Presentation on theme: "Module 4: Writing Measurable"— Presentation transcript:
1Module 4: Writing Measurable Standards-Based IEPsStandards-Based IEPsModule 4: Writing MeasurableNext Generation-Linked Individualized Education Program GoalsTrainer Notes: The fourth module in the SB-IEP training focuses on writing measurable goals and objectives.Arkansas Department of Education
2IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/Instructional ResultsWrite Measurable GoalsSelect Instructional Services & Program SupportsImplement & Monitor ProgressGeneralCurriculum ExpectationsCurrent Skills and KnowledgeArea of Instructional NeedPLAAFP Statements on IEP FormDeveloping PLAAFP StatementsRemember our GPS analogy: You have to know where you want to go, then you put in data about your starting point. This creates a map. As you go along, new opportunities arise, or you might come to a barrier and need to adjust. When you arrive at your first goal, which is often the end of the year, you will need to choose a new goal and start the process over again. It is all about starting with that desired outcome or the instructional result we want to achieve.What are measurable goals? They are statements that describe what a student can reasonably expect to accomplish within a 12-month period in the student’s special education program. That definition is really important, and there are a few key components: The first component is what a student can reasonably be expected to accomplish. The second component is within a 12-month period. The third is about what is going to be accomplished through the student’s special education program. Modules 1-4
3Choose content standard and objective(s) Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional PerformanceCollect DataIdentify StrengthsIdentify NeedsDevelop Impact StatementChoose content standard and objective(s)What standard(s) and objective(s) best address the gap?What standard(s) and objective(s) are critical for accelerating student learning?Develop 4-Point GoalIn what length of time (Timeframe)Under what context (Conditions)The student (Who) - Will do what (Behavior)Through what assessment (Evaluation) - To what degree/level (Criterion)Accommodations/Modifications/Specially Designed InstructionThe highlighted area in yellow is the fifth step in developing standards-based IEPs.Write measurable goals and objectivesModules 1-4
4Step 5:Choose content standard(s) and objective(s) Determine which NxGCSOs/NxGECEs are most important for each student (based on progress in the general education curriculum)Compare standard(s) with student’s areas of need and the impact of the exceptionalityUse data to determine the areas the student will find difficult without additional supportsBackward/forward map using learning progressions
5You Are on the Road to Developing Standards-Based Annual Goals You have shown that you have knowledge of the general curriculum standards and you have carefully considered those standardsYou have spent an adequate amount of time gathering and analyzing information used to outline the Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP)Now you have a strong foundation for developing measurable goalsYou have reviewed the State Standards and gained knowledge on how to develop present level statements, now it is time to write measurable annual goals.
6IDEA Requirements for Measurable Annual Goals (a)(2)(i) “ A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals designed to--(A) Meet the child's needs that result from the child's disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; and(B) Meet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disability;(ii) For children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives;…”§Policy 2419: Regulations for the Education of Students with Exceptionalities requires for students who are in alternate achievement standards, each goal must have at least two objectives. These objectives must include how far the students is expected to progress to the annual goal and by what date.
7Measurable Annual Goals Measurable annual goals are related to the student’s needs as identified in the Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) resulting from the student’s disability that directly affects his or her access to and progress in the general education curriculum.The IEP Team must first consider what the student already knows about the content (look at the strengths in the present level) and develop the goal to address the needs. If needs are addressed on a timely basis, they may never become barriers to learning.According to IDEA regulations, another area to consider when developing goals might be what the child needs to learn or be able to do functionally. These types of goals are typically nonacademic but they do support the achievement of academic goals. However, if a child has functional needs that impact participation in the educational environment, such as learning to eat independently, using public transportation, or communicating with an augmentative communication device; or social or emotional needs, such as impulse control or anger management, these needs should be described in the PLAAFP and goals or accommodations included in the IEP.An example might read:During daily independent practice, Jane will self-monitor her frustration level by asking for help when she does not understand what to do or comprehend the next step in the directions without teacher prompting in 3 of 5 situations.
