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Ginevra Courtade, Ph.D. University of Louisville

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1 Ginevra Courtade, Ph.D. University of Louisville
Aligning IEPs to the Common Core State Standards for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities Ginevra Courtade, Ph.D. University of Louisville

2 What should be included in the IEP*?
(a) a statement of the present level of performance in both academic achievement and functional performance, (b) a statement of measurable annual goals (both academic and functional), (c) a description of benchmarks or short term objectives, (d) a description of how student progress towards the goals will be measured, (e) a statement regarding related services and supplementary aids and services (based on peer reviewed research) to be provided, (f) an explanation of the extent to which student will not participate in the general education classroom, (g) a statement of any accommodations needed to measure academic and functional achievement of the student, (h) frequency, location, and duration of services, and (i) postsecondary goals beginning when the student is 16 years old. According to IDEA 2004

3 What do you need in order to develop an effective IEP?
Knowledge of federal and state regulations Guidelines for developing a standards-based IEP A process for assessing and planning

4 Aligning IEPs to the Common Core State Standards for Students with Disabilities

5 Have you started incorporating CCSS into IEPs?
Do you think your teachers

6 Underlying Assumptions in IEP Development Have Not Changed
All students will receive instruction on state standards with opportunities for instruction in general education The student will receive instruction and supports to achieve academic and functional goals The student’s unique needs will be considered

7 What is a Standards-Based IEP?
An IEP developed through planning based on the student’s grade level standards (or grade level alternate achievement standards) Strengths and needs based on standards Planning process should identify ways to close the gap between current performance and grade-level expectations Modified from Modified from

8 Why Create a Standards-Based IEP for Students with Severe Disabilities?
Equity and accountability IDEA 1997, 2004 Involvement and progress in the general curriculum Measureable goals that enable students to make progress in that curriculum NCLB Required outcome of achievement in reading, math, and science

9 A Standards-Based IEP What it is What it is NOT An IEP that incorporates grade level appropriate academic goals based on state standards or alternate achievement standards An IEP that is focused solely on academic standards A generic IEP that does not meet the individual needs of the student Brown et al., 1976 the criterion of ultimate functioning -"an ever changing, expanding, localized, and personalized cluster of factors that each person must possess in order to function as productively and independently as possible in socially, vocationally, and domestically integrated adult community environments" (Brown, Nietupski, & Hamre-Nietupski, 1976). *published in “Hey don’t forget about me”- (Council for Exceptional Children) *talked about respect for this population, develop training to allow them to be everything they can possible be! As true today 1976 – 2009! Where should the students be in the long term? How do we get them there? Always consider long range goals: The criterion of ultimate functioning

10 How do we get there? Begin with alignment
The process of matching two educational components which strengthens the purpose and goals of both Why is alignment important? IEPs aligned with state standards can prepare students for state assessments For students to show progress in academic content, they need academic instruction Well aligned IEPs can promote meaningful academic instruction.

11 Further Understanding Alignment

12 Alignment Example

13 Selecting IEP Goals That Promote Alignment: How do we get there?
Guidelines for developing an IEP that includes goals that align to state standards Selecting IEP Goals That Promote Alignment: How do we get there?

14 Guideline 1 Become familiar with state standards
Common Core State Standards-English Language Arts Common Core State Standards-Mathematics ILS Common Core Resources Diane-this is where we will want to add in the new charts from the book (we did have the MA guide in the old book)-we have internet access in the room. We could show the links… I started to add in Camilla’s scenario-but they are very long

15 Additional National Standards
National Science Education Standards National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies

16 Guideline 2 Become Familiar your State’s Approach to Extending Standards for AA-AAS Illinois Alternate Assessment Frameworks Diane -what examples should we add here? We just have Camilla’s scenario in the new book (p. 12 in the ms) I made an example. Diane

17 IAA Reading Frameworks Priorities-Grade 4 example

18 Guideline 3 Keep the planning student focused
Begin with an overview of recent progress and strengths. The student might lead the meeting Members of the team who have conducted recent assessments can present their findings The student’s preferences and individual goals can be a starting point for planning.

19 Guideline 4 Consider both specific academic goals and broad access goals The IEP creates access to the curriculum, but is not a curriculum itself .

