4 History of Special Education 1975: PL —EAHCAChild FindFAPE for All StudentsLRE1977: CA Master PlanSELPAsFiscal, Procedural, Compliance, Programs1980s: ??????Lack of ConsistencyRandom Acts of GreatnessCase Law
5 History of Special Education (cont.) 1990s: FAPE & LRECase Law1997: IDEA ReauthorizedAccess to Gen. Ed. CurriculumIncrease in Litigation1998: CA Content StandardsCSTs, API2001: NCLBSubgroupsAccountability
6 History of Special Education (cont.) 2003: CAPAAccountability for Mod to Severe2004: IDEA ReauthorizedGreater Emphasis on Core Curriculum andAccess to Typical PeersResearch-Based Practices2007: CMA2010: OSEP—Focus on Outcomes2014: Results Driven Accountability (RDA): CCSS
7 Progression of Guidance and Structure for Standards-Instructionally Based IEPs Lack of Guidance/StructureIncreasing Guidance/StructureStandards-Instructionally Based
9 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Standards are for(a) College and Career Readiness, and(b) K-12 – FOR ALL STUDENTSStandards are research and evidence-based, reflective of rigorous content and skills, and internationally benchmarked.Addition of 15% more information to the CCSS for each subjectIncludes additional information to address perceived gapsEnsures rigor of existing standards
10 CCSS Themes College and Career Readiness (CCR) 21st Century Learning Learning and Innovation SkillsLife and Career SkillsInformation Media and Technology Skills4-Cs—Critical ThinkingCommunicationCollaborationCreativity
11 Are the CCSS for ELA Similar to our Current Standards? Existing ELA: Four Categories Called DomainsReadingWritingListening and SpeakingWritten and Oral English-Language ConventionsCCSS ELA: Four Categories Called StrandsSpeaking and ListeningLanguage
12 Literacy Across the Content Areas Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects are embedded in the Reading and Writing Standards at each Grade Level, K-5.Grades 6-8, 9-10, and 11-12, Include Reading Standards for Science and Technical Subjects, and Writing Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.
13 ELA/Literacy Shifts in Focus Content-Rich NonfictionInformational TextEvidence from TextReading for InformationComplex Text with Academic LanguageLinkages to Content Knowledge
14 Are the CCSS for Math Similar to our Current Standards? Shift in Grade Level for some SkillsOrganization is DifferentGrade Level Standards K-8Set of Standards for Algebra 1Conceptual Cluster Standards for 9-12Two Options for 8th GradeAlgebra 1Option for those Not Ready for Algebra
15 Mathematics Shifts in Focus Narrowing Strongly on Focus of StandardsCoherenceBuilding Upon Each Grade Level and Linking to Major TopicsRigorBuilding Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Skills, and Focus on Application
17 Five Assessment Consortia How Did We Get Here?Five Assessment ConsortiaRace-to-the-Top Regular Assessment ConsortiaPartnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC)SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC)GSEG Alternate Assessment ConsortiaDynamic Learning Maps (DLM)National Center and State Collaborative (NCSC)ELP Assessment ConsortiumASSETS: Assessment Services Supporting ELs through Technology SystemsPARCC – 24 statesSBAC – 28 statesDLM – 13 statesNCSC – 19 statesASSETS – 28 states17
18 SBAC Assessment System FormatComputer Adaptive Testing (CAT)Computer Based Testing (CBT)Paper and PencilAccessibility and Accommodations GuidelinesItem TypesSelected ResponseConstructed ResponseShortExtendedPerformance TasksTechnology Based Items
19 The SBAC Assessment System English Language Arts and Mathematics, Grades 3 – 8 and High SchoolLast 12 weeks of year*DIGITAL CLEARINGHOUSE of formative tools, processes and exemplars; released items and tasks; model curriculum units; educator training; professional development tools and resources; an interactive reporting system; scorer training modules; and teacher collaboration tools.Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance TasksINTERIM ASSESSMENTComputer Adaptive Assessment and Performance TasksINTERIM ASSESSMENTPERFORMANCETASKSReadingWritingMathCOMPUTERADAPTIVE ASSESSMENTScope, sequence, number, and timing of interim assessments locally determinedRe-take optionOptional Interim assessment system —no stakesSummative assessment for accountability* Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.Developed by The Center for K–12 Assessment & Performance Management at ETS, version 4, July For detailed information on PARCC, go to
20 NCSC Overview (Not Yet Officially Adopted in CA) Building consensus on what College and Career Ready means for students who participate in Alternative AssessmentBuilding solid content foundations with articulated educational logic (Learning Maps; Learning Progressions and CCSS Dual Alignment); and Evidence Centered DesignComputer-based delivery of assessmentsResources and professional development supports to educatorsAssistive Technology and Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AT/AAC)