8When Developing Measurable Goals Aligned with Grade Level Standards Goals and objectives should build on current strengths or address specified needs of the studentGoals and objectives are targeted WITHIN the general education curriculumNot a restatement of the standard/elementDo not take the place of the curriculumGeneral and life skills may also be targeted
9Characteristics of Measurable Annual Goals Based on state content standards for the child’s grade levelAddress the need stated in the PLAAFPState measurable dataDescribe skill attainmentProject student performance at the end of the twelve month IEP periodAn IEP goal addresses needs in relation to the state content standards as noted in the student’s present level of achievement and functional performance and makes the state content standard specific for that student.
10Consideration of the Standards • Intent of the standard• Skills needed to meet standardIncludes depth of knowledgeNew skills and extensions• Knowledge and skills that should be in place in order for student to meet standardsPrerequisitesConnections to previous learning• Methods for showing what the student knows and can do within the standardIEP Teams will need members who are well grounded in state content standards in reading or mathematics or both for the enrolled grade or grades covered by the IEP. These individuals could include the school’s reading and math specialists or the student’s general education teacher in the content area. If the student’s IEP crosses two academic years, it needs to address the content standards of the two enrolled grades. In this case, it is also important to have content expertise about the standards for the upcoming grade represented at the IEP Team meeting. It is also important for special educators to understand how instruction, based on the content standards of the enrolled grade(s), is delivered in their school so that they understand how best to help the student access that content.
11Determining Areas for Goal Writing Using the PLAAFP data, review area(s) of instructional need:English Language ArtsMathematicsAdditional ContentBehaviorFunctional SkillsAccess Skills(Continued)Measurable academic and functional annual goals must be related to the needs described in the present levels of academic achievement and functional performance statements.
12Determining Areas for Goal Writing (continued) 2. Choose the state content standard(s) most essential forAccelerating the student’s ability to progress in the general education curriculum, andResult in educational benefitDifference between student’s performance and grade-level standards (Where is the gap?)3. Unwrap the standardParticipants have a copy of Karen Shaw’s Developing Standards-Based IEPs Step 5 in order for them to identify the verb, noun and context from the standards.Remember in Module 2, we gain knowledge on how to unwrap the standards, which is to look at the verbs, nouns, modifiers and context of the standards in order to break those standards down into skills and concepts.
13Determining Areas for Goal Writing (continued) 4. Identify the critical skill(s) needed to demonstrate mastery of general education curriculum expectations at student’s enrolled grade levelSkills/knowledge that are:Essential to desired outcomesChallenging, yet attainableEssential to participation in the general education curriculumModules 1-4
14Think about…Essential Knowledge and Skills Standards-Based IEPsThink about…Essential Knowledge and SkillsLeverage-standards in one subject that support student’s success in other subjectsEndurance-standards that help students across the years rather than respond to the testing of a single grade levelReadiness-essential for the next grade/standards that help students prepare for the next level of learningIEP Team members should be familiar with these types of standards, and understand the benefit of each.Modules 1-4
15Prioritizing IEP Goals The IEP Team must:Select the need(s) with the greatest impact on skill acquisition for goal developmentConsider impact of goal on the student’s need for future progressDetermine the content standard that correlates with each prioritized needThe IEP Team will not want to develop goals on each grade-level standard, as that would be too cumbersome and time consuming. An understanding of how learning develops in reading and mathematics (learning progressions) will allow the IEP Team to develop goals and objectives based on the state content standards most likely to maximize the progress in the general education curriculum. Goals will be based on the team’s best estimate of how far a student can reasonably advance, given specially designed instruction and accommodations, within the year that the IEP is in place.
