data and point participants to where they can find this information. Considerations: It is important to review this data prior to presenting it to prepare for potential questions from participants about the data set. Application:

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24 Key Concepts: In any other business, if the previous slides were the outcomes despite these expenditures per year, what might be said about our business plan? Remind participants that certainly there are other variables involved in these outcomes; however, these barriers or variables do no absolve us from making changes to attempt to improve these outcomes. Considerations: Application:

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27 What predicts post-school employment?
Students who had the highest degree of integration with age-appropriate peers were more likely to engage in post-school employment IQ, behavior problems, physical disability, and individual demographics did not correlate with integrated employment outcome White, J. & Weiner, J.S. (2004). Influence of least restrictive environment and community based training on integrated employment outcomes for transitioning students with severe disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 21, 149–156.

28 Predictors / Outcomes Education Employment Indep. Living
Career Awareness P (Potential) P Community Experience Exit Exam Requirements / High School Diploma Status Inclusion in General Education M (Moderate) M Interagency Collaboration Occupational Courses Paid Employment / Work Experience Parental Involvement Program of Study Self Advocacy / Self Determination Self Care / Independent Living Social Skills Student Support Transition Program Vocational Education Work Study

29 FAPE in SUMMARY Compliance with the procedures Individualized
Meet that child's unique needs (disability area) Access to the general curriculum (grade-level standards) Educational benefit (progress in education / goals and objectives) Prepares the child for further education, employment, and independent living (socialization skill development / independent skills) Key Concepts: Checklists are often helpful to educators and IEP teams to make sure all relevant details are considered. This is a checklist of the important factors to consider in whether or not FAPE is being offered or provided. Considerations: Application:

30 IDEA Regulations Two fundamental requirements:
That the child will receive FAPE In the least restrictive environment (LRE). Key Concepts: FAPE is not the only fundamental requirement outlined in IDEA. FAPE must be provided in the LRE. The next section will address LRE. Considerations: Application:

31 Defining LRE: Fed Language
“To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities…. are educated in the general education classroom with children who are not disabled…” ….and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from regular education environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education  in regular classes with the use of supplementary aides and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.” Key Concepts: This definition of LRE is a direct quote from IDEA that defines LRE. It is helpful to point out “wiggle” words (words that are loosely described if at all and are open to interpretation) such as “maximum extent” and “appropriate.” Pointing this out helps participants see why having a process is critical because there can be varying opinions on what is maximum extent appropriate. When reading the 2nd paragraph, point out that supplemental aids and services must be implemented with fidelity in the regular classroom and STILL the student is not achieving satisfactorily (i.e. not making adequate progress toward IEP goals and objectives and no making more than minimal progress in the general education curriculum (FAPE definition)) in order to make a decision to provide a more restrictive placement. Considerations: LRE is an emotional topic for educators so watch for emotional responses during this discussion / explanation. Be careful not to put your own judgments on their response but just keep referring back to the definition when questions arise. Application: Read the first paragraph and point out the “wiggle” words. Then stop and point out that IDEA helped to clarify what “maximum extent appropriate” meant by defining it further in the next paragraph. Point out, however, that that paragraph also has “wiggle” words like “satisfactorily.”

32 Two Primary Reasons Students with ASD are Excluded from General Education Settings
Key Concepts: Point out that students with ASD are often excluded from general education environments due to disruptive behavior and yet, when we restrict their education, we are disrupting THEIR learning. Considerations: Application:

33 The first “where” to consider is…
What is SPECIAL EDUCATION? --not a place --set of supports and services To ensure ACCESS & PROGRESS Key Concepts: It is critical for participants to understand that special education is not a place. Never was. It is a set of supports and services that enable the child to receive FAPE in the LRE. Where the child receives those services is considered placement, but again, placement must FIRST be considered the general education environment and removal from that environment can only occur if the nature and severity of the disability is such that education in that environment WITH supplemental aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily (which according to FAPE means make adequate progress on IEP goals and objectives and more than minimal progress in the general education curriculum). Considerations: Be sure to ask for questions / comments at this point. At this point in the training, participant belief systems may be seriously challenged. Giving them an opportunity to ask questions, discuss their misunderstandings, and/or have group discussion is critically important to being able to move forward in the module. Application: Where the child RECEIVES special education services is the placement….

34 Purpose of the IEP Define Special Education necessary to assure
FAPE in the LRE: Access to, participation and progress in…. Key Concepts: In summary, the purpose of the IEP is to define the supports and services necessary for the student to receive FAPE in the LRE which allows them to access, participate, and progress in general education environments and currciulum. Considerations: Application: General Education Curriculum

35 OUR DECISIONS HAVE TO ALIGN WITH:
THE LAW THE RESEARCH THE DATA Key Concepts: This is a transition slide. Now that the law has been covered, it’s time to cover the research related to educating students with disabilities. The next few slides summarize the data related to educating student with disabilities in general and then more specifically, ASD. Considerations: Application:

36 Excerpts of the Outcome Data
“The achievement level of students with disabilities does not decrease in general education classrooms.” Villa, Thousand, Meyers, & Nevin. (1996). Teacher and administrator perceptions of heterogeneous education. Exceptional Children, 63, “Placement in a special education class resulted in lower achievement for students who have lower cognitive ability.” Kavale & Forness, (1999). Efficacy of special education and related services. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. Key Concepts: Review each of the research studies / quotes. Considerations: Be sure to have a solid foundation in the actual study in the event participants have questions. Application: Have participants read each item to keep them engaged.

37 Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A. I. and Whitbread, K
Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A.I. and Whitbread, K. (2006) IEP and Inclusion Tips for Parents and Teachers. IEP Resources “Students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms show academic gains in a number of areas, including improved performance on standardized tests, mastery of IEP goals, grades, on-task behavior, and motivation to learn.” (National Center for Education Restructuring and Inclusion, 1995) “Moreover, placement in inclusive classrooms does not interfere with the academic performance of students without disabilities with respect to the amount of allocated time and engaged instructional time, the rate of interruption to planned activities and student achievement on test scores and report card grades.” (York, Vandercook, MacDonald, Heise-Neff and Caughey, 1992) Key Concepts: Review each of the research studies / quotes. Considerations: Be sure to have a solid foundation in the actual study in the event participants have questions. Application: Have participants read each item to keep them engaged.

38 Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A. I. and Whitbread, K
Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A.I. and Whitbread, K. (2006) IEP and Inclusion Tips for Parents and Teachers. IEP Resources “Although separate classes, with lower student to teacher ratios, controlled environments, and specially trained staff would seem to offer benefits to a child with a disability, research fails to demonstrate the effectiveness of such programs.” (Lipsky, 1997; Sailor, 2003) Key Concepts: Review each of the research studies / quotes. Considerations: Be sure to have a solid foundation in the actual study in the event participants have questions. Application: Have participants read each item to keep them engaged.

39 Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A. I. and Whitbread, K
Excerpts of the Outcome Data Cited from: Eason, A.I. and Whitbread, K. (2006) IEP and Inclusion Tips for Parents and Teachers. IEP Resources “There is mounting evidence that, other than a smaller class size, “there is little that is special about the special education system,” and that the negative effects of separating children with disabilities from their peers far outweigh any benefit to smaller classes.” (Audette & Algozzine, 1997) Key Concepts: Review each of the research studies / quotes. Considerations: Be sure to have a solid foundation in the actual study in the event participants have questions. Application: Have participants read each item to keep them engaged.