21 The NCSC Alternate Assessment System The NCSC Alternate Assessment System* English Language Arts and Mathematics, Grades 3–8 and High SchoolDIGITAL LIBRARY of curriculum, instruction, and classroom assessment resources; online professional development modules and support materials for state-level educator Communities of Practice to support teachers with the resources they need to improve student outcomes; guidelines for IEP teams to use in student participation decision making; training modules for assessment administration and interpretation of results; online assessment delivery, administration, and reporting.END-OF-YEARASSESSMENTCOMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE established in each state to support teacher training and use of the curriculum, instruction, and assessment resources. Resources will be available for use in all schools and districts, as locally determined.Curriculum, instruction, and formative assessment resources for classroom useSummative assessment for accountabilityInterim progress monitoring tools* Alternate assessment systems are those developed for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities and are based on alternate achievement standards.
23 Learning Progressions Vertical progression toward learning targetSequenced building blocksResearch-basedLinked to high-quality assessmentsOften characterized as a vertical progression within a domain, but differ in scope, breadth and grain size (Heritage, 2008).“…carefully sequenced set of building blocks that students must master on route to a more distant curricular aim” Popham (2007).“descriptions of successively more sophisticated ways of thinking about an idea that follow one another as students learn” (Wilson & Berenthal, 2005).Four Interrelated Guiding Principles (Hess, 2008)Developed (and refined) using available research and evidenceHave clear binding threads that articulate the essential core concepts and processes of a disciplineArticulate movement toward increased understandingGo hand-in-hand with well-designed and aligned assessments23
24 Use numbers to decide which is bigger, smaller, same size Uses place value to distinguish and order whole numbersUses decimal notation to two placesUses the symbols =, < and > to order numbers and make comparisonsUses percentages to make straightforward comparisonsMasters, G. & Forster, M. (1997). Developmental Assessment. Victoria, AU: The Australian Council for Education Research Ltd.24
25 Maps Allow for the Integration of Multiple Skills… Trajectory represented early language as linear development25
26 Compare two quantities up to ten using models Use perceptual subitizingEqual quantityIdentify more number ofIdentify fewer number ofIdentify more than oneIdentify same number ofIdentify different number ofIdentify oneCompare setsExplain setRecognize wholenessRecognize sameRecognize differentCreate a model of quantityCompare objectsImitate26
27 Learning Progressions vs. Learning Maps Centralizes notion of “superhighway”Delineates multiple pathwaysLearning progressions are more linear, larger, and have grosser grain size. They represent the “superhighway” route, typical for most. “A description of skills, understanding and knowledge in the sequence in which they typically develop: a picture of what it means to ‘improve’ in an area of learning.” Masters & Forster (1997)Learning maps are landscape learning progressions that are not necessarily vertical. They have a finer grain size and will cover content learning that occurs birth to college. Unlike linear learning progressions, they delineate alternate pathways thus creating alternate learning progressions. (Tatsuoka, 2009)27
29 CCSS Spirals Anchor Standards—Progress Through Multiple Grade Levels Skills Build Upon Prior Grade Levels
30 RST.2Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (RST): Standard 2Anchor Standard: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.=RSTGrade 11-12studentsDetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.+RSTGrade 9-10Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.RST.2.6-8Grade 8Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
31 RST.1Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (RST): Standard 1Anchor Standard: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.=RSTGrade 11-12studentsCite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.+RSTGrade 9-10Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.RST.1.6-8Grade 8Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
32 Key Ideas and Details: Standard 1 6, , 8 Cite [several pieces of] textual evidence that most strongly support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well asinferences drawn from the text.4,  [Quote accurately and] refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and whendrawing inferences from the text.1, , 3 Ask and answer questions [such as who, what, where, when, why and how to demonstrate understanding] about keydetails in a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.K With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.Grade—StandardCCR Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences fromit; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
33 National Center and State Collaborative Instructional ResourcesAligned to the CCSSCurriculum ResourcesClassroom Solutionshttps://wiki.ncscpartners.org/mediawiki/index.php/Main_Page
35 Curriculum ResourcesExplain How to Teach Students Including those with Significant DisabilitiesBased on Universal Design for Learning StrategiesProvide Examples
36 Classroom Solutions Instructional Units UDL Strategies Multiple Means of Engagement, Representation and ExpressionGeneral Education LessonsDesigned to be Accessible to Students with Significant Cognitive DisabilitiesPromote Inclusive and Collaborative Strategies