16Identifying Priorities for the Student Standards-Based IEPsIdentifying Priorities for the StudentEvaluate how an author uses words to create mental imagery, suggest mood and set toneRecognize stylistic elements such as voice, tone and styleTrainer Notes: Read slideIf kids are way behind, there is not time to teach everything. Concentrate on “need to know”.Target a particular hole and fix it – that’s leverage!Nice to KnowNeed to KnowArkansas Department of Education
17(Preschool: As needed to participate in age-appropriate activities) Standards-Based IEPsRememberAnnual goals are related to needs resulting from the student’s disability that directly affect involvement and progress in the general education curriculum.(Preschool: As needed to participate in age-appropriate activities)Trainer Notes: Read slideArkansas Department of Education
18Changes in the Process of Instructional Planning In standards-based instruction, the teacher must plan backward and forward from the required content standards to the assessments and then to the lessons that will be needed for students to achieve at that level.Trainer’s Notes:(Say) “This slide emphasizes the backward and forward planning that must take place in standards-based instruction.“(Read the quote)DI Instructional Practice – Teaching and Learning ProcessUDL Instructional Practice – EnvironmentsUbD Instructional Practice - Planning
19Backward Mapping for Goal Development Using Learning Progressions StepTask1Select an objective that is considered an anchor or essential objective for the grade level of the student and is a deficit area based on the present levels of performance.2Unwrap the objective to determine the essential skills for knowledge, reasoning, skills, and/or products contained in the standard.3Backward/forward map or back track down the objectives of the learning progression to reach the objective where the student is presently performing successfully.4Notice and identify the essential constructs and skills that are evident in each grade level for that objective.5Write the IEP goal targeting the essential skill(s) beginning with the grade level one year in advance of where the student is presently performing. That is the annual goal target.6Identify and write IEP goals for any additional skills related to the successful completion of the mapped objective – e.g. executive functioning skills, problem solving skills, social skills, etc.Learning progression lists show an objective for every grade from kindergarten through 12th. When developing a goal for a student who functions below grade level in an academic area, the learning progression lists can be used to identify the grade level objective and “backward map” or move down the list until the target objective for the annual goal is identified.Using the learning progression, start with the student’s present grade level. Determine, through unwrapping, the essential skill(s) that should be targeted in order to assist the student in meeting the grade level objective.Backtrack, or backward map, down the learning progression of objectives to reach the level at which the essential skill is introduced. This becomes the objective of focus for the IEP goal. The checklist can be used as a guide to the backward mapping process using learning progressions.Adapted From: Figure 6.12: Checklist for Standards Backward Mapping for GoalDevelopment, Common Core and the Special Education Student, LRP, 2014.Modules 1-4
21Choose content standard and objective(s) Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional PerformanceCollect DataIdentify StrengthsIdentify NeedsDevelop Impact StatementChoose content standard and objective(s)What standard(s) and objective(s) best address the gap?What standard(s) and objective(s) are critical for accelerating student learning?Develop 4-Point GoalIn what length of time (Timeframe)Under what context (Conditions)The student (Who) - Will do what (Behavior)Through what assessment (Evaluation) - To what degree/level (Criterion)Accommodations/Modifications/Specially Designed InstructionThe highlighted area in yellow is the sixth step in developing standards-based IEP goals.Write measurable goals and objectivesModules 1-4
22Step 6:Write measurable goals and objectives Annual goals describe what a student can reasonably expect to accomplish in one school year.Components of Annual Goals:· Timeframe· Conditions· Who/Behavior· Evaluation/CriterionIf a large number of needs are identified, the IEP Team must consider how each need impacts the student’s progress in the general education curriculum. Select the needs that have the greatest impact on progress and develop goals to address those needs.Utilize Support for Standards-Based Individualized Education Programs: English Language Arts K-12, Mathematics K-8, Math 9 to provide:· Accommodations/Modifications/Specially Designed Instruction· ScaffoldingModules 1-4
23IEP Annual GoalsThe characteristics of effective IEP goals can be captured in the SMART acronymSpecificMeasurableAction OrientedRealistic and RelevantTime Bound (within one year)One way to remember the characteristics of measurable annual goals is to use the SMART acronym.The SMART acronym provides a model for developing measurable annual goals.Focus on essential skills, based on the student’s documented need from the present level of achievement and functional performance to access and make progress in the curriculumInclude projected progress for this yearBe measurable…used to determine progressConnect to the long-term postsecondary goals
24Parts of a SMART Goal Specific, Realistic and Relevant (Conditions) The student (who)Description of relevant instruction (under what conditions or context)MeasurablePerformance levelNumber of demonstrationsEvaluation scheduleTo what level or degree (criterion)Conditions are sometimes stated as “givens”. For example, “Given a grade level text, student will… or Given a writing sample, student will…..