40 CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS
Understanding Federal Law U.S. Code (U.S.C.) 50 Titles Title 20: Education 78 Chapters Chapter 33: IDEA — IV Subchapters Subchapter I: General Provisions 82 Sections -- denoted as § § 1400: Findings / Purpose Key Concepts: The previous slides are excerpts of numerous studies on the effectiveness of special education conducted over the last 30 years. A summary of this research was reported in the most recent revision of IDEA so it is critical for participants to know how to find this next excerpt. This slide outlines federal law, otherwise known as the U.S. Code. The U.S. Code has 50 Titles and Title 20 is all the laws related to education. Title 20 has 78 Chapters and Chapter 33 is Special Education law otherwise known as IDEA. Chapter 33 has IV subchapters and Subchapter 1 called General Provisions has 82 Sections denoted with a § symbol. (Note for participants that whenever they see that symbol, it is representative of a particular section in a subchapter or a Title in the U.S. Code). Section 1400 of the General Provisions subchapter of IDEA is where the quote on the bottom of this slide and the information on the next slide are located. Considerations: Application: “…the implementation of this chapter (33 : IDEA) has been impeded by low expectations, and an insufficient focus on applying replicable research on proven methods of teaching and learning for children with disabilities.”

41 CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS
“Almost 30 years of research and experience has demonstrated that the education of children with disabilities can be made more effective by— having high expectations for such children and ensuring their access to the general education curriculum in the regular classroom, to the maximum extent possible, in order to— (i) meet developmental goals and, to the maximum extent possible, the challenging expectations that have been established for all children; and (ii) be prepared to lead productive and independent adult lives, to the maximum extent possible; “ Key Concepts: This is a direct excerpt from IDEA. Considerations: Participants may have specific questions about what else is stated in this section of the law so it would be helpful for trainers to read and become familiar with this entire section. Application: Have participants read the slide or discuss the excerpt in small groups.

42 GETTING BACK TO THE INTENTION OF THE LAW
One Curriculum: General Education WITH Special Education Support (instead of vs.) NCLB (2002) IDEA Revisions (2004) Increased Accountability Improved Outcomes Research Based Instruction 80/80 Statement Key Concepts: The point of the previous sections of slides on the Law, the Research, and the Data are to help participants understand WHY special education law was put into effect and what impact our interpretation of that law has had on the education of students with disabilities, and certainly of the students with ASD. It is clear that the federal government with the newest revisions of NCLB and IDEA are setting the stage for the education system to recognize only ONE curriculum, the general education curriculum . With OSEP’s (Office of Special Education Programs—the federal special education system) 80/80 statement (80% of students with IEPs with spent 80% or more of their time in the general education classroom), it is clear that the federal office of special education expects instruction in the curriculum to occur in the general education classroom for the majority of special education students. It is expected that the 80/80 statement will be imbedded in the next revision of NCLB and IDEA putting it into law. Considerations: Trainers should have a solid foundation in IDEA and NCLB in order to field participants questions. Application: OSEP

43 MI CIMS Thresholds for Restriction
Continuum of Services MI CIMS Thresholds for Restriction SPP Indicator 5: Educational Environments Targets Key Concepts: This slide is a visual representation of Michigan response to the 80/80 statement (previous slide). SPP (State Performance Plan) Indicator 5 addresses LRE through Educational Environments. Targets are established each year in the categories listed and will continue to change each year until such time as the state is adhering to the 80/80 concept. Considerations: Trainers should become familiar with the SPPs in order to field participant questions. Application: General Education Classroom 80%+ Target 63% General Education Classroom 40-79% Target 20.3% General Education Classroom <40% Target 11.9% Separate Facility Target 4.8% << Less More >> Restrictive

44 District Data Report

45 YOUR DATA

46 Why do we continue to perpetuate a segregated culture?
DISCUSSION Key Concepts: In reviewing the Law, the Research, and the Data regarding education students with disability, one question remains: Why have we interpreted the law to mean educate students with disability but in a separate facility? Open this up for discussion. Considerations: Participants will be faced with their own belief systems and prejudices during this discussion, so it is critical to watch for this and respond accordingly. Application: Have participants discuss in large or small groupos.

47 Your Behavior Expresses Your Belief System
Incremental Steps YOUR ACCOUNTABILITY Your Behavior Expresses Your Belief System Key Concepts: Our behavior expresses our belief systems, our prejudices, etc. Considerations: This section can be very difficult for some participants. Participants are forced to face their own behavior and as such their own prejudices. Pointing this out and recognizing the need for a little humor to lighten the moment is critical. Application:

48 Your Behavior Expresses your Belief System… DO YOU……
Send a folder of “alternative” work with the student to the general education class? Have “token” LRE time? Attend specials only? Have all the special education students eat at one lunch table? Have a different recess? Use of activities that are inappropriate for the age of the student (ex. Calendar / Clifford). Key Concepts: Review each item and give examples. Considerations: It is critical to use refer to yourself and your own behaviors during this section to ease the pain the participants might be experiencing by being forced to face their own behavior. Application: Have participants generate examples in large or small groups.

49 Your Behavior Expresses your Belief System. DO YOU...
Talk about students with ASD in front of them? Use disability-first language? Use “high functioning” and “low functioning” to describe students? Talk about students based on their eligibility category rather than their name? (The Autistics) Blame the STUDENT? Not motivated; Not ready; Unemployable; OTHERS? Adopt a “protective” attitude? DIGNITY OF RISK!! Talk about the student’s lack of perceived competency rather than their contributions? LEAST DANGEROUS ASSUMPTION Key Concepts: Review each item and give examples. Considerations: It is critical to use refer to yourself and your own behaviors during this section to ease the pain the participants might be experiencing by being forced to face their own behavior. Application: Have participants generate examples in large or small groups.

50 Beliefs and Behaviors that PREVENT Integrated Opportunities
Self Evaluation. . . Beliefs and Behaviors that PREVENT Integrated Opportunities Key Concepts: Have participants complete the “Beliefs and Behaviors” Activity form—PREVENT side of the form. Inform participants that this is a self evaluation. Considerations: It is critical to use refer to yourself and your own behaviors during this section to ease the pain the participants might be experiencing by being forced to face their own behavior. Application: Have participants complete the “Beliefs and Behaviors” Activity form—PREVENT side of the form. Have participants report out on any questions on specific items for discussion. Do not force participants to report out their behavior if they are uncomfortable with that.

51 The point is this…….. THERE ARE BARRIERS TO SUCCESSFULLY EDUCATING STUDENTS WITH ASD….. WE SHOULD NOT BE ONE OF THOSE BARRIERS….. LOU BROWN Key Concepts: The other important point in this exercise is to understand that there are enough barriers to educating students with ASD in an integrated environment, that WE, special education, should not be one of them. The following clip by Lou Brown demonstrates that fact. Considerations: Application:

52 You did what you did when you knew what you knew…..
Key Concepts: When faced with their own behavior or processes in providing educational opportunities to students with disabilities, some participants will begin to be remorseful for not having done the right thing. Absolve participants from this emotion by reviewing the concept in the slide. Help participants recognize that TODAY can be a new day in making changes in the lives of the students they are serving by committing to a different reality / set of behaviors. Considerations: Application: You now know different – which makes you accountable!!