37 Core Content Connectors: K Progress Indicator: E.NO.1a showing mastery of the prerequisite core skills of cardinality, constancy, and 1:1 correspondenceCore Content Connectors: KCCSS Domain/ClusterCommon Core State StandardK.NO.1a1 Rote count up to 10Counting and CardinalityK CC Know number names and the count sequence.K.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens.K.NO.1a2 Rote count up to 31K.NO.1a3 Rote count up to 100K.NO.1a4 Count up to 10 objects in a line, rectangle, or arrayK CC Count to tell the number of objects.K.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with tone and only one object.K.CC.5 Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.Progress Indicator: E.NO.1b developing an understanding of number and principles of quantity (e.g., hold up 5 fingers at once to show 5, locate things in 2s without counting; using number words to indicate small exact numbers or relative change in quantity - more, small)K.NO.1b1 Match the numeral to the number of objects in a setK.NO.1b2 Identify the set that has moreUnderstand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.The first row with the red label is the progress indicator from the learning progression that helps us understand how the content moves from one learning expectation to the next. This CCC represents expectation in K. The CCCs are located in the far left column labeled in purple. This would be the content eligible for instruction and assessment. The middle column is the CCSS Domain or Cluster heading. In ELA the middle column will contain the Anchor standard. The far right column represents the closest match for the grade level Common Core State Standards.
38 Reading Standards for Literature College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for ReadingKey Ideas and Details1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specifictextual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supportingdetails and ideas.3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.Reading Standards for Literature
40 What is included in IR Guide? Overview of Systematic InstructionImportance of Finding a Response ModeExplanation of Instructional Strategies and “how to”Provides sample script for math and ELA skill for each instructional strategyTroubleshooting Q&AConstant Time Delay (CTD)System of Least Prompts (LIP)Model, Lead, TestExample/Non-example Training
42 Communicative Competence CareerCollegeCommunityCurriculumCommon Core StandardsLearning ProgressionsCore Content ConnectorsThe NCSC partners share a common commitment to the development of a comprehensive system of supports that reflects a necessary shift in teaching and learning practices by teachers for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities participating in Alternate Assessment – Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS)NCSC embraces a research-to-practice approach. It recognizes that to build academic competence of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities, it must support teachers in building their understanding the Common Core States Standards and how to teach these standards using evidence-based instructional resources and systematic learning strategies and models, and following the pathways of the Learning Progression Framework. In addition, the project must address the learning characteristics of students who participate in AA-AAS and how students with significant cognitive disabilities build academic competence.To be fair to students and teachers, the model of student learning and cognition that teachers use during instruction and in their classroom assessments must be the SAME model that assessment developers use in designing the NCSC summative assessment.This knowledge and support must be delivered to teachers through a comprehensive approach of sustained, professional development.To this end, the project partners are developing a range of research-to-practice, evidence-based resources and trainings to support teachers as they plan for and provide instruction (in collaboration with other teachers to support instruction in a variety of educational settings), that is based on the Common Core State Standards. These resources are illustrated in the schema on the next slide.InstructionGrade-level LessonsAccommodationsSystematic InstructionAssessmentFormative, InterimSummativeCommunicative Competence
44 What are Other States Doing to Assist Students with Mild, Moderate and Severe Needs? Universal Design for Learning (UDL)Core Content ConnectorsContent ModulesCurriculum Resource GuidesInstructional Resource GuidesLASSISMASSISElement Cards
45 UDL Strategies for Instruction Strategies and lessons are taken from the general education curriculum.Principles of UDL are applied:Multiple Means of Engagement give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge.Multiple Means of Representation give learners options for expressive skills and fluency.Multiple Means of Expression provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know and provide options for recruiting interest, sustaining effort, and self regulation.The Unit Lesson Plans represent the concepts and big ideas of the grade-specific Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and provide models of universally designed instruction for all students. The lessons also provide examples of additional supports that may be used for emerging reading and emerging communication. The Unit Lesson Plans also illustrate how to target the CCCs within general education lessons. That is, they offer a model for how to engage all students in well-designed instruction for the CCSS. Many examples are offered for meeting the unique needs of students with significant cognitive disabilities.