20 ELA (Reading, writing, etc.)
Speech OT/PT Standards-based IEP ELA (Reading, writing, etc.) Math Science Social Studies SD Skills AT Self-Mgmnt Skills Go through academic content circles-Is this enough? Not all of your objectives will align with state standards…DO NOT “force fit” them What else is needed to support the student? Overall focus should be individualized skills that consider the criterion of ultimate functioning Social Skills Personally Relevant (Functional) Skills Life Skills

21 Consider the circle diagram…
In an IEP for a student with severe disabilities Is academic content enough? Not all of your objectives will align with state standards…DO NOT “force fit” them What else is needed to support the student? OT, PT, self-determination skills, etc. Overall focus should be individualized skills that consider the criterion of ultimate functioning Personally relevant skills

22 Guideline 5 Ask the question: Is it really academic?
Sometimes in extending the state standard, the essence of the academic component is lost. General educators can be especially helpful as resource people in making sure that the final goals have clear links to academic content.

23 Is it really English Language Arts?
Camilla is a 12 year old 7th grader with severe disabilities. Camilla will use her AAC device to greet peers in English class. Camilla will acquire 20 sight words that relate to activities in her community and home. Camilla will select two major themes using pictures with phrases after hearing a text summary read aloud; she will categorize 2-3 events in each chapter of the text during read alouds using additional pictures related to the story and will summarize by presenting a chart of these categories. Camilla will identify initial consonant and vowel sounds and use this skill in writing words with software that anticipates the spelling from the first letters. 1) No, although this is an important social skill the team will probably want to keep on the IEP, it is not an English Language Arts skill. Camilla needs additional English Language Arts objectives that focus on elements of literature. 2) yes, it is reading, but does not link to the CCSS that other 7th graders will be learning. Keep the objective, but more work is needed to access the general curriculum. 3) Content is the theme of text; performance partially meets the standard 4)This objective is important to Camilla as she learns the decoding skills to become an independent reading. This objective does NOT align with the state standard, so something more is needed (e.g., see Example 3.) In contrast, it WILL be on her IEP as a target for promoting beginning reading.

24 Guideline 6 Do not force fit all IEP objectives into alignment with academic standards What else should be part of the IEP?

25 Writing Measurable IEP Objectives

26 Developing IEP objectives
What are the general goals for the student? What is the student’s present level of performance? How does the student get from the present level of performance to the goal? Short term objectives

27 Present Level of Performance
Camilla uses her AAC device to ask for basic needs and greets her friends using pictures. She will also point to pictures of familiar objects or people. She does not yet use pictures to represent a concept. Objective 1 Given 30 new pictures and symbols presented on the computer selected from the content areas, Camilla will select the picture or symbol named. Objective 2 Given a three choice array of pictures that relate to the lesson and asked show me ___ (e.g., "tornado"), Camilla will select the picture that shows the concept for 10 new concepts each quarter. Objective 3 When asked, “What was the lesson about today?” Camilla will select a picture from a three choice array. Annual Goal Given a variety of academic topics, Camilla will select pictures to represent major concepts described in class. An example of how to transform the student’s present level of performance to an annual goal…

28 Writing Measureable Goals/Objectives
What is a measureable objective? One that when written, the entire IEP team or anyone else working with the student, can agree that the criteria has been met Should include: Condition-The circumstances under which the behavior will occur Behavior-the skill, action, or performance that it is being monitored, directly observed, and measured Criteria-how much, how often, or to what standard the behavior must occur in order to demonstrate that the objective has been reached I stayed away from annual goals and just worked on objectives. How they write them will vary from state to state, but this is an idea… Definitions from WVDE

29 Non-measurable objective Measurable objective
Joyce will improve her comprehension (Improve how?) After participating in a read aloud of grade appropriate text, Joyce will identify four elements of the narrative (character, setting, event, problem). Nick will increase his graphing skills (Increase to what?) Your turn! Write a measurable goal for Nick. Barry will identify the science concept (What concept should he identify?) Your turn! Write a measurable goal for Barry. Nick-When given access to computer graphing software, Nick will convert a table of numbers into three types of graphs. Barry-After participating in an inquiry lesson and given a key vocabulary word, Barry will fill in a concept statement using this word. (e.g., Water that falls from clouds is called _____ (precipitation)

30 Writing Goals/Objectives for Active Participation
Consider how the student can be an active learner Active participation occurs when the student acquires independent responses that demonstrate understanding Example- Student with a physical disability chooses the main idea from a chapter within a chapter book Passive approach-help the student choose the main idea with hand over hand assistance Active approach-have the student eye gaze to which main idea best fit the chapter read Go through example using “think aloud”