53 Self Evaluation. . . Your accountability to the change process
Beliefs and Behaviors that SUPPORT Integrated Opportunities Key Concepts: Have participants complete the “Beliefs and Behaviors” Activity form—PROMOTE side of the form. Inform participants that after they have completed the form to select ONE selected behavior they will commit to changing. Considerations: Application: Have participants complete the “Beliefs and Behaviors” Activity form—PREVENT side of the form.

54 Making Change Happen CHANGE
If you write it down, you are more likely to do it…. AND…. If you TELL someone else, you are even MORE likely to do it…. AND…. If you post it, you are that much MORE likely to do it! ! CHANGE Key Concepts: Have participants write the ONE selected behavior on a post it note and cover the first bullet: When one commits to making change, writing it down increases the odds that one will actually do it. Once everyone has written it down, have participants give it to someone on their team that will be their “positive nag” and keep on them about doing it. Next describe the situation where a building principal wrote that he would provide up to 50% integration opportunities for the center students who attended his building, so the staff went back and copied his post it on to large poster-size paper and plastered his office in his won writing. And it worked… today all the students have regular integration opportunities. Considerations: No one wants to be known of as the nag so be careful with this activity. Keep it light and funny. Some participants may not want to share what they wrote. Remember, never force anyone to participate and the more light-hearted this activity feels, the more likely they will participante. Application: Have participants stand up and stretch and then tell them when they put their hands down to point to the person on their team who is the “positive nag.” This can be fun and humorous and reduce the tension in the room from the previous activity.

55 NOW WHAT? Personal Accountability (incremental steps) to promote and integrated culture…. Personal Accountability to the IEP, the IEP Process, and IEP Implementation: Understand our challenges and errors---- Key Concepts: In addition to making commitments each day to change individual behavior to promote a more integrated culture, participants must also commit to making improvements in the IEP processes and implementation in their local districts. In order to do that, we have to understand the errors and challenges that currently exist. Considerations: Application:

56 Educational Benefit Review PROCESS
Was the IEP reasonably calculated to ensure Educational Benefit? What IS Educational Benefit? Rowley (Supreme Court 1982)--more than minimal progress Rowley in 2007 (align with IDEA 2004 / NCLB) PLAAFP related to involvement / progress in general curriculum MEASURABLE annual goals Services planned to support PROGRESS toward goals In the LRE (gen ed curriculum / environment) IEP adjusted if no progress made Key Concepts: Ask how many participants have participated in an Ed Benefit review when is used to be required as part of the CIMS (Continuous Improvement Monitoring System). Describe that although no longer required, the process is invaluable in allowing IEP teams to compare and critically self-evaluate a three-year series of student’s IEP. The purpose of the process is to determine if an individual student’s IEP was reasonably calculated to provide educational benefit (previously discussed and further reviewed here with the most recent NCLB and IDEA revisions). An IEP was reasonably calculated to provide education benefit if all the bulleted items on the checklist above can be marked “yes.” Considerations: Application:

57 Materials Needed THREE years of: IEPs METs / other assessments
REED (Review of Existing Evaluation Data) Progress Reports on IEP goals Key Concepts: In order to go through the process, the information listed on this slide is needed. Considerations: Should participants not have this information, it is critical they find a way to access it. It is impossible to go through the process without the information. Application:

58 Step 1: Complete ONE for Each Year
What supplementary aids and services are listed / described? What are the needs listed in the PLAAFP? What are the goals and objectives? Describe the programs and services listed. What evidence of progress is available? Did the student make adequate progress? Key Concepts: Walk participants through the process form by form. These forms should be provided to teams in hard copy form as well Inform participants that the process will take at least a couple hours to complete. Step 1 is to complete ONE of these forms for EACH of the three IEP years. Year 1 is considered the IEP from 3 years ago and Year 3 is the current IEP. Considerations: Application:

59 Step 2: Analyze the Relationship Among Components
Do the needs listed in the PLAAFP appear to be the PRIMARY ones related to access to, participation in, and progress in the general education CURRICULUM and ENVIRONMENTS compared to peers? Where is each need addressed in the IEP? Does EACH supplementary aid and service address a need(s) specifically listed in the PLAAFP? Are Universal Supports for students with ASD considered / addressed? For each goal and objective/ benchmark, is there a program or service to address it? Are the programs and services designed to ensure progress on the goals and objectives? Did the IEP consider LRE in the development of the programs / services? Is there objective data to support progress on the goals and objectives? Did the student make adequate progress? If not, was the IEP re-designed to address that? Are the goals and objectives/ benchmarks measurable? Does each goal specifically address a need(s) listed in the PLAAFP? Key Concepts: Walk participants through the process form by form. These forms should be provided to teams in hard copy form as well Step 2 involves answering the questions posed on this form for EACH of the IEP years. Considerations: Application:

60 Identify the HOLES Key Concepts:
Walk participants through the process form by form. These forms should be provided to teams in hard copy form as well Step 3 requires the teams to review and analyze the information from each of the IEP years. For each NEED area, there should be evidence in the IEP of where that need is being met. If there are supports or services in the IEP, there should be evidence in the PLAAFP statement that that support is needed to address a particular need area. Considerations: Application: 60

61 Step 3: Analyze Relationships ACROSS Years
What SHOULD you Find? YEAR 1 Key Concepts: Walk participants through the process form by form. These forms should be provided to teams in hard copy form as well The final step is to review and analyze the relationship across the 3 IEP years. Ideally, one should see a connection from one IEP year to the next in terms of progress on goals. Considerations: Application: Have participants generate what they anticipate they might find as they go through this process. YEAR 2 YEAR 3

62 By End of Today 3 Years of IEPs analyzed by year
3 Years analyzed across the years Questions considered / answered Holes identified Key Concepts: This is a prompt slide to help participants keep on track as they will have 2-3 hours of independent work ahead of them. Be sure to provide technical assistance and support to the teams as they work through the process. Considerations: Application:

63 REPORT OUT Is there objective data to support progress on the goals and objectives? Did the student make adequate progress? If not, was the IEP re-designed to address that? Does EACH supplementary aid and service address a need(s) specifically listed in the PLAAFP? Are Universal Supports for students with ASD considered / addressed? For each goal and objective/ benchmark, is there a program or service to address it? Are the programs and services designed to ensure progress on the goals and objectives? Did the IEP consider LRE in the development of the programs / services? Do the needs listed in the PLAAFP appear to be the PRIMARY ones related to access to, participation in, and progress in the general education CURRICULUM and ENVIRONMENTS related to peers? Where is each need addressed in the IEP? Are the goals and objectives/ benchmarks measurable? Does each goal specifically address a need(s) listed in the PLAAFP? Key Concepts: Walk participants through the process form by form. These forms should be provided to teams in hard copy form as well Step 2 involves answering the questions posed on this form for EACH of the IEP years. Considerations: Application:

64 An IEP Process that….. Focuses on PROCESS not FORMS
Considers LRE throughout the process Addresses the unique needs of students with ASD Improves IEP Implementation Key Concepts: Reiterate the purposes of the module and the process described in the upcoming slides. Considerations: Application:

65 Using Meeting Mechanics
Visual Support (white / chart board) Facilitator Note-Taker (IEP Form / Computer) Process (Logical IEP Progression) Brainstorming Principles Democratic All ideas are considered / recognized Professional Role Elimination OTHERS (FRONTLOAD) Decision-Making Rules No opinion unless informed by: Law; Research; Data Key Concepts: Discuss the importance of using good meeting mechanics principles in conducting the IEP. To utilize this process, the room must be equipped with a white board or chart boards so the information can be available for everyone in problem solving. This process requires someone who will “run the board” (e.g. take the notes on the board and keep the team on track regarding the process). The note taker can use a computer and the actual IEP form to translate the information from the board to the appropriate place in the IEP form. The document can then be edited and organized at a later date. Considerations: Application:

66 Fatal Comments during the IEP
“We can’t do that!” “We don’t…” “That would cost too much.” “No student receives more than ____ minutes of service per week.” “We don’t have staff to….” “I’m only in the building one day a week” Key Concepts: It is critical for IEP team members to have knowledge of what NOT to say during an IEP. These comments are the ones the most frequently result in mediation or hearing requests. Review each one and give examples. Have participants generate examples as well. Considerations: Application: Have participants give examples of fatal comments they have heard in IEP meetings. Thrun Law Firm, P.C. & Scholten Fant, 2007

67 Fatal Communication Error
Lack of succinct, clear responses: Comes across like dodging answers: “Well, it depends…” “Well, it might, could, should, etc….” “It varies…” “Well, I’ve only seen him 3x…”

68 Sentence Starters….. “The data suggests….”
“We have evidence that shows….” “Our observations have shown…” “The law indicates….” “The research supports….” Key Concepts: As important as knowing what NOT to say, is giving IEP team members replacement words or sentence starters that can help them start to change their old patterns. Review each one and give examples. Have participants generate examples as well. Considerations: Application:

69 IEP Guiding Principles: Avoid Human Nature Traps!!
All opinions informed by the law, research, & data. We cannot change the past; We can change today to establish a different future. Communication requires interpretation: What is said may not be what was meant. Presume Competence (Least Dangerous Assumption) Dignity of Risk

70 NOT: “My PLAFFP” / “My GOALS”
What to BRING to the IEP DATA: Not PLAAFP already written Assessment Information Observational Data Background Knowledge Considerations for Supplementary Aids and Services Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks IDEAS NOT: “My PLAFFP” / “My GOALS” Key Concepts: Ask participants about their own IEP logistics? Are portions of the IEP completed in advance? Do each of the itinerant staff bring “their” PLAAFP statements and goals? Describe how this process involves IEP team members bringing information and data to the meeting, but not a predetermined and written PLAAFP statement or goals and objectives. Have participants generate why this is so critically important (e.g. everyone on the team has knowledge of communication skills, for example, not just the speech therapist). Considerations: Application: Describe the following slides as tools to use to gather some of this data / information to bring to the IEP.

71 Key Concepts: This tool can be used to gather observation information so IEP team members can connect their assessment scores and other testing information to actual behavior in the relevant environments. Observations should occur over time and in multiple environments by a variety of IEP team members to get the most comprehensive look at the student and the connection between their disability and their environments. Considerations: Application: Have participants discuss the tools in small groups and how they could use them in their own processes.

72 Key Concepts: This tool can be used to gather observation information so IEP team members can connect their assessment scores and other testing information to expectations in the relevant environments. Observations should occur over time and in multiple environments by a variety of IEP team members to get the most comprehensive look at the student and the connection between their disability and their environments. Considerations: Application: Have participants discuss the tools in small groups and how they could use them in their own processes.

73 IEP Process for Students with ASD (Cheat Sheet)
The PLAAFP Key Concepts: Now is time to start the process. It is critical for IEP teams to recognize that discussion about goals and objectives, supplementary aids and services, programs and services, etc. should not occur until the PLAAFP is developed. Writing the primary sections of the process at the top of the white board in columns is often helpful in keeping IEP team members on track. Should someone jump to discussing goals and objectives, supplementary aids and services, programs and services, etc. before the PLAAFP is complete, the IEP facilitator can show them where in the process that will be discussed but that the PLAAFP has to be develop FIRST before discussion in that area. Asking participants to change that idea relative to another section into a “need” area for the PLAAFP is also a helpful technique in keeping team members focused. Considerations: Application: Remind participants that in their handouts, the form titled “IEP Process for Students with ASD” is a cheat sheet of the process to follow or take to IEP meetings for support. IEP Process for Students with ASD (Cheat Sheet)

74 Question you are attempting to answer:
The PLAAFP Statement of the student’s Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (and transition related needs). Question you are attempting to answer: How does the student’s DISABILITY impact access to and participation in & progress in: The general education CURRICULUM General education ENVIRONMENTS (including social skill development, independent skills, etc.)? Further education, employment, and independent living Key Concepts: This slide describes the critical questions to ask in order to develop the PLAAFP. Be sure to focus on how the DISABILITY (in this case, ASD) impacts 1. Access to; 2. Participation in; and 3. Progress (success) in BOTH the CURRICULUM and the ENVIRONMENTS (considering both social competence and independent skills). Remind participants of the mistakes discovered during the Ed Benefit Review process as well as those discussed that occurring frequently in practice (e.g. list of standard scores, list of EVERY deficit the student has related to academic performance, etc.). How might asking the question in this way change the PLAAFP information? Discuss how it is no wonder that IEP teams interpreted the PLAAFP statement to be a list of academic performance deficits as the title itself says “Present Levels of Academic Achievement”… then proceed to the next slide…. Considerations: Application:

75 What about “ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT?”
ED did not define “academic achievement” 2006 IDEA Regulations: “’Academic achievement’ generally refers to a child’s performance in academic areas (e.g. reading, math, science..). We believe the definition could vary depending on a child’s circumstance or situation, and therefore, we do not believe a definition of ‘academic achievement’ should be included in these regulations.” ASD Eligibility Requirements…. Key Concepts: Simply read the quote and then talk about for ASD, “academic achievement” could potentially refer to communication skills, social competence, independent skills, etc. and that’s why the ED (Education Department) did not define it. Considerations: This concept may be conceptually difficult for participants to grasp. Spend as much time as necessary to answer questions or have discussion so participants are prepared for the next concept. Application:

76 PLAAFP Statement Framework
AREAS of the student’s DISABILITY that impact access to and participation & progress in: The general education CURRICULUM General education ENVIRONMENTS (including social skill development, independent skills, etc.)? Ability to Participate in Instruction Socialization Skills / Competence Communication Independent Skills Transition Issues Ability to Manage Stress / Anxiety Behaviors Key Concepts: For students with ASD, according to Janzen, the areas listed on this slide tend to be the “academic achievement” areas that are needed to be addressed. Discuss each one and have participants think about whether that area is a primary “need” area for their target student. Considerations: Application: Janzen, J., 2003