46 UDL Strategies (cont.)All strategies/lessons are modified and or adapted for Emerging Readers and Emerging Communicators:Additional Considerations for Emerging Readers and CommunicatorsMultiple Means of Engagement: Show the end first; present the concrete example of the graph; with the end in mind, have students at multiple levels solve in multiple ways; count or solve using a calculator, graph paper, 2 and 3 dimensional manipulative materialsMultiple Representation: 2 dimensional paper; 3 dimensional objects; etc.Multiple Means of Expression: Picture problem choices: present 2 choices of possible correct responses and include words or pictures, tactile representationsThe NCSC units’ lesson plan format details how general education lessons can be broken down into steps. Within each step, specific suggestions of how to modify and adapt the lesson and materials are given for Emerging Readers ( e.g., students who use oral speech or symbol-based augmentative communication, read sight words) and Emerging Communicators (e.g., students who are learning to use regularized gestures, signs, and symbols to communicate a variety of intents). Additionally, examples of what some of the suggestions might actually look like for individual students are provided so teachers can see possible “student work.”
47 Universal Design for Learning UDL is a Set of Principles that Provides All Students Equal Opportunities to LearnRecognition Networks: The “What” of LearningStrategic Networks: The “How” of LearningAffective Networks: The “Why” of Learning
48 Depth of Knowledge Level 1 = Recall & Reproductions Specific Facts, Definitions, Routine ProceduresLevel 2 = Skills & ConceptsApplying Skills and Concepts, Relationships, Main IdeasLevel 3 = Strategic ReasoningReasoning and Planning in Order to RespondLevel 4 = Extended ReasoningComplex Planning and Thinking—Usually Over a Period of Time
49 Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 1—Recall and Reproduction TeacherStudentDirectsShowsQuestionsDemonstratesComparesExaminesTellsEvaluatesRespondsRemembersMemorizesExplainsRestatesInterpretsRecognizesTranslates
50 Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 2—Skills and Concepts TeacherStudentShowsObservesFacilitatesQuestionsOrganizesEvaluatesSolves ProblemsCalculatesCompletesConstructsDemonstratesCompiles
51 Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 3—Strategic Reasoning TeacherStudentProbesClarifiesGuidesOrganizesDissectsQuestonsAcceptsActs a ResourceDiscussesDebatesExaminesJudgesJustifiesUncoversDisputesDecides
52 Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 4—Extended Reasoning TeacherStudentFacilitatesReflectsExtendsAnalyzesEvaluatesDesignsTakes RisksProposesFormulatesPlansCreatesModifies
53 Depth of Knowledge--Activities Level 1 = Recall & ReproductionsConcept Map, Timeline, Keywords, Chart, Recite Facts, Cut Out, Draw, Cartoon Strip, Oral Report, Outline, Paraphrase, RetellLevel 2 = Skills & ConceptsClassify a Series of Steps, Construct a Model—Demonstrate How it Works, Perform a Play, Make a Game or Puzzle About the Area of Study, Explain the Meaning of a Concept, Explain Relationship Among a Number of Concepts, Multi-Step CalculationsLevel 3 = Strategic ReasoningVenn Diagram to Show how Two Topics are the Same and Different, Design a Questionnaire, Flow Chart to Show Stages, Conduct an Investigation, Debate, Persuasive Speech, Letter with Point of View, Research and Report on the “Why” of an Issue or TopicLevel 4 = Extended ReasoningFormulate and Test Hypotheses, Perspective Taking and Collaboration, Persuasive Writing Tasks, Devise a Way To…, Sell and Idea, Write a Jingle to Sell an Idea, Develop a Menu with a Variety of Healthy Foods
