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Tips in Managing the Special Ed. Classroom

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1 Tips in Managing the Special Ed. Classroom
Presenter: Melanie Bailey-Bird Program Specialist- Livermore

2 Learner Outcomes: Goals
Identifying Roles Build Communication 1 2 Learner Outcomes: Goals Basic Tips Classroom Management 5 Organize Caseload 3 Write Effective Reports/IEP’s 4

3 Who Supervises Paraeducators?
Administrator Hires, terminates & evaluates Classroom Teacher New Role: Executive Directs the day-to-day work or paraeducators & provides instructional supervision Shared JOINTLY: Gives Orientation Provides Job Description Clarifies Roles Evaluates Performance Informs Paraeducators of Training Opportunities Provides Ongoing Supervision & Direction

4 5 Teacher Responsibilities
Planning Assessment Instruction Collaboration Paraeducator Supervision

5 What are the Keys to Successful Paraeducator Supervision?
The seven keys to success as a school professional who supervises paraeducators are the same kinds of executive functions performed by team leaders in business. In businesses, team leaders or executives perform seven vital executive functions to keep the team working. Team leaders orient new paraeducators to the program, creating personalized job descriptions for each paraeducator. They set a schedule so all members know where they need to be, and when the work needs to be done. They provide plans and direction for the work that needs to be done. They delegate the right kinds of tasks to people who are best able to handle them. Executives make sure that their workgroup members have the right training to do the job, and help them get more training for new skills or they provide additional job-specific training themselves. They monitor the performance of group members to assure that the work gets done in the right way and they give feedback and coaching to the team members to help them do their work well. Finally, a team leader or executive makes sure that the workplace functions smoothly by creating communication pathways and systems, implementing problem-solving sequences, and either mediating conflicts or assisting with conflict management approaches among team members.

6 Teacher’s Role in Supervising Paraeducators
Set expectations of paraeducator performance Offer challenging plans and ideas Help build self-confidence of the paraeducator Encourage ethical and professional behavior Offer support Actively listen Lead and teach by example Provide growth experiences Ask questions and give explanations Coach the paraeducator Encourage the paraeducator Inspire the paraeducator Share critical knowledge Assist, observe, and demonstrate effective instructional practice Direct and delegate effectively Give clear, concise directions Gerlach (2002)

7 Paraeducator Roles Based on Research
Engage individual and small groups of learners in instructional activities in classrooms and community-based settings Carry out behavior management and disciplinary plans developed by teachers Assist teachers with functional and other assessment activities Document and provide objective information about learner performance that enables teachers to plan lessons and modify curriculum content and instructional activities to meet needs of individual learners Assist teachers with organizing and maintaining supportive, safe learning environments Assist teachers with involving parents or other caregivers in their child’s education Assist nurses, physical and occupational therapist, and speech language pathologists with providing services required by learners with physical, speech, language, and sensory disabilities and chronic health care needs Participate as required in meetings to develop Individual Education Plans, Individual Family Service Plans, and Individual Transition Plans. Pickett, 2002

8 Paraprofessional Training
Paraeducators: Need more than a one shot workshop Need ongoing education & training in areas such as; age groups & various disabilities Need orientation & in-service training Teachers: Provide orientation & COACH on-the-job training INFORM: Upcoming workshops Use journal articles, videos, self-directed training guides, internet websites Model expected job outcomes: Demonstrates caring & respect toward students Portrays behavior that is trustworthy, cooperative, positive, respectful, patience, and persistence in carrying out educational objectives Create a needs assessment to identify training needs

9 Relationship between Impact of Training Efforts and Training Components
Para Understands the Concept or Skill Para Demonstrates the Skill When Asked Para Applies Concept or Skill On the Job at Appropriate times Presentation of Theory 85% 15% 10% Demonstration or Modeling 18% Practice and Feedback Coaching 90%

10 Monitor and Give Positive Support
Monitoring is a vital activity for an effective supervisor of paraeducators Treat your Para as an adult learner Assume that they want to learn and improve Joint Monitoring Para observes you teaching small group Teach Lesson together Let Para know that you have observed them and compliment them on their skills Allow guided supervisory roles Ask them to monitor student’s work/behavior and tell teacher of their concerns Let’s them know continuous informal assessment helps guide instruction- allows them a small part in the planning process