25Parts of a SMART Goal (continued) Action Oriented - Clearly Defined BehaviorObservable action verb (student will do what?)Relevant and RealisticAddress the child’s unique needs which are a result of the child’s exceptionality (learner characteristics)Time BoundMonitor student progress at regular intervalsIn what length of time (time frame)SMART goals are noted by clearly defined behaviors that are described by a verb. The verb answers the question, “The student will do what?”SMART goals are realistic and time limited. In other words, the goal should be able to be achieved within the time frame of the IEP.SMART goals should be relevant to the student and to their learning needs, as determined by analyzing classroom and student data.
26SMART Measurable Annual Goals In what amount of time (by annual review date)Under what conditions (a variety of reading passages)The student (Sean) will do what (answer literal and informational comprehension questions)To what level or degree (80% accuracy on questions per reading)By answering the questions asked in the SMART model of developing annual measurable goals, we are assured of including all of the essential parts of a measurable annual goal.
27SMART IEP Goals use action words. “The student will…” solvecalculateextendtranslateSMART IEP Goalsuse action words.“The student will…”In writing annual goals it is important to use verbs that are open to few interpretations and require an overt, observable and measurable action, i.e. contrast, compare or read.contrastclassifyfindreadidentifycomparecompose
28RememberSome action words require specific descriptors to tell exactly how the student will perform the action.Identify by:pointing tellingwriting touchingstatingDemonstrate by:writing responding verballypointing following directionstouching
29The Structure: Annual Goals Timeframe Condition Who/Behavior Evaluation/CriterionWe will identify how to format a SMART Goal on the next slide:Timeframe – In what amount of time?Context – Under what conditions?Who/Behavior – Who will do what?Criterion – To what level or degree?
30Activity 4.2 Karen Shaw ELA.6.R.C1.5 Timeframe – Use the red circle for amount of time (By June 2014)Condition – Use the black underline for under what context (when presented with grade-level reading passage)Who/Behavior – Use the blue bracket for the who will do what (Karen will read fluently at 125 wpm)Evaluation/Criteria – Use the green rectangle for what level or degree (on 8 of 10 passage)Timeframe – (By June 2014)Condition – (given a grade-appropriate 4-5 paragraph passage)Who/Behavior – Karen will identify the main idea of the informational text)Evaluation/Criteria – (in 4 of 5 work samples)Modules 1-4
31Kim’s Needs and Annual Goal Need Kim needs to learn how to apply phonics and word analysis to decode words. (ELA.4.R.C7.1) Measurable Annual Goal By the annual review date Given a list of 25 unfamiliar multi-syllable words out of context, Kim will correctly decode the words with an average of 90% accuracy on classroom assessments.Timeframe - Use the red circle for amount of time (by the annual review data)Condition - Use the black underline for under what context (given a list of multi-syllable words out of context)Who/Behavior - Use the blue brackets for the who will do what (Kim will correctly decode the words)Evaluation/Criterion - Use the green rectangle for to what level or degree (with an average of 90% accuracy on classroom assessments)
32Measurable Goal for Sara Within a school year, given a passage in the fifth grade literature book, Sara will read wpm with fewer than 5 errors in one minute in three consecutive trials over a three week period of time.The presenter will review this slide with the participants to present a measurable goal which includes the four characteristics.Within a school year… red circle – TimeframeGiven passage… black underline – ConditionSara will read… blue brackets – Who/BehaviorWith fewer… green box – Criterion/Evaluation
33Components of an Annual Goal In what length of time? (Timeframe)Under what context? (Conditions)The student will do what? (Who/Behavior)Through what assessment? (Evaluation)- To what level or degree? (Criterion)We can put the SMART acronym into action by answering these questions related to the student’s annual measurable goals.