54 The Least Dangerous Assumption We assume that students with the most significant cognitive disabilities are competent and able to learn, and we support increased educational opportunities in a range of learning environments.The project partners operate on the principle of the “least dangerous assumption” (Donnellan, 1984; Jorgensen, 2005). We assume that students with the most significant cognitive disabilities are competent and able to learn and we promote increased educational opportunities in a range of learning environments.As a result ofassuming competence gained by students through increased opportunities to learn academic content (rather than a lack of or limited opportunities )the use of evidence-based instructional practicesincreased communicative competence,is that students will acquire new knowledge and skills and become college, career, and community ready.
57 Developing Instructionally Appropriate IEPs? An Instructionally Appropriate IEP describes a process in which the IEP team has incorporated state content standards in its developmentSpecific accommodations and modifications addressing student’s needs to access the general education instructional program are included in the Instructionally Appropriate IEP for student’s present grade-level and course content requirements.
58 Current Practice IEP Team Identifies Unique Needs Unique Needs Are Often Discussed Without Reference to Grade-Level Standards, Curriculum and InstructionThis Often Results in Two Parallel Educational and/or Instructional Programs for Students with IEPsGeneral Education andSpecial EducationOr,Functional andAcademic
59 Best Practice Identify Student’s Unique Needs in Relation to the CCSS Develop Present Levels Based on Unique Needs and CCSSIdentify the Gap Between PLOP and Grade-Level CCSSDevelop a Plan to Meet—or Get As Close As Possible to--Grade-Level CCSSDevelop Annual IEP Goals Based on All of the Above
60 Developing Goals Based on the CCSS Use Grade-Level StandardsExamine the Essential Content and Skills within that Standard Based on the Student’s Identified Unique NeedsAim High--Rigor and Fidelity based onBloomWebb’s Depth of KnowledgeUniversal Design for LearningWork Towards Closing GapsGrade-Level Access with Supplemental Remediation Only As Needed
61 Consider All Areas Environmental Situations Social Interactions Behavioral NeedsPrerequisite SkillsCurriculum ResourcesInstructional ResourcesInstructional MethodologiesAccommodations and/or ModificationAssessment ProceduresProgress Reporting
62 Access to the General Education Curriculum An IEP must include “a statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals, designed to meet the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum.”(IDEA, 2004, 614(d)(1)(A)(i),)
63 Specially Designed Instruction Developing Goals and Objectives Based on the CCSS and Specially Designed InstructionCCSS StandardIEP GoalSpecially Designed Instruction
64 Unwrapping the Standards, or Putting the “I” in CCSS Individualizing Grade-Level StandardsSelect the Standard Based on Present Levels of PerformanceAssessmentProgress on Last Year’s GoalsCurriculum-Based AssessmentCircle the Verbs and/or Action Words and TermsUnderline the Key SkillsDevelop Goals
65 A Word or Two About Present Levels of Performance PLOPS are Always Directly Related to the GoalAlways Include a Strength and WeaknessWeakness = GoalAvoid TMI
66 Example of PLOPPLOP: Based on scores on the WJ (list reading or spelling scores) and curriculum-based measures (list Curriculum or supplemental materials used—e.g., work samples from Corrective Reading or Open Court) Frank understands all of his grade-level short vowel CVC words; however, he is easily distracted during class instruction and is not able to convert short vowels to long vowels using the magic “e.”Goals: By , Frank will be able to convert 20 short-vowel CVC words to long-vowel CVCV words using the magic “e” with 90% accuracy in 4 out of 5 trials.Discussion
67 Example of PLOP (continued) PLOP: Based on scores on the WJ (list reading or spelling scores) and curriculum-based measures (list Curriculum or supplemental materials used—e.g., work samples from Corrective Reading or Open Court) Frank understands all of his grade-level short vowel CVC words; however, he is not able to convert short vowels to long vowels using the magic “e.”Goals: By , Frank will be able to convert 20 short-vowel CVC words to long-vowel CVCV words using the magic “e” with 90% accuracy in 4 out of 5 trials.