11 Create a Training Plan Form to Monitor Needed Training & Determine who will be the Designated Trainer Task for which skills are needed Name the skill or competency Who could possibly provide training When might the training occur 1. 2. 3. Describe the duty to be performed (e.g., playground supervision) e.g., mediating conflicts on playground Name or title of specialist who could provide training Your timeline

12 Implement Training: 4 Components
1. Theory Para’s need basic concepts so they will have context to understand why/when they will use certain instructional, behavioral, literacy, social and language learning techniques 2. Demonstration The skill/strategy/concept is modeled or shown in way so the Para sees, hears, or touches an example or see how it works in real situations 3. Practice & Feedback Practice:Para tries out the skill/strategy/concept in a controlled or safe place Feedback: Teacher provides info. About how they perform the concept 4. Coaching Teacher watches the Para perform the skill and give on the spot feedback Lookup: main.php?cat=collaboration§ion=main&subsection=work/training

13 Para Training Resources
* National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals. Web site: Contacts: Marilyn Likins, Co-Director, 801/ and Teri Wallace, Co-Director, 612/ PAR2A Center, University of Colorado. Web site: Contact: Nancy French, Director, 303/ Project Para Website, University of Nebraska. Web site: Contact: Stan Vasa, Co-Director, 402/ Project Impact, TRI-SPED Projects, Utah State University. Web site: Contact: Dave Forbush, Project Director, 435/ Minnesota Paraprofessional Consortium. Web site: Contact: Teri Wallace, 612/ Paraprofessional Academy, City University of New York (CUNY). Web site: Contact: Thalia Moshoyannis, Project Director, 212/ Paraeducator Support, Paraeducator and Supervisor Training, University of Vermont. Web site: Contact: Stephen Doll, 802/ Paraeducator Issues - Washington Education Association. Contact: Jane Robb-Linse, Puget Sound ESD, 206/ Rhode Island Teaching Assistant Resources. Web site: Contact: Judith Saccardo, Director, 401/ Utah Paraprofessional Website. Web site: Contact: Marilyn Likins, 801/ * Teacher Vision Website: used for quick handouts

14 Learner Outcomes: Goals
Identifying Roles Build Communication 1 2 Learner Outcomes: Goals Basic Tips Classroom Management 5 Organize Caseload 3 Write Effective Reports/IEP’s 4

15 Effective Leadership: Improves Communication
Feedback Skills: Ability to monitor performance of the para through appropriate observation & feedback to ensure team effectiveness Technical and Management Skills: Ability to understand the mission of the team & program. The supervising professional must schedule, plan & manage time & handle the unexpected Delegating Skills: Ability to communicate responsibilities effectively to the para Coordinating and Planning Skills: Ability to see that roles & responsibilities are scheduled appropriately, resources are available when needed, & conferences & meetings are used to their fullest advantage Teamwork Skills: The ability to interface w/the para in a manner that promotes teamwork & develops commitment Communication Skills: Ability to provide & receive information in an effective manner Problem-solving Skills: Ability to identify problems & propose, evaluate, and analyze alternative solutions in order to develop ways of implementing the plan Interpersonal Skills: Ability to recognize & demonstrate appropriate social behaviors, work with different interpersonal styles, appreciate the uniqueness of others, & manage conflict

16 Problem Solving Teacher and Para(s) write down how each of you see the situation and generate solutions on paper before making actions (brainstorm) Decide if the situation concerns a matter of principle or preference List suggestions for what could be done to improve the situation Next to each suggestion write the name of the person responsible for implementing the action Realistically think, how much of a problem is it? What will you do to start resolving it? Create an Action Plan

17 ________________________
Action Plan For ________________________ Staff Responsible: __________________ Supervising Teacher: ___________________ Paraeducator: ____________ Date of Meeting: __________________ Other: ________________ ___________________________________________________________ Action Person Responsible Deadline

18 Know How to Negotiate Steps to Negotiation: Agree to Negotiate
Gather Points of View Focus on Interests Create Win-Win Options Evaluate Options Create an Agreement