34Let’s Review this Annual Goal When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level.Does this goal meet our SMART acronym?The presenter will review this slide with the participants to answer the question.Answer: No, this does not include the four characteristics of a measurable goal.Does it have components of a goal?In what amount of time? (Timeframe) NoUnder what conditions (Context) YesWho will do what? (Who/Behavior)YesTo what level or degree? (Criterion) Yes
35Writing Goal Statements Standards-Based IEPsWriting Goal StatementsFocus on what the student will do:“Janice will read and analyze a short story for the literary elements of main idea, point of view, plot, setting, and characterization.”Not the process:“Janice will use a graphic organizer to analyze a short story.”We want to focus on what the student will do --- not so much on how the student will get there. For example, here is a statement about Janice:Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elementsof main idea, point of view, plot, setting, and characterization.In this case, those expectations of main idea, point-of-view, plot, setting and characterization are directly out of the expectations of the general curriculum. Notice it said she will read it and analyze a short story. Someone might be tempted to say that Janice will use a graphic organizer to analyze a short story. That is not in and of itself so bad. It is quite possible that indeed Janice will use a graphic organizer…if that is a good tool for Janice to be able to use. But…the goal is not that Janice would use a graphic organizer so I do not want that to be the main focus of the goal statement. I want the main focus to be that Janice will read and analyze a short story. Focus on what it is you want the student to be able to do – not so much on the tools the student will use to get there.Arkansas Department of Education
36Writing Goal Statements Standards-Based IEPsWriting Goal StatementsUse behavioral terminology:“Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements.”Not the process:“Janice will review short stories.”Use behavioral terminology. “Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements” is more specific than “Janice will review a short story”.Arkansas Department of Education
37Writing Goal Statements Standards-Based IEPsWriting Goal StatementsAdd the criterion:“Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements of main idea, point of view, setting and characterization with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.”Add a criterion to the goal statement. “Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements of main idea, etc., with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.” We have added a level of accuracy (90%).Arkansas Department of Education
38Writing Goal Statements Standards-Based IEPsWriting Goal StatementsInclude the condition/timeframe:“By the end of the school year, Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements of main idea, point of view, setting, and characterization with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.”Include the context and the time frame. “By the end of the school year, Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements” etc., “with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.” Finally, this statement contains all of the elements of an effective or well-written goals statement.Arkansas Department of Education
39Let’s Review The student (Janice) Standards-Based IEPsLet’s ReviewThe student (Janice)Will do what (read and analyze a short story)To what level or degree (90% accuracy)Under what conditions (sixth grade literature passage)In what time frame (end of school year)Do you see all the elements of the SMART goal here?Trainer Notes: Make sure participants understand that all elements of the SMART Goal overlap with the five part model.Arkansas Department of Education
40Choosing a Measure (criterion) Standards-Based IEPsChoosing a Measure (criterion)Refer to Present Level data:Ask what:Are the performance expectations in the general classroom?Has been the rate of growth?Will it take to be successful in the general classroom?Is the gap in current and desired skill?Choosing a measure is the thing that we find the most challenging. It is easy to say “Mastery = 90%”, but what level does a student have to be able to achieve something in order to show and maintain mastery?Also, what are some different ways of expressing measures? Writing “90%” might not be OK, or it might not be specific enough. Some of the things we might think about are: “What are the performance expectations in the general classroom?” “What is the general classroom teacher’s measure of accomplishment?” “When is it satisfactory in the general classroom?” Also, “What has been the rate of growth for this student in the past?”The IEP Team needs to determine what it is going to take to be successful in the general classroom. For example, a classroom teacher may say that mastery is 80% for a minimum of two consecutive times. A student that loses content quickly may be able to achieve at 80%, but would need to demonstrate the skill more than two consecutive times for mastery.We have to look at the gap between the current skill and the desired skill. If the gap is large, I might set my sights on the halfway point. If it is a little bit smaller, I might set my sights on the general classroom expectation.There is not one specific way to determine the criterion. This is a conversation that needs to take place with the IEP Team.Arkansas Department of Education
41Choosing a Measure What: Standards-Based IEPsChoosing a MeasureWhat:Are the criteria/expectations of the general curriculum for demonstrating mastery?Is necessary to ensure the skill is at a mastery level?Are the expected gains over a year’s period of time?Some additional things to think about are the expectations for demonstrating mastery in the general classroom or on the state standards: Is this a skill that is necessary to ensure that the student will be able to perform at a mastery level? Are there expected gains over a year’s period of time? What has been this student’s past rate of learning?Arkansas Department of Education