68 What is the difference between the Traditional and Instructionally Appropriate IEP? Traditional IEPInstructionally Appropriate IEPFocused on acquiring basic academic, access, and/or functional skillsLittle relationship to a specific academic area or grade-level expectationsDirectly tied to the Common Core standardsBoth the student’s present level of academic achievement and functional performance (PLOP) and the annual IEP goals are aligned with and based on the state’s grade-level standardsTraditionally, IEPs have focused on a student’s acquiring basic academic, access (standards-driven IEP) or functional (aligned IEP) skills and have had little relationship to a specific academic area or grade-level expectations. In contrast, the process used to develop an Instructionally Appropriate IEP is directly tied to the state’s content standards. Both the student’s present level of performance and the annual IEP goals are aligned with and based on the state’s grade-level standards which creates a plan that is aimed at getting the student to a proficient level on all state standards.
69 What are the benefits of a Instructionally Appropriate IEP? Ties the IEP to the general education curriculumProvides positive directions and goals for interventionUtilizes standards to identify specific content critical to a student's successful progress in the general education curriculumPromotes a single educational system that is inclusive through common language and curriculum for special and general education studentsEnsures greater consistency across schools and districtsEncourages higher expectations for students with disabilitiesMacQuarie (2009) describes the following positive benefits of an Instructionally Appropriate IEP:Ties the IEP to the general education curriculum, Provides positive directions and goals for intervention,Utilizes standards to identify specific content critical to a student's successful progress in the general education curriculum, Promotes a single educational system that is inclusive through common language and curriculum for special and general education students, Ensures greater consistency across schools and districts, and Encourages higher expectations for students with disabilitiesA properly implemented Instructionally Appropriate IEP will improve the student’s opportunity to receive specifically designed instruction linked to the general educational curriculum for the enrolled grade and appropriate accommodations to support achievement of grade-level expectations.
70 Does an Instructionally Appropriate IEP imply that the student is on grade-level in that content area?No, the student may not be on grade-level in that content area. However, they are working toward meeting grade-level expectations and are receiving grade-level content instruction.No, the student may not be on grade-level in that content area. However, they are working toward meeting grade-level expectations and are receiving grade-level content instruction. The IEP should address what needs to happen in order for the student to meet the standards. Once the IEP team has analyzed the student’s current performance and determined what the student needs to learn, the specialized instruction and related services and supports should be addressed.
71 Instructionally Appropriate IEP Developing the Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLOP)PLOPs and IEP Goals are Based on CCSS—from Far Below Grade Level to At or Near Grade LevelThe Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLOP) provides a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s academic achievement, identifies current functional performance, and provides an explanation of how the disability affects the student’s involvement/progress in participating in the general curriculum. An instructionally appropriate IEP should indicate how the student is performing in relationship to the CCSS at the enrolled grade-level. An instructionally appropriate IEP should identify specific skills and knowledge that will allow the student to work towards current grade-level CCSS or the next grade-level of standards.
72 Step 1: Review the Grade-Level Standards All members of the IEP team, including parents, should become familiar with the general education grade level standardsNote that IEPs that span two school years may require goals from both grade levels (e.g. 7th grade ELA and 8th grade ELA).Consider how the student is performing in relation to the grade-level content standards for the grade in which he or she is currently enrolled.Ask:What is the intent of the content standard?What must the student know and be able to do to meet the content standard?