19 Personality Traits The MOST critical lesson you must learn is to know who you are! Hartman Personality/Character Profile Identify your driving core motive and others Understand the 4 personality types Know the strengths and limitations of those 4 personality types Learn how to effectively communicate & interact with others

20 Core Motive & Natural Talents
Red Blue White Yellow Core Motive Power Intimacy Peace Fun Natural Talents Leadership Vision Quality Service Clarity Tolerance Enthusiasm Optimism

21 RED- Strengths/Weaknesses
Logical Assertive action-Oriented Task Dominant Determined Competitive Highly Verbal Unquestioned Leader in Home Responsible Disciplined Confident Leadership Proactive Decisive Goal Oriented Excellent Provider Creative in Crisis Weaknesses Selfish Insensitive Inconsiderate Harsh & Judgmental Arrogant Always right Impatient Poor Listener Bossy Aggressive Argumentative Demanding Difficult to please Obsessive Prioritizes Work Over Personal Relationships

22 Red- Do’s and Don’ts The Do’s Present Facts & Figures
Be Direct, Brief, & Specific Present Issues Logically Emphasize Productivity & Efficiency Articulate Your Feelings Clearly Support their Leadership Instincts Support their Correct Decisions The Don’ts Embarrass them in Front of Others Argue from an Emotional Perspective Be Slow & Indecisive Always use an Authoritarian Approach Wait for them to Ask your Opinion Take their Arguments Personally Demand Constant Social Interactions

23 Famous RED Personalities
Madonna Hilary Clinton

24 BLUE- Strengths/Weaknesses
Compassionate Sincere Loyal Thoughtful Appreciates Beauty & Detail Organized Excellent Trainer Self-Sacrificing Committed Dedicated Emotionally Deep Dependable Deliberate Intimate Relationships are a Priority Weaknesses: Worry Prone Overly Sensitive Self-Righteous Unforgiving Judgmental Lacks Ability to Relax Non\t Spontaneous Suspicious Perfectionist Easily Frustrated Hard to Please Moody Jealous Clingy Lecture and Overkill Issues

25 BLUE: Do and Don’ts Do’s: Show appreciation Take a Sensitive Approach
Demonstrate Sincerity Limit their Perceived Exposure to Risk Help them Feel Secure Promote their Creative Efforts Be Loyal Don’ts: Make Them Feel Guilty Be Rude or Abrupt Expect Spontaneity Promote too much Change Expect them to Bounce Back Easily from Depression Expect them to Forgive Quickly Abandon Them

26 Famous BLUE Personalities
Oprah Winfrey Walt Disney

27 WHITE- Strengths/ Weaknesses
Kind Patient Adaptable Satisfied Calm/Easygoing Agreeable Trusts Self Likes Most People Agreeable w/difficult Children Good Listener Accommodating Inventive Entertains Self Considerate Diplomatic Weaknesses: Timid Indecisive Unmotivated Silently Stubborn Resents Pressure Boring & Detached Lazy Poor Disciplinarian Avoids Conflict Fearful of Confrontation Verbal Response Indifferent Resists Commitments Uninvolved Wait and See

28 WHITE: Do and Don’ts Do’s: Accept their Individuality
Create an Informal, Relaxed Setting Combine Firmness with Kindness Always React Gently Show Patience, Try Not to Rush Them Look for Nonverbal Clues Hear them Out; Listen Quietly, and Carefully Don’ts: Be Cruel or Insensitive Expect them to Need Much Social Interaction Force Immediate Verbal Expression Be Domineering or too Intensive Overwhelm Them with too Much at Once Force Confrontation Take Away all of their Daydreams

29 Famous WHITE Personalities
Gandi Albert Einstein

30 YELLOW: Strengths/Weaknesses
Fun-Loving Charismatic Carefree Enthusiastic Optimistic Strong Visual Learner Loves Physical Contact Sociable Never Dull or Boring Trusting Forgives Easily Accepts Others Spontaneous Adventurous Happy with Life Weaknesses: Uncommitted Disloyal Self-centered Superficial Poor Listener Disorganized Impulsive Undisciplined Vain Afraid to Face Facts Inconsistent Unfocused Interrupts Sassy/ Demanding Loud and Obnoxious