77 IEP goals / objectives are not the ONLY thing you are teaching!!
Prioritizing Areas “PLPs should be pruned to reflect the educational priorities for the period covered by the IEP…...” “Without prioritizing, there is a ‘Jack of all trades, master of none’ effect, whereby too much is attempted and too little is accomplished.” Diane Twachtman-Cullen & Jennifer Twachtman-Reilly (2002) IEP goals / objectives are not the ONLY thing you are teaching!! Key Concepts: Because there potentially could be a number of “need” areas for students with ASD, it is critical to prioritize the PRIMARY areas that are interfering with access, participation or progress with the understanding that the other areas are not being ignored, they are just not priority areas at the time. Since IEP needs and goals are not the ONLY areas being taught, other less prioritized areas can be embedded within the schedule and addressed less intensly. Considerations: Application:

78 PLAAFP Statement Framework
AREAS of the student’s DISABILITY that impact access to and participation in & progress in: The general education CURRICULUM General education ENVIRONMENTS (including social skill development, independent skills, etc.)? Ability to Participate in Instruction Socialization Skills / Competence Communication Independent Skills Transition Issues Ability to Manage Stress / Anxiety Behaviors DATA for each area— COMPARED TO SAME AGE PEERS Key Concepts: For each identified area of need, data compared to peers must also be provided. This is where standardized assessment information can be helpful because it is typically normed to the peer group. However, what about areas of need for which there are no standardized measures such as transitions. How is information gathered relative to peers? The next slide describes other sources of information regarding behaviors of peers but all of the information should be coupled with OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION!!! Considerations: Application:

79 OPTIONS for DATA Standardized Measures Rating Scales
State / Local Assessments Behavior Plans / Logs Classroom Output Grades / Progress on Current IEP Goals Direct Observation GLCEs MDE Quick Reference Guide: Section 2 PLAAFP Key Concepts: There are a number of options for gathering peer information including the GLCEs (Grade Level Content Expectations) themselves. Review each options and discuss. Considerations: Application: Have participants identify which of these options they have available to compare with their target student. Have participants review the GLCEs from their target student’s grade level for information.

80 PLAAFP Statement Framework
AREAS of the student’s DISABILITY that impact access to and participation & progress in: The general education CURRICULUM General education ENVIRONMENTS (including social skill development, independent skills, etc.)? Ability to Participate in Instruction Socialization Skills / Competence Communication Independent Skills Transition Issues Ability to Manage Stress / Anxiety Behaviors Data for EACH area— COMPARED TO PEERS How do these needs IMPACT access to, involvement & participation in, success in general education CURRICULUM and ENVIRONMENTS? Key Concepts: Once the areas are identified and data compared to peers provided, the IEP team must determine what IMPACT that area is having on access, participation, and progress in the curriculum and environments. The next few slides provide guided practice information for discussion. Considerations: Application:

81 PLAAFP Statement Guided Practice
Area Data IMPACT Social Sean has 97% fewer social interactions than others students the same age based on staff observations. He talks about Star Wars excessively which results in peers resisting interaction with him. He does not have a preferred friend, and at lunch and recess, he plays alone. According to the “developmental inventory”, typical peers can identify a preferred friend and interact with others during play activities. In the classroom, Sean does not choose a partner or join a work group without adult prompting. He does not participate in cooperative work with peers without argument, which results in adult intervention and 3-4 times per week, Sean having to leave the classroom due to disruption. Social interactions are impacted by continual Star Wars talk. Key Concepts: Perfect PLAAFP statements are not provided as it is human nature to get the “cut and paste” effect. Guided practice allows participants to really problem solve the information and consider alternative ways to provide or gather it. Such practice increases implementation fidelity of the process. Words in red are “wiggle” words (i.e. words that are loosely defined and can easily be misinterpreted). Have participants discuss what data they might need to change the wiggle word into actual data. It is not by accident that socialization and independent skills were used for guided practice. Read each statement and allow for discussion / practice. Considerations: Application:

82 PLAAFP Statement Guided Practice
Area Data IMPACT Independent Skills Sean does not independently navigate the daily schedule. He require 6-7 verbal and visual prompts by adults before following simple tasks. He does not independently get materials he needs to complete classroom activities and tasks, and requires constant adult prompts to complete classroom work. Based on classroom observations, typical peers navigate the environment independently and complete their assignments with minimal adult prompting / support. Because Sean requires intensive adult prompting to follow the daily routine, prepare for classroom activities, and complete classroom work, he misses instruction as much as 40 minutes per hour. As such, he is pulled out of the classroom to “catch up” on his work as much as an hour a day at which time he is missing the other instruction in the classroom. Key Concepts: Perfect PLAAFP statements are not provided as it is human nature to get the “cut and paste” effect. Guided practice allows participants to really problem solve the information and consider alternative ways to provide or gather it. Such practice increases implementation fidelity of the process. Words in red are “wiggle” words (i.e. words that are loosely defined and can easily be misinterpreted). Have participants discuss what data they might need to change the wiggle word into actual data. It is not by accident that socialization and independent skills were used for guided practice. Read each statement and allow for discussion / practice. Considerations: Application:

83 PLAAFP Statement EXAMPLE
Area Data IMPACT Behavior Johnny has a low frustration tolerance especially with paper / pencil academic tasks. When this occurs, which ranges from 3-5 times per day, he whines and will not continue his work. When extremely frustrated which occurs 2-3 times weekly, he utters swear words loud enough for peers to hear him. Based on “developmental inventory”, ‘peers his age persist when frustrated and can identify and use 2-3 strategies for reducing frustration. Based on teacher report and classroom observations, when frustrated, Johnny misses as much as minutes per incident of engaged time attempting to deal with his frustration. Additionally, he does not utilize strategies for reducing his frustration so he is not able to persist in academic tasks which further impacts his progress. Key Concepts: Perfect PLAAFP statements are not provided as it is human nature to get the “cut and paste” effect. Guided practice allows participants to really problem solve the information and consider alternative ways to provide or gather it. Such practice increases implementation fidelity of the process. Words in red are “wiggle” words (i.e. words that are loosely defined and can easily be misinterpreted). Have participants discuss what data they might need to change the wiggle word into actual data. It is not by accident that socialization and independent skills were used for guided practice. Read each statement and allow for discussion / practice. Considerations: Application:

84 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form
Section 2 B: ONE of 3 Options Required Option I: Identification of need across a number of specified areas Option II: Narrative Approach Option III: Designed for use with progress monitoring systems Key Concepts: The MDE Model IEP form for writing aligned IEPs is provided in the “Readings and References” section of this module. On the MDE Model IEP form, Section 2 is the PLAAFP statement section. Section 2A is required for all students. Section 2 B has three options for completing the PLAAFP statement. Teams are to complete just ONE of those options. Section 2B – Option II is most similar to the PLAAFP statement format used in this process. However, teams can choose to use any of the three options. Considerations: Application: Link the actual MDE Model IEP form to this slide and review with participants for clarification.