73 Step 2: Examine Classroom and Student Data Analyze the student’s performance relative to grade-level Common Core standards on:Informal class assessments, statewide assessments, real-world performance tasks, criterion-based evaluations, curriculum-based assessments, and work samples.Identify the grade-level Common Core standards that are most affected by the student’s disability.Consider whether the data are valid measures of the student’s abilities.Use the data to predict future learning needs.Consider parent and student input.Review previous IEPs and progress monitoring data regarding the student’s performance.
74 Step 2: Examine Classroom and Student Data Ask:What can the IEP team learn from the data about the student’s performance on grade-level content standards and skills?Can the assessment data provide useful information for identifying the student’s strengths and needs?What gaps in knowledge and skills does the student have?What can we learn from the way the student responded to previous accommodations?Were the previous interventions successful?Are there skills from previous grade levels that the student has not learned that are crucial to acquiring the grade-level standard? Which are most important to supporting progress?Are there authentic, real-world tasks that demonstrate evidence of student learning?Are there data on student reflection and self-assessment?Is anyone collecting multiple measures? If so, who?
75 Step 3: Writing the PLOPDescribe individual strengths and needs of the student in relation to accessing the general curriculum.Include data from evaluations, classroom and state assessments, observations, information from parents and students, and other resources (examples listed above).Identify the skills and knowledge that a student needs to achieve to meet academic grade-level content standards.Identified needs will be used to develop annual IEP goals.Identify the student’s Response Mode (e.g., Verbal, Writing, Technology, Visuals, PECS,Pointing, Eye Gaze, etc.)
76 Step 3: Writing the PLOP Ask: What are the grade-level content standards?What is the student’s performance in relation to grade-level standards?What are the student’s strengths in terms of accessing and mastering the general curriculum? Include sources of this information.What are this student’s areas of need in accessing and mastering the general curriculum? Include sources of this information.What academic skills and behaviors is the student able/unable to perform?What functional skills and behaviors is the student able/unable to perform?Do functional, organizational, or social skills issues affect the student’s involvement and progress in the general curriculum?What strategies, accommodations, and/or interventions have been successful in helping the student make progress in the general curriculum?How does the identified disability affect involvement and progress in the general curriculum?What are the parental concerns?What are the student’s interests, preferences, and goals? Include postsecondary aspirations if age-appropriate.Is the student progressing at a rate to achieve grade-level proficiency within the year?
77 PLOP Quick CheckIs the information educationally valuable and written in a user-friendly fashion?Does the baseline data represent the student’s needs in relationship to the general education curriculum?Would any teacher know where to begin instruction based on the information provided in the PLOP?
78 Instructionally Appropriate Individualized Education Program (IEP): Developing Instructionally-Appropriate Measurable Annual GoalsAsk:What are the student’s needs as identified in the present level of performance?What skills does the student require to master the content of the curriculum?What can the student reasonably be expected to accomplish in one school year?IEP annual goals set targets of expected performance for individual students to accomplish in one school year. The goals in a student’s IEP should relate to the student’s need for specially designed instruction to address the student’s disability needs and those needs that interfere with the student’s ability to participate and progress in the general curriculum. Needs identified in the PLOP provide the basis for which annual goals are written.
79 Components of Annual Goals WhoStudentTimeframeLength of TimeConditionsUnder What ConditionsBehaviorWill Do WhatCriterionTo What Level or DegreeWriting Annual Goal ComponentsWhen writing annual goals, the components should include who, behavior, criterion, conditions, and timeframe. Timeframe specified in the number of weeks or a certain date for completion. Conditions specify the manner in which progress toward the goal occurs. Conditions describe the specific resources that must be present for a student to reach the goal. The condition of the goal should relate to the behavior being measured. For example, a goal relating to reading comprehension may require the use of a graphic organizer. The graphic organizer is the condition. Behavior clearly identifies the performance that is being monitored. It represents an action that can be directly observed and measured. Criterion identifies how much, how often, or to what standard the behavior must occur in order to demonstrate that the goal has been achieved. The goal criterion specifies the amount of growth that is expected.