31 Examples Active Responses Passive Responses Brittany will use a laser head pointer to select between 3 pictures projected on a screen to answer comprehension questions Your turn! Change the passive response for Kevin into an active response Do the same for Kirsten Brittany will circle the correct answer with physical guidance to answer comprehension questions Kevin will listen to a story the teacher is reading. Kristen will accompany her peer to buy lunch. Give first example (guided practice) and then let teachers try the next 2 (independent practice) Brittany- Problem with this approach: Brittany’s physical disabilities do not permit her to use a pencil without help. This assistance cannot be faded. There also is no way to determine if Brittany has any understanding of the task. Advantage of this approach: Brittany has the head control to move the light to her selection. Words can be presented with the pictures with the long term goal of fading the use of pictures. Kevin- Problem with this approach: “Listening” is not an observable, measurable response. Students who are quiet and looking at the reader may not be attending. Kevin could be daydreaming. Example Active response (if teachers don’t come up with one)-Kevin will touch the page to indicate it is time to turn it after the teacher has read each page. Advantage of this approach: Kevin is now actively engaged with the reader. Kevin might also have a goal like Brittany’s to show comprehension. The teacher might also ask him to touch pictures on the page to answer questions about the story. Kristen- Problem with this approach: Kirsten is not performing any part of the academics of paying for her lunch; she is merely accompanying someone else. Example active response-Kirsten will ask a peer to help her purchase lunch by finding the symbol $ on her AAC device, to communicate “help me pay.” Advantage of this approach: Kirsten is now actively engaged in paying for her lunch. As she learns more about money she may indicate how much her peer should give the cashier.

32 Writing Standards-based Goals/ Objectives

33 Promote Broad Skills in Literacy
Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Reading Writing Speaking and listening Language There also are literacy standards for history/social studies, science, and technology. National Reading Panel components Phonemic awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Text comprehension We could hand out the table that we have created (p. 19 in the manuscript)? I don’t think we need it. Diane

34 Promote Broad Skills in Mathematics
Common Core State Standards in Math High School Numbers and Quantity Algebra Functions Modeling Geometry Statistics & Probability Common Core State Standards in Math K-8 Counting & Cardinality (K) Operations and Algebraic Thinking (K-5) Numbers and Operations in Base Ten (K-5) Numbers and Operations-Fractions (3-5) Measurement & Data (K-5) Geometry (K-8) Ratios & Proportional Relationships (6-7) Ratios & Proportional Relationships (6-8) Expressions & Equations (6-8) Statistics & Probability (6-8) Functions (Grade 8) We could hand out the table that we have created (p. 31 in the manuscript)?

35 Present Level of Performance
Describe what students can do in each content area Consider using level of symbol use to describe current performance In math Jerry can put one object with an object to show 1:1 correspondence. He does not yet use or recognize numbers or count. He can imitate a model to create sets to show the solution to a problem. In the book, this is where we talk about symbolic levels (starts on p. 25 of ms) How far do we want to get into this? Examples?

36 Definitions of Symbolic Levels
Awareness: Has no clear response Pre-symbolic (Beginning with Symbols): Communicates with gestures, eye gaze, purposeful moving to object, sounds Early Symbolic (concrete): Beginning to use pictures or other symbols to communicate within a limited vocabulary Symbolic (abstract): Speaks or has vocabulary of signs, pictures to communicate. Recognizes some sight words, numbers, etc. Ask: Where is Jerry in these definitions? (moving from pre to early)

37 Concerns About Symbolic Levels
Can not be used to infer cognitive level Students may acquire symbols and show much higher functioning than realized Objects can be highly complex (e.g., models) All students should have opportunity to receive and respond with text Students can become symbolic through training in use of AAC

38 Aligning Grade Level Standards: Incorporating Present Level of Performance-ELA
Strand: Category of standard Grade level standard Objectives based on present level of performance Reading: Literature Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 4th Grade Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. Beginning Symbolic Leslie will select an object/picture to represent a story’s theme for 4 of 5 opportunities.. Early Symbolic Adam will use pictures to identify themes in literature that has been read to him and sort the different stories by corresponding themes for 4 of 5 opportunities. Symbolic Thomas will use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the themes of literature he has previously read with 90% of responses correct for at least 3 stories.

39 Aligning Grade Level Standards: Incorporating Present Level of Performance-Math
Domain Grade level standard Objectives based on present level of performance Expressions & Equations: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations 7th Grade 7.7a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). Beginning Symbolic Leslie will use the equal and not equal signs on her AAC device to indicate “same” or “not same” for 4/5 equations augmented with objects (e.g., ***=3). Early Symbolic Hannah will use a pictorial number line to solve linear equations with sums under 10 for 4/5 equations. Symbolic Thomas will write the linear equation for 3 of 4 known money facts (e.g., x quarters = $1.00 or x (25) = 100).