85 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form: Section 2

86 TEAM TIME PLAAFP Statement for Target Student
Area Data IMPACT Socialization Independent Skills ONE MORE OF YOUR CHOICE List what data you have for each area compared to peers / action plan for what data is needed What impact does this have on access to, participation / involvement in and success / progress in gen ed CURRICULUM / ENVIRONMENTS Key Concepts: This slide is a summary of the team work for developing the PLAAFP. Remind participants about the use of meeting mechanics and sentence starters and to call each other out when they hear opinion statements and / or wiggle words. Considerations: Application: Have participants use the PLAAFP worksheet to develop a draft PLAAFP statement in the area of socialization and independence and then one of their own choosing based on student need. Considerations: Meeting Mechanics / Sentence Starters

87 REPORT OUT Key Concepts:
Have participants report out an issues, aha moments, questions, considerations, etc. Use this as learning opportunities to review information already discussed or prepare / frontload information yet to be covered. Considerations: Application:

88 Just because there is a NEED does not mean you need a GOAL—
However, you MUST address each need identified in the PLAAFP in another appropriate section of the IEP…. Secondary Transition Considerations Supplementary Aids and Services Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks Key Concepts: Review participants’ current IEP process regarding what section tends to come next. Most IEP forms have “goals and objectives” as the next area to consider. This process puts supplementary aids and services as next in the process. Discuss the importance of the PLAAFP being the FIRST section to complete and “programs and services” LAST, but that there is flexibility within the body of the IEP. Just because the form puts a certain section next does not mean the team cannot switch that around. What is not flexible is the PLAAFP first and programs and services last. It is important for participants to understand that just because there is an area of need does not mean you have to have a goal about it. You have to ADDRESS it somewhere in the IEP, specifically in supplementary goals and objectives, secondary transition, OR goals and objectives. So, if the IEP team FIRST considers which needs could be addressed through supplementary aids and services, the number of specific goals could potentially be reduced. Considerations: Application:

89 Supplementary Aids and Services
Key Concepts: This is a transition slide to discuss Supplementary Aids and Services Considerations: Application:

90 What ARE Supplementary Aids / Services?
§ Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with §§ through (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(33)) Key Concepts: This is an excerpt from IDEA which describes Supplementary Aids and Services. Point out the focus on supports that enable to the student to be educated with nondisabled students. Considerations: Application:

91 MDE Interpretation of the Purpose of Supplementary Aids and Services
Provided to enable the student to: Advance appropriately toward attaining the annual IEP goals. Be involved and progress in the general education curriculum and to participate in extra-curricular and other nonacademic activities. Be educated and participate in activities with other students with disabilities and nondisabled students. Key Concepts: MDE has increased the standard for Supplementary Aids and Services to include enabling the student to make adequate progress on IEP goals and objectives and to be involved and progress in the curriculum and extra-curricular activities. Considerations: Application: MDE OSE-EIS Quick Reference Guide: Section 5

92 Supplementary Aids / Services Universal Supports (the Non-Negotiables)
Visual / Organizational Supports Functional Communication System Accommodations / Differentation Peer to Peer Support Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Appropriate Adult Support Key Concepts: It is critical when considering supplemental aids and services to consider universal supports for students with ASD. Although not every student will need a comprehensive plan for each area, it is important to at least discuss the potential need for these non-negotiables. Considerations: Application:

93 Translating PROCESS to PAPER Documenting Intensive Individualized Plans
VARIABLES: Nature of the support varies significantly (day to day, content to content, etc.) Support is intensive in nature Support includes a lot of details Key Concepts: There are some supplementary aids and services that due to their complexity or variability may need to be referenced in the supplementary aids and services section but not detailed or attached. such as positive behavioral intervention and support plans. These variables should be considered in determining whether or not to provide the details of the particular supplementary aid and service in this section or reference there is a plan and provide the details in the plan. Considerations: Often participants have monitoring questions at this point. Refer such question s to administration as LEA’s and ISD’s have varying processes for referencing supplementary aids and services. Application:

94 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form: Section 5
Positive Behavior Support PLAN Individualized Accommodation PLAN Individualized Differentiated Instruction PLAN Grading Matrix; Example Individualized Peer to Peer Support PLAN OTHERS? Key Concepts: These are some examples of supplementary aids and services PLANS that may need to be referenced but not attached. In the supplementary aids and services section on the IEP form, it should be noted how often the plan will be reviewed and / or revised to assure implementation fidelity. Attach or link examples of these plans for participants. Considerations: Application:

95 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form: Section 5
Key Concepts: This is the MDE Model IEP Form. Supplementary aids and services that are referenced but not attached should include information on how often the plan will be reviewed and revised if needed. Considerations: Application:

96 Supplementary Aids and Services Worksheet for Target Student
TEAM TIME Key Concepts: Have participants review PLAAFP information and then determine which needs can be met through supplementary aids and services and what those might be. Have participants use the Supplementary Aids and Services Worksheet and discuss which Universal Supports as well as additional supplementary aids and services the student may need to enable him/her to be educated with students who do not have disabilities. Considerations: Application: Have participants report out after the activity for follow up, learning opportunities, and preparation for the next section. Supplementary Aids and Services Worksheet for Target Student

97 Developing GOALS and Objectives / Benchmarks
Key Concepts: Once supplemental aids and services are identified, the next step is to determine what needs should be prioritized to the level of goals and objectives / benchmarks. This is a transition slide to the next section. Considerations: Application:

98 Measurable annual goals must be designed to…
Meet child’s needs that result from child’s disability Not --Restatement of gen ed curriculum --List of everything the student is expected to learn in every content area to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum Key Concepts: Review the fed language relative to the purpose of IEP goals. Remind participants that focused goals are those that enable the student to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; not a restatement of the GLCEs or a list of everything the student is expected to learn. Remember: The GLCEs are the goals for ALL students so we shouldn’t pick and choose which ONES a particular student is expected to learn. Additionally, the IEP goals are not the ONLY thing the student will be taught. They are the prioritized areas based on the student’s needs. Considerations: Participants will often bring up “Standards –Based IEPs” or aligned IEPs at this point suggesting that because the goals have to be aligned with the GLCEs then the GLCEs are the goals. The next few slides will clarify this concept. Application:

99 What skills does the student need in order to access / master the content rather than what content the student needs to learn. DISCUSSION Key Concepts: Another way to think about goal areas is to ask THIS question.. It may be necessary to re-read this a number times and allow participants time to process the information. Considerations: This is such a paradigm shift for educators that it is critical to allow discussion and processing time. Application: Have participants discuss what this means and how it might change the way they currently think about goal areas.

100 What about IEP’s written for / aligned with the Content Standards?
WHY SB-IEP? MDE Focus on Results June 09 Excluded from gen ed curriculum; Exposed to an alternate curriculum w/ deficit driven instruction (remediation); Not included in district / statewide assessments MDE Quick Reference Guide Key Concepts: Assure participants that the GLCEs are NOT the goals. Goals are to be BASED on GLCE’s. Review the MDE Focus on Results article that indicates that if the goal does not have a GLCE that aligns to it, simply write “there exists no GLCE related to this goal.” Also review the MDE Quick Reference Guide that give additional information regarding aligned IEPs. The next slide shows where on the MDE model form the information about aligning goals to GLCE’s can be found. Considerations: Participants have numerous questions regarding this topic so be sure to have a strong background and resources to rely on. Application:

101 Key Concepts: The MDE Model IEP form goal pages. Considerations: Application:

102 What about academic goals?
No hard / fast rules Things to consider: Definition of “academic” 3 tiered system of academic support Have to know ASD—OUTPUT Gain Rate vs. Time Spent Key Concepts: For students with ASD, it is critical, then, to determine whether one would ever have academic goals. Because the majority of the IEPs we write are for students with learning disabilities, it stands to reason that we would be better at writing those IEPs and be more familiar with writing academic goals. For students with ASD, you may or may not have academic goals, but one must consider these bullets when deciding whether academic goals are relevant or whether the ASD is interfering with ACCESS to instruction or the ability to OUTPUT learning and THAT is the reason for academic deficits rather than a true academic deficit. Considerations: Application:

103 Targeting Goal AREAS Needs that CANNOT be met through supplementary aids and services (or secondary transition)… AND / OR 2. Needs and/or Supports from Supplementary Aids and Services that require “specialized instruction” Key Concepts: Two questions to ask to determine which areas of need will be prioritized to the level of goals and objectives / benchmarks. IEP teams should first consider the needs that cannot be met through supplementary aids and services and then target those areas for goals. Next the IEP team should consider whether needs / supports that CAN be met through supplementary aids and services but require specialized instruction are present and target those additional areas for goals. Considerations: Application:

104 “Specially Designed Instruction” IDEA Words and Terms to Know (March 2009)
Adapting the content, methodology, or the delivery of instruction to address the unique needs that result from the child's disability…. to ensure that the child has access to the general curriculum….. Key Concepts: What is meant, however, by “specialized instruction?” Read this excerpt and discuss what of the supplementary aids and services for students with ASD (Universal Supports) might require specialized instruction. Considerations: Application:

105 Supplementary Aids / Services Universal Supports (the Non-Negotiables)
Visual / Organizational Supports Functional Communication System Accommodations / Differentation Peer to Peer Support Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Appropriate Adult Support Key Concepts: Review the supplementary aids and services and determine which may require specialized instruction. Considerations: Application:

106 Writing MEASURABLE Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks
Key Concepts: Once key goal areas are identified, now the task of writing them in a measurable way begins. Considerations: Application:

107 --Progress on the objectives would lead to meeting the annual goal.
Writing MEASURABLE IEP Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks (PROGRESS MARKERS) Write an annual measurable goal with a number of separate but relevant measurable objectives. --Progress on the objectives would lead to meeting the annual goal. Write an annual measurable goal with a number of timed, measurable benchmarks. --GAS: Goal Attainment Scaling Key Concepts: MDE offers two ways for IEP teams to write measurable goals and objectives and benchmarks. Review each and have participants discuss. Goal Attainment Scaling will be discussed in future slides. Considerations: Application:

108 Writing Goals (Objectives / Benchmarks)
UTILIZING…. Student Will…. Under what conditions? At what level / degree (criteria)? Key Concepts: The easiest way to think about goal writing is in ABC. Every goal has to identify the conditions under which the goals is to be worked on and mastered, the actual observable behavior to change, and the criteria by which mastery is defined. The next few slides will provide examples for participants. Considerations: Application: The IEP Form: ADD: by what date; on what assessment? Does not have line for: Utilizing

109 Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success
UTILIZING—Using WHAT tool, support, system, etc. will the student learn to perform the skill? Utilizing a visual schedule Using peers / peer to peer support Using a picture choice board When provided a visual prompt Using a visual functional communication system Utilizing a routine checklist When given a check schedule card Using a choice modification strategy Using a self-management checklist Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

110 Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success
UTILIZING—Using WHAT tool, support, system, etc. will the student learn to perform the skill? Behavior—Get some VERBS in your sentence What competency / skill should change? OBSERVABLE Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

111 BEHAVIOR Independently transition from activity to activity
Make a choice Complete the activity independently Follow the classroom routine Complete the worksheet independently Raise hand and wait to be called on Ask for help Initiate interaction with a peer Follow instructions independently Make and engage in a choice Remain in seat / area Answer content-related questions Request a food item Independently put on / take off Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

112 Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success
UTILIZING—Using WHAT tool, support, system, etc. will the student learn to perform the skill? Behavior—Get some VERBS in your sentence What competency / skill should change? OBSERVABLE Conditions / Criteria— Under what conditions and how MUCH / WELL will be considered mastery for the time frame of the IEP (use peers)? Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

113 Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success
Condition--Under what condition should the skill be demonstrated (e.g. time, place, event)? During transition times During a social conversation During class discussions At lunch time (or math, science, etc.) During morning and lunch recess During independent work activities When teacher is giving group instructions During morning arrival routines When preparing to go home Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

114 CRITERIA / Mastery 9 out of 10 trials / opportunities
6 items / assignments 75% accuracy Increase by 10% 3 times a day On 9 consecutive attempts For 15 minutes at a time Within 5 minutes 4 times weekly 3 out of 5 days 4 class periods Key Concepts: Review the examples and allow participants time for discussion. This section allows participants to gain an understanding of writing observable and measurable goals but the real learning will occur during guided practice and actual practice. Considerations: Application:

115 GOALS & OBJECTIVES / BENCHMARKS Guided Practice
Chris will raise his hand when he needs assistance or wants to share important information. (90% of time) Chris will ask for help and accept teacher response when he doesn’t understand something. (80% of time) With gestural prompts from peers and adults, Chris will limit conversational ideas appropriate to the setting. (90% of time) Key Concepts: Providing guided practice for participants allow them to problem solve through the variables that should be considered when writing goals. Be sure participants understand that these goals are not intended to be “model” examples but rather real examples to offer practice opportunities. Considerations: Application:

116 GOALS & OBJECTIVES / BENCHMARKS Guided Practice
Kayla will use appropriate social greetings upon entering and leaving the classroom with teacher and peers (hi, bye) in 8 out of 10 trial days. Kayla will expressively identify peers and adults by name in group and play activities with verbal prompting. (4/5 trials) Kayla will gain the attention of a communicative partner by verbal or nonverbal means to make a request, to gain assistance, and to engage in activities. (4/5 trials) Key Concepts: Providing guided practice for participants allow them to problem solve through the variables that should be considered when writing goals. Be sure participants understand that these goals are not intended to be “model” examples but rather real examples to offer practice opportunities. Considerations: Application:

117 GOALS & OBJECTIVES / BENCHMARKS Guided Practice
During lunch and snack, Marci will use a visual system (words / pictures) to request at least 10 food items 8 of 10 trials. Marci will use a picture schedule to follow daily classroom routines with no more than 2 prompts 8 of 10 daily transitions. Using a visual list of needed materials for classroom activities, Marci will independently gather 8 of 10 items. Key Concepts: Providing guided practice for participants allow them to problem solve through the variables that should be considered when writing goals. Be sure participants understand that these goals are not intended to be “model” examples but rather real examples to offer practice opportunities. Considerations: Application:

118 Using the GAS to Establish Benchmarks Goal Attainment Scaling
+2 Much more than expected +1 More than expected 0 EXPECTED OUTCOME -1 Less than expected -2 Much less than expected (BASELINE) Key Concepts: For using a benchmark model, the GAS is useful in writing the goal. Review the basic process for “gassing” the goals. Considerations: Application:

119 FIRST, Identify Baseline
GAS Levels Next, Identify the Goal

120 Ways to Change Criteria
Changing People No adults (-2) Familiar adult (-1) Unfamiliar adult (0) With one peer (+1) Across multiple peers (+2) Changing Prompt Levels Physical prompt (-2) Gestural prompt (-1) Verbal prompt (0) Visual prompt (+1) Independent (+2) Changing Setting One setting in school (-1) Two settings in school (0) 2 school settings plus 1 community setting (+2)