42Putting it All Together Activity Standards-Based IEPsActivity 4.3Putting it All Together ActivityA Present Level Example:“Karen is in the sixth grade; she has challenges with reading fluency which impact her ability to comprehend longer passages and summarize central themes in a text.”Let’s talk about Karen. We know that Karen is in the sixth grade, she has challenges with reading fluency which impact her ability to comprehend longer passages and summarize central themes in a text. Trainer Notes: Direct participants to take out their IEP Handout A: Karen and Karen Student Profile Page to use with the page for ActivityArkansas Department of Education
43Activity Reviewing What We Know: Area of need Standards-Based IEPsActivity 4.3ActivityReviewing What We Know:Area of needPast instruction and progressExperience with similar students/situationsExpectations for the next yearTrainer Notes: You may read the script for the activity aloud or direct your participants to refer to the activity questions and read it on their own. The purpose of this activity is to discuss the different pieces of information an IEP team would need to consider when choosing a measure for a goal. Remind participants to be prepared to share their answers. Be sure to follow up with participants by asking them what other information would have been helpful in answering the questions. This activity will take at least fifteen (15) minutes.Arkansas Department of Education
45Give it a Try Make it better: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level.I want you to give it a try and see if you can make it better. Here is a goal statement: When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level. How would you make that better? (Pause) Everyone jot down some notes and talk to each other. Remember: SMART goals.Trainer Notes: Allow three (3) – five (5) minutes.Arkansas Department of Education
46Give it a Try Make it better: New and improved: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level.New and improved:By June 2014 given a passage in the fifth grade literature book, Sara will read wpm with fewer than 5 errors in one minute in three consecutive trials and will maintain with 85% accuracy on all teacher tests.Here is the new and improved statement for Sara: By June 2014 given a passage in the fifth grade literature book, Sara will read wpm with fewer than 5 errors in one minute in three consecutive trials and will maintain with 85% accuracy on all teacher tests.Arkansas Department of Education
47Give it a Try Make it better: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:June will turn in homework on time, complete in-class assignments, and complete tests given in class.Here is another goal statement. This one is about behavior. It might or might not be tied to a specific academic standard. The statement says: June will turn in homework on time, complete in-class assignments, and pass tests given in class. How would you make that better?Trainer Notes: Allow three (3) – five (5) minutes.Arkansas Department of Education
48Give it a Try Make it better: New and improved: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:June will turn in homework on time, complete in-class assignments, and complete tests given in class.New and improved:June will meet all required classroom activities (including submitting homework on time, completion of in-class assignments, and completing tests) in accordance with classroom standards for maintaining a “C” or better letter grade for the class consistently for a time period of six months.June will meet all required classroom activities (including submitting homework on time, completion of in-class assignments, and passing tests) in accordance with classroom standards for maintaining a “C” or better letter grade for the class consistently for a time period of six months.That is one option, there are many others. I do want to call your attention to “consistently for a time period of six months” because we need to include a criterion. Do not just stop at maintaining a “C” average or better, but how long might June have had that “C” in order to make sure that she has really mastered it.Arkansas Department of Education
49Give it a Try Make it better: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:Randy will have basic needs met by making appropriate requests to a variety of adults.Give this one a try: Randy will have basic needs met by making appropriate requests to a variety of adults.Trainer Notes: Allow three to five (3-5) minutes.Arkansas Department of Education
50Give it a Try Make it better: New and improved: Standards-Based IEPsGive it a TryMake it better:Randy will have basic needs met by making appropriate requests to a variety of adults.New and improved:Across all settings, Randy will use his communication system to indicate all needs (e.g., bathroom, drink or eat, go outside) throughout the school day for five consecutive days.Here is how I improved that statement:Across all settings, Randy will use his communication system to indicate all needs (e.g., bathroom, drink or eat, go outside ) throughout the school day for five consecutive days.Arkansas Department of Education
51Review and ReflectAnnual goals are related to needs resulting from the student’s exceptionality that directly impact involvement and progress in the general education curriculum.The IEP is not meant to restate the state content standards, but should specify the skills the student needs to acquire in order to make progress in achieving the standards, thereby accessing the general education curriculum.
52IEP Goals Reminders Checklist Activity 4.4Let’s ReviewIEP GoalsReminders ChecklistReview the IEP Goal Reminders Checklist with participants.