40 Apply Longstanding Values/ Supports
Self Determination-making choices and decisions regarding one's quality of life free from undue external influence Use general curriculum activities as context for learning self-determination skills that contribute to increased autonomy for students Skills can promote learning of the general curriculum, while at the same time foster the acquisition of skills with lifelong benefits


42 Incorporating SD in Academic Objectives
Examples David will count tasks to determine how many jobs he completed. Sam will use a picture/word journal to rate characteristics of potential jobs based on likes/dislikes Which components of SD are embedded? Ask the teachers which component of SD is embedded… David-self-management/regulation Sam-awareness, decision making about future job

43 Your turn! Write two standards-based objectives that embed a self-determination skill. Given numbers 1-10, Alex will correctly count items to represent each number. Stephanie will select pictures to identify 2/3 of a story’s main characters. Alex-choose a number an count item to represent that number (choice-making) Steph-select pictures to identify…and choose one that is most like her in some way (self awarenes)

44 Apply Longstanding Values/ Supports
Assistive Technology Should enable the student to engage in the task more independently Examples Photos, picture symbols, pencil grips, stamps, switches, software, touch screens

45 AT Examples Original Objective With AT John will read 10 complete sentences composed with a picture support program using picture cues to identify at least one novel word per sentence. David will use a math software program with virtual manipulatives and a head switch to choose the correct number of manipulatives that have been counted for sets 1-10. John will read 5 three word phrases that use known words. David will watch as a peer counts manipulatives in sets of 1 to 10 items. Only when needed.

46 Your turn! Original Objective With AT Chuck will choose 5 pictures to put in a journal and dictate a description of the pictures. Randy will partially participate in a science lesson. Using Clicker 5 and a touch screen, Chuck will independently compose 5 sentences to add to his journal. Given picture choices, Randy will eye gaze to the correct step to indicate to a peer which step of the experiment they should perform next.

47 Apply Longstanding Values/ Supports
Personal relevance/ functionality Using a real life activity to help make the standard meaningful Creates a picture symbol homework list (writing) Locates a room by its number (math) Uses a keypad in the cafeteria (math) Locates the sports page using newspaper index (reading) Follows a picture schedule (reading)

48 Examples of Real Life Applications of Geometry Skills
Home Work Leisure Community Skill: Geometric shapes Age: 7 Play video games that use shapes. Shape cues for chores at school (e.g., rectangle for toys in toy box; circle for help to set the round table for snack). Forming shapes while playing games in P.E. (e.g., Let’s make a circle; boys in a line). Identify shape signs (e.g., stop at red circle sign). Perimeter and Area Age: 12 (Middle School) Make a “where I live” chart showing area of rooms. Use laser measure to determine perimeter of objects. Indicate perimeter of playing field to show concept of “out of bounds.” Identify what foods are located in perimeter of grocery store. Diane-do we want to use this?

49 Your turn! Identify simple machines and explain how they help us (Note: inclined planes, ramps, wheels, pulleys, screws, levers, etc.) Collect, organize and display data to solve problems (goal is to use graphs and data – bar graphs, tallies, pictographs, Venn diagrams, circle graphs, line plots, tables). Identify the mode of a set of data (most often occurring) Ask the teachers to write 2 objectives that are meaningful in the life of a 5th grade student with severe disabilities based the Extended Standards on the slide Provide time for the teachers to do this.

50 Practicing Alignment to State Standards

51 Aligning Language Arts Objectives
Lisa’s Scenario Lisa is a 3rd grade student with Rhett’s syndrome. She is nonverbal and currently uses objects to communicate. She shows an interest in books read to her by peers. She will also sometimes look at pictures in a magazine. Lisa is ambulatory, but has limited use of her hands. She enjoys social contexts and will sometimes make her meaning known by eye gazing or laughing. I need help with this section…this part was overwhelming in class

52 Begin by considering the Strand of ELA
See Lisa’s ELA Handout Team targets one standard for each component of 3rd grade ELA Defines priority skills Based on Lisa’s needs (challenges accessing the general curriculum: few foundational skills, limited hand dexterity), p. 83 I gave the students the chart that starts on page 47, then showed them these priority skills. But, I think showing them everything was too much…since we haven’t even gotten to the actual goals yet.

53 Promote Self Determination
1. Lisa will choose books to be read aloud during individual reading times. 2. Lisa will independently engage with books using technology for read alouds. 3. Lisa will initiate use of picture communication for requests.

54 Use Assistive Technology
1. Lisa will use a voice output device with picture symbols to communicate requests. 2a. Given two pictures presented on a VOD or computer touch screen Lisa will answer "what" and "who" comprehension questions. 2b. Given two pictures presented on a VOD or computer touch screen Lisa will select one to fill in a sentence. 3. Lisa will use a touch screen computer to print a sentence she composed or activate a recorded book.