121 GAS Example: It’s better to increase independence with lower skill levels than to increase skill levels at lower independence levels. Level of Attainment Goal : Independently follow a visual schedule 5 of 10 days Much less than expected -2 Given a visual “check schedule” card and the verbal instruction “check your schedule,” with 5-8 verbal / physical prompts, Ss will select each activity from the visual schedule and transition to the appropriate area for that activity on 5 of 10 days. Somewhat less than expected -1 Given a visual “check schedule” card and the verbal instruction “check your schedule,” with no more than 3 verbal / physical prompts, Ss will select each activity from the visual schedule and transition to the appropriate area for that activity on 5 of 10 days. Expected level of outcome Given a visual “check schedule” card and the verbal instruction “check your schedule,” with no more than 1 verbal prompts, Ss will select each activity from the visual schedule and transition to the appropriate area for that activity on 5 of 10 days. Somewhat more than expected +1 Given a visual “check schedule” card and the verbal instruction “check your schedule,” Ss will independently select each activity from the visual schedule and transition to the appropriate area for that activity on 5 of 10 days. Much more than expected +2 Given a visual “check schedule” card and the verbal instruction “check your schedule,” Ss will independently select each activity from the visual schedule and transition to the appropriate area for that activity on 8 of 10 days. Key Concepts: Example of a “gassed” goal. Considerations: Application:

122 GOALS / GAS / EBP Selection

123 GOALS / GAS / EBP Selection

124 BENCHMARKS

125 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form
Section 4: Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks ONE of 2 Options Option I: Uses a narrative approach Option II: Uses a progress monitoring approach Key Concepts: The MDE Model IEP forms provides two options for writing goals and objectives. Option I is most conducive to the type of goals writing described in this process. Considerations: Application:

126 Translating Process to Paper MDE Model IEP Form: Section 4
Key Concepts: The MDE Model IEP forms provides two options for writing goals and objectives. Option I is most conducive to the type of goals writing described in this process. Considerations: Application:

127 TEAM TIME Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks for Target Student Key Concepts: Have participants use the “Writing Measurable Goals and Objectives Worksheet” to develop goal areas and measurable objectives / benchmarks. Have participants use the GAS form if they plan to use benchmarks. Considerations: Application: Have participants report out when completed.

128 Identifying Special Education Programs and Related Services
Key Concepts: Now that the core of the IEP information is completed, it’s time to discuss special education programs and services. Considerations: Application:

129 If you have a goal, you MUST have a program / service to address it…..
What service? What program? WHERE (Placement)? Key Concepts: For each goal, there MUST be a program or service to address it. Review with participants how they currently make those decisions or answer these questions. Considerations: Application:

130 Making Placement Decisions
"In all cases, placement decisions must be individually determined on the basis of each child’s abilities and needs and each child’s IEP, and not solely on factors such as category of disability, severity of disability, availability of special education and related services, configuration of the service delivery system, availability of space, or administrative convenience.“ Preface, 2006 Final  Federal Regulations for the IDEA Key Concepts: The feds did provide information about what could NOT be used to determine programs and services. Read this quote and allow participants time to discuss it. Considerations: Application:

131 The LRE Question With supplementary aids / services AND / OR Push in ancillary / itinerant / related services can the student make adequate progress on the IEP goals and objectives? If yes, no pull out program / services is needed…. NO RESTRICTION – GEN ED PLACEMENT…. If no, what level of restriction is needed and for what program / related services in order to assure adequate progress on the IEP goals and objective / benchmarks AND more than minimal progress in the general education curriculum. Key Concepts: This is the critical question to ask to assure that LRE is considered in final program development. Considerations: ??? Application:

132

133 Special Education Programs / Services for Target Student
TEAM TIME Key Concepts: Give participant time to discuss programs and services, but since this part of the IEP cannot be pre-determined and this training does not constitute an IEP, not much time will be needed. Discussion should focus more on the PROCESS of making the decision rather than the decision itself. Considerations: Application: Discussion on Special Education Programs / Services for Target Student

134 Implementing the IEP with Fidelity
Key Concepts: Transition slide for discussion IEP implementation fidelity. Considerations: Application:

135 Implementing the IEP Selecting EBP Fidelity Tools
Measuring Progress (PROBES) Key Concepts: Three primary areas to consider in IEP implementation fidelity is selecting what practices to use to work on the goals, review of tools to demonstrate implementation, and data collection processes. Each will be covered in detail in this section of the module. Considerations: Application:

136 Selecting EBPs: Considerations
Goals Area / Skill to Increase Characteristics of the Student Student Interests Variables of the Environment Family Preferences Key Concepts: In selecting practices, methodologies, teaching strategies, etc. to best work on the developed goals, considerations must be made regarding these areas to better ensure a good fit between the goal, the student, the environment and the practice. Considerations: Application:

137 Key Concepts: In selecting practices, methodologies, teaching strategies, etc. to best work on the developed goals, considerations must be made regarding these areas to better ensure a good fit between the goal, the student, the environment and the practice. These are the practices that have evidence-based support and many resources for implementation. Considerations: Application:

138 Resources for EBPs in ASD
NPDC: OCALI Autism Internet Modules: National Standards Project: Association for Science in ASD Treatment Key Concepts: In selecting practices, methodologies, teaching strategies, etc. to best work on the developed goals, considerations must be made regarding these areas to better ensure a good fit between the goal, the student, the environment and the practice. These sites provide numerous resources for EBP implementation. Considerations: Application:

139 Implementing the IEP Selecting EBP Fidelity Tools
Measuring Progress (PROBES) Key Concepts: Transition slide for discussion of fidelity tools. There may be many ways to document implementation fidelity. The one START has found most useful will be covered. Considerations: Application:

140 Key Concepts: Review the tool with participants. Remind them that it is a TOOL and can be altered to best fit their needs. Considerations: Application:

141 Implementing the IEP Selecting EBP Fidelity Tools
Measuring Progress (PROBES) Key Concepts: Finally, measuring progress on IEP goals is critical. There may be multiple ways of accomplishing this task, so the examples provided are just that: EXAMPLES. Data-based decision making is as much a problem solving process as the developing of the IEP itself. Considerations: Application:

142 Measuring Progress PROBES—Things to Consider Who When How Often
In What Format Analysis Reporting Key Concepts: These are some variables to consider when developing a data decision-making process and tools for data collection. Provide participants multiple examples but refrain from developing it for them. The more they understand the purpose of the tools and were involved in the process, the more likely the data will be collected. Considerations: Application:

143 Who’s RESPONSIBLE for Progress?
Key Concepts: It is also critical for IEP teams to recognize who is responsible for teaching and supporting progress on the goals as well as reporting the progress. The MDE Model IEP form identifies potentially ALL staff as responsible for progress. The IEP team must then determine who will be collecting the data on progress and reporting it to the family. Considerations: Application:

144 QUESTIONS / CLARIFICATIONS
SUMMARY QUESTIONS / CLARIFICATIONS 5 CONCEPTS to IMPLEMENT Key Concepts: Have participants identify at least 5 concepts from the training they will take back and introduce into their current processes. Considerations: Application:


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