53Developing Next Generation-Linked IEP Goals 1Become familiar and comfortable with the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives for content and levels you are teaching:English Language ArtHistory/Social StudiesMathematics2Assess students in all areas of suspected disabilities:Include “Next Generation specific” skills such as digital literacy, academic vocabulary, public speaking and project-based learning.3Consider the principles of Universal Design for Learning and student learning strengths when determining the representation and expression modalities for the goals.4Match individual deficits with NxGCSOs by using the Present Levels of Performance and the learning progressions as a guide.5Write rigorous goals meeting student needs. Include the essential concepts and skills of the NxGCSOs as identified through unwrapping of the standards.6Develop data collection systems to monitor progress toward the goals. Data charting tools should reference the objective addressed by the goal.7Next Generation requires students to look at the ”why” and “how” so goals need to incorporate that instead of rote learning.8Always be looking ahead – where should students be in relation to the Next Generation expectations?9Don’t forget to address the executive functioning, problem-solving, and social skills necessary for students to be able to access the learning community of Next Generation classes.10Ensure that all goals, including those for designated services such as speech/language, occupational therapy, physical therapy etc., are aligned to the NxGCSOsIEP goals are the heart of the IEP. Goals drive the services and placement and chart the course for progress toward success in the general education Next Generation learning environment. Therefore, it’s critical that your teams use a systematic process to ensure that goals are responsive to the learning needs of students with disabilities/giftedness, address the deficit/advanced learning areas as identified by through assessment and accurate present levels of performance, and include critical skills for success in the NxGCSOs.Aligning IEP goals to the NxGCSOs includes unwrapping the standards, identifying the essential learning targets, and determining the appropriate methods for learning – based on the student data profile.Adapted From: Figure 6.37: Developing Common Core-Linked IEP Goals, Common Core and the Special Education Student, LRP, 2014.Modules 1-4
543 2 1 Review and Reflection Activity 4.5 Things I learned today … Things I found interesting …1Question I still have …At your table, complete a Chart. (participants may complete this on chart paper, sticky notes, or a form may be generated.
55Scaffolding – Teaching Practice Scaffolding is defined as an instructional practice in which the teacher:Provides models of the desired strategy or skillProvides supports as a student learns to do a task which might include breaking a complex task into a cumulative progression of sub-tasksGradually shifts responsibility to the studentsScaffolding is removed to the greatest extent possible in response to individual student progress.The term “scaffolding” has been used frequently in recent days, but its true meaning is often misunderstood. In Clarks and Graves “Scaffolding Students’ Comprehension of Text” (2004), the first educational use of the term is credited to Wood, Bruner and Ross (1976) and is described as a “process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts.” For students, especially those who struggle, scaffolding is a necessity when encountering rigorous, complex texts. Specific scaffolding strategies are most useful when tailored to individual student needs. Familiar scaffolding strategies include graphic organizers, pre-reading or activating strategies, cooperative learning activities, and reciprocal teaching.
56Application to Students with Disabilities by Common Core State Standards Initiative Instruction for SWD must incorporate supports and accommodations, including:Scaffolds and related servicesIEP annual goals aligned with grade-level academic standardsPersonnel delivering high-quality, evidence-based, individualized instructionIn order for students with disabilities to meet high academic standards and demonstrate their knowledge and skills, their instruction must incorporate supports and accommodations, including:Supports and related services to meet their needs and enable engaged access in the general education curriculumAn IEP which includes annual goals aligned with and chosen to facilitate their attainment of grade-level academic standardsTeachers and support personnel who are prepared and qualified to deliver high-quality, evidence-based, individualized instruction and support services
57Participation in the GE curriculum for SWD, may be provided: Application to Students with Disabilities by Common Core State Standards InitiativeParticipation in the GE curriculum for SWD, may be provided:Universal Design for Learning (UDL)Instructional accommodationsAssistive technology (along with accessible instructional materials) to ensure accessFor successful participation in the general curriculum, students with disabilities may be provided:Instructional supports for learning based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL)Instructional accommodationsAssistive technology devices and services (along with accessible instructional materials) to ensure access to the general education curriculum and the CCSSUDL fosters student engagement by presenting information in multiple ways and allowing for diverse avenues of action and expression (3 Principles, 9 Guidelines, various checkpoints).
58Accommodation vs. Modification An effort to alter the representation or presentation to alter the student’s engagement with the curriculum to enhance access and progress.Changes in the assessment or curriculum that do not alter the validity, reliability, or security of the test or curriculum.Modification: Substantive changes in an assessment or academic curriculum that change the rigor or expectation.Explain that modification and adaptation are sometimes used synonymously, but neither are equal or synonymous with accommodation.