55 Embed in Real Life Activities
Lisa can use pictures for requesting during lunch and break times as well as during class times. During times when the class chooses literature for independent reading, Lisa can have options that relate to her special interests which are horses and swimming as well as other stories from the 3rd grade reading list. The teacher may begin with some literature on these topics to teach her how to answer comprehension questions. Lisa can be taught to generalize her "who" and "what" answers and sentence writing to compose daily reports to share with her family about her day. Lisa can also generalize her emerging literacy skills to social stories the teacher will use to help her learn skills needed for the school environment like how to eat in the cafeteria.

56 Lisa’s IEP Objectives in ELA
1. Lisa will select a research topic using a picture request and copy/paste at least 5 pictures from the internet to create a report about the topic. (Writing Standard 3.7) *see handout for additional examples Too much…how can we cut this down? Let’s make this a handout and only leave one on the slide as an example.

57 Aligning Math Objectives
Jerome’s Scenario Jerome is a student with Down syndrome and a moderate intellectual disability. He has mastered about 50 sight words and is learning to apply them in activities of daily living. Jerome also has learned to recognize initial and final consonants and short vowels can decode many simple words. With his sight words and decoding skills, he can often help the teacher read short passages of text that have been prepared with controlled vocabulary. He communicates using a picture wallet and single spoken words to make requests, answer questions, and socialize. In math, he rote counts from 1-10, but cannot count objects consistently or recognize numbers consistently. Jerome does understand the purpose of money and likes to make purchases, but needs help counting out the correct number of dollars. Jerome is 11 years old and in 6th grade.

58 Begin By Considering the Standards in Math
See Jerome’s Mathematics Handout IEP team targets at one or two priority standards in each of these areas based on the recommendation of the math teacher Develops priority skills Based on Jerome’s needs (few numeracy skills-inconsistent number identification, no computation), p. 91 I had the same problem with the math section… There were notes for each of these in the ms (p. 56), but it was too much on the slide

59 Promote Self Determination
1. When presenting a math story, Jerome could choose the numbers to use in that days story. He could also choose which manipulatives to put into sets. 2. As Jerome masters using a graphic organizer, he can more easily self-direct his learning. He can learn to say, then do, the steps to solve the problem. 3. Jerome might set a goal for how many math problems to try that day. He could count and graph the number completed. This self-monitoring and self-evaluation also promotes his emerging numeracy skills.

60 Use Assistive Technology
1. The calculator is an important form of assistive technology for Jerome. Once he learns to enter numbers on the calculator, he will be able to perform more of the problems from the 6th grade text. Once he can find the numbers 1-9, the operation symbols, and equal, he will be able to compute problems. 2. Many of the skills Jerome needs to acquire can be practiced on the computer. For example, he could move items on a touch screen to create sets or perform computation on an on screen calculator. 3. The graphic organizers Jerome will learn to use are also a form of assistive technology. For example, he will have a graphic organizer to help him write fractions as ___ (how many are in part of the set)/___how many are in the whole.

61 Embed in Real Life Activities
1. Jerome can divide materials for projects into sets for the class or his small group and use this experience to practice matching numbers to sets and creating fractions and ratios. 2. By having a class store or token economy, Jerome can apply his general knowledge of money and interest in purchasing to practice counting accurately and learning the concept of debt (negative numbers) and zero (no money). 3. Identifying points on a plane can become very meaningful when applied to planning a route through a neighborhood or store.

62 IEP Objectives for Jerome In Mathematics
When given a cluster of up to 20 objects, Jerome will divide them into 1-5 sets and identify the number that represents each set for 8/10 trials. He will subdivide these sets to show division of fractions and ratios and represent this second number using a graphic organizer for 8/10 trials. (Mathematics: Rations and Proportional Relationships, Standard 6.1; Number System, Standard 6.1) * see handout for additional objectives Make a handout; have one on here as example.

63 Carina Example Carina is a 5th grade students with severe, multiple disabilities. She uses a wheelchair and has limited movement in her left arm. She can move her head from side to side. Carina uses a head switch to greet teachers and peers. She smiles when listening to stories that are read to her by an adult. Carina does not recognize any math symbols and does not respond to teacher count downs. Develop IEP goals and strategies to align Handout-with blanks first, then complete before they leave.

64 Work for one of your students

65 Are we done yet? Your IEP is not complete…
Also include daily living skills, social skills, therapy goals, etc. based on individual needs and preferences

66 Contact Information Ginevra Courtade

67 Resources Courtade, G., & Browder, D. (2011). Aligning IEPs to the Common Core State Standards for students with moderate and severe disabilities. Verona, WI: Attainment Company.

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