80 Components of Annual Goals Ask:Does the goal have a specific time frame?Are the conditions for meeting the goal addressed?How will you measure the outcome of the goal?Are the goals written in terms that parents and teachers can understand?Do the goals support participation and progress in the general education curriculum?Do the annual goals support postsecondary goals?
81 IEP Goal development and instructional alignment
82 Aligning IEPs to the Common Core State Standards for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities (Courtade & Browder, 2011)Speaking and Listening IEP GoalSpeaking and Listening StandardComprehension and CollaborationEngage Effectively in a range of collaborative discussion (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led)Comprehension and CollaborationFrank will use picture communication in group context to acknowledge others’ communication
90 IEP Goal Development and Instructional Alignment—Based on CCSS 1. Identify the student’s present level of academic achievement and functional performance.2. Identify the appropriate grade level standard(s).3. Unpack the standard. Identify what the student needs to know and be able to do in the simplest terms possible.For example:Divide the standard into its component parts.Analyze the sub-skills.Determine accommodations and/or modifications needed for the student to successfully reach standard.Determine a plan to monitor progress.
91 CCSS Goal and Instructional Strategies Alignment Tool CCSS StandardPossible Goal AreasInstructional StrategiesAccommodations/ModificationsGoal Format (Given—Will—Measured By)Goal
92 CCSS Goal and Instructional Strategies Framework Group Activity:Identify the StandardIdentify the Goal AreaDevelop Three Goals Based on the Same Standard and Goal Area: Goal Format (Given—Will—Measured By)Mild Moderate Severe
93 What is the Current Status? CCSS Goals Statewide Work GroupCA Standards-aligned IEP Project (CSIP)Tools & Resources for Instruction and Goal DevelopmentSmarter BalancedPilot Districts/SitesPilot Test Accessibility and Accommodations GuidelinesNCSCNot Officially Adopted in CACDE Hired New Person to OverseeAdvisory BoardCommunities of PracticeSouth—Central—NorthWill Expand Across the StateDeveloping Instructional Strategies/CurriculaMore Information Soon
94 What are the Key Areas to Consider in Making the Transition? Digital DivideCurriculum AlignmentCCSS Anchor StandardsShift from M/M and M/S toMild—Moderate—SevereCollaboration: Gen. Ed. & Spec. Ed.Universal Design for Learning (UDL)Staff DevelopmentIs Spec. Ed. Staff Included?Service Delivery ModelsValues and Beliefs
95 What Happens to the CMA? CMA—Science for Grades 5, 8 and 10 Will continue as part of the CMAPP beginning until a successor science assessment aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards is adopted by the State Board of EducationCMA—ELA for Grades 3 – 11 andMath for Grades 3 – 7 and Algebra I and Geometry will be available on a voluntary basis for and to be administered at the Option and Cost of the LEA
96 When Do We Start Using the SBAC? SBAC for will Field Tested in Both ELA and MathWill Include CMA StudentsScores from the SBAC Field Tests will not be reported
98 What About the CAPA?The CAPA Continues to be our State Test for students with significant disabilities (one percent) as determined by IEP Teams for the School YearAB 484Requires the Use of the CAPA for Grades 2-11 to continue unless the State Board of Education adopts an Alternative Assessment..
99 How Do We Document the in our IEPs? At this time, how we document State Testing in our IEPs is a Local DecisionWe have yet to receive guidance on this from CDEWe expect to receive guidance soon….Many County Offices of Educations, SELPAs, and Districts are recommending that we remain Status Quo at this time up until we receive guidance in this areaCheck with your District and/or SELPA before changing the way you document State Testing in IEPs
100 What About Digital Goal Banks? There are Many Private Vendors AvailableCDE WorkgroupComplete Tool Kit and Resource BankOther States Have Their Own VersionsDistrict/SELPA Teams are Working on ThemProfessional Organizations are Working on ThemGet Ready for the Tidal Wave
101 AB 484 Assessment Implications (Courtesy of Santa Ana Unified School District)
102 SBAC Accessibility and Accommodations Guidelines (Courtesy of Santa Ana Unified School District)