59Various Accommodations Presentation Accommodations— change how an assignment or assessment is given to a student. These include alternate modes of access which may be auditory, multisensory, tactile, or visual.Response Accommodations— allow students to complete assignments, assessments, and activities in different ways (alternate format or procedure) or to solve or organize problems using some type of assistive device or organizer.Setting Accommodations— change the location in which an assignment or assessment is given or the conditions of the setting.Timing/Scheduling Accommodations—increase the allowable length of time to complete an assignment or assessment, or change the way the time is organized for an assignment or assessment.Equipment and Material Accommodations— allow students to use additional equipment and/or materials such as calculator, amplification equipment and manipulative, assistive and instructional technology.The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) indicates that accommodations are generally grouped into the following categories:Read slide…An accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. These occur prior to implementing a modification to curriculum.(Minnesota Manual of Accommodations 2009, 12)
60AccommodationsThe individual supports each student needs to successfully participate in key learning experiences varies. Some SWDs may need only limited support while others may need more extensive accommodations or modifications.
61Accommodation Examples Teaching students to use mnemonic strategiesProviding audio-recorded, highlighted or large-print textbooks and materialsPresenting material in smaller, more discrete steps (a type of scaffolding)Using supplemental aids, such as vocabulary or multiplication cards or chartsDesigning guided notes that include the most salient informationProviding instructions in multiple ways (differentiated instruction)Planning specially designed instruction to promote access to the general education curriculum should be a collaborative endeavor. Work with general educators, paraprofessionals, related services providers and other school staff to identify the most promising instructional and support strategies to promote student learning. Although limited shared planning time is a real barrier in most schools, it is essential that instructional planning be informed by sharing expertise, experience, and ideas.
62Accommodation Examples Shortening assignments, tests or other learning activitiesTeaching self-management strategiesGiving additional time to complete assignments or testsArranging classroom seating to reduce distractionsProviding assistance with note taking from a teacher, peer or someone elseAllowing the use of a word processor, spell checker or calculator
63Accommodation Examples Establishing peer support arrangementsProviding additional reviews or drillsProviding tutoring or one-to-one assistanceAssisting students with organizational and planning strategiesOffering breaks as needed
64Reasonable Accommodation Survey teachers about accommodation requests.Be prepared to offer alternative accommodations.Promptly provide alternatives for students.Keep track of requests for accommodations and responses.Accommodations do not require that districts change the fundamental aspects of a program for the sake of accommodating students with disabilities.There may be gray areas as schools struggle to afford students with disabilities equal educational opportunities.Survey teachers about accommodation requests. Sometimes, it may not be clear to administrators whether a requested accommodation will fundamentally alter a program. Teachers may provide the best insight into whether or not a requested accommodation will amount to an unfair advantage for a student in a class or program.Be prepared to offer alternative accommodations. When an accommodation request proves unreasonable, be willing to consider alternative accommodations that might permit the child’s access to the program.Promptly provide alternatives for students. There may be circumstances in which a student, even with reasonable accommodations, cannot meet program standards. In such a case, promptly explore and suggest other programming options to minimize the child’s loss of educational benefits.Keep track of requests for accommodations and responses. Maintaining a record of all correspondences related to a request for accommodations and being able to explain the basis for denying a specific accommodation may be essential to defending against a failure-to-accommodate claim.
65SummaryCurriculum and instructional accommodations and modifications allow students to access interesting and exciting general education activities that are challenging but not frustrating and overwhelming.An accommodation provides a student with access to information in order to create an equal opportunity for that student to demonstrate knowledge and skills.A modification is an actual change in what a student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate.In summary,Curriculum and instructional accommodations and modifications allow students to access interesting and exciting general education activities that are challenging but not frustrating and overwhelming.An accommodation provides a student with access to information in order to create an equal opportunity for that student to demonstrate knowledge and skills.A modification is an actual change in what a student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate.
68Credits Standards-Based IEPs Arkansas Department of Education Special EducationJune 2012Standards-Based Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)Council of Chief State School OfficersAssessing Special Education Standards (ASES)State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS), 2012