31 YELLOW: Do and Don’ts Do’s: Take a Positive, Upbeat Approach
Offer Praise and Appreciation Accept Some Playful Teasing Encourage them to Enjoy their Work Encourage their Verbal Self-Expression Reinforce Trust with Appropriate Physical Gestures Value their Social Interaction Skills Don’ts: Be too Serous Criticism Ignore Them Forget that they have “down” times, too Expect Them to Dwell on Problems Attack their Sensitivity or be Unforgiving Totally Control their Schedules/Times Give Them too Much Rope, or They May Hang Themselves

32 Famous YELLOW Personalities
Bill Clinton Robin Williams

33 Learner Outcomes: Goals
Identifying Roles Build Communication 1 2 Learner Outcomes: Goals Basic Tips Classroom Management 5 Organize Caseload 3 Write Effective Reports/IEP’s 4

34 Organizing Caseload Create Triennial/Annual Checklist
Create a brief checklist that highlights students needs (can be given to general ed. teachers on caseload) Organize Class List Fit students into academic grade level groups (Later used for group instruction) Match students with same goals/objs. (Helpful in creating individual work folders or determining group instruction) Create a data collection system

35 Learner Outcomes: Goals
Identifying Roles Build Communication 1 2 Learner Outcomes: Goals Basic Tips Classroom Management 5 Organize Caseload 3 Write Effective Reports/IEP’s 4

36 Why Assessment? Assessment is What Drives Instruction!
Can be Formal or Informal Helps you Write Triennial Reports Helps you Determine NEEDED goals/objs.

37 Guide to Writing Reports Reports Should be Written in This Format
1. Identifying Information student’s name and date of birth Student’s age and grade Examination date(s) Examiner’s name School, parents’ names, teacher’s name (optional) 2. Reason for Referral Person who referred the student Reason for referral Specific concerns of the referral source

38 Guide to Writing Reports -continued-
3. Background Information a. Relevant family history b. Current family situation c. Health/developmental history d. Relevant educational history 4. Previous Evaluations and Results a. Relevant medical or psychological b. Relevant cognitive or achievement c. Recent vision and hearing

39 Guide to Writing Reports -continued-
5. Tests Administered a. Names of Tests Administered b. Other Assessments Used 6. Behavioral Observations a. Reactions to Assessment b. General Response Style c. Activity Level d. Attentional Level and Consistency e. Language Style f. Response to Success or Failure

40 Guide to Writing Reports -continued-
7. Cognitive Abilities and/or Achievement a. Report Scores in Text or Attach at End b. Interpret and Integrate Data c. Consider Findings from a Variety of Sources d. Separate Paragraphs for Each Cognitive and Academic Area Such as; Reading and Mathematics e. Give Specific Examples to Document Clinical Interpretation

41 Guide to Writing Reports -continued-
8. Summary and Conclusions a. Briefly Summarize Results b. State Implication of Results c. Do Not Include New Information d. Include statement of Diagnosis or Refer to Multidisciplinary Team for Consideration of Next Step 9. Recommendations a. Base on Both Strengths and Weaknesses Provide Realistic and Practical Intervention Objectives and Strategies b. Suggest any Further Evaluation Needed c. Involve Student, parents and teachers

42 Present Level of Performance
Under IDEA 2004, the IEP must include “a statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance require objective data from assessments State what they can do, can’t do, and why work on this skill Example: “Kyle understands the phonemic short vowel patterns of CVC words. He has difficulty reading CCVC or CVCC blends (i.e., flock, tent) and consonant digraphs (i.e., th, sh, wh, ch, ph) in words. Working on these skills will help Kyle understand the basic features of reading and achieve fluent decoding skills.”

43 Measurable Goals IDEA 2004 also requires IEP’s to include “a statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals.” Basic Format of Goals/Objectives in Writing: Conditions: “By 11/08, when given a randomly selected 2nd grade passage” Behavior: “John will read aloud” Criterion: “at (accuracy rate) at a number of trials (__/5)”

44 Example: Goal and Objectives
Goal: Std : By 2/09, when given two random numbers between 0 to 100, John will write the correct symbol (less than, equal to, or greater than) with 90% accuracy as measured by student work samples, teacher observations and/or charts. Objectives: By 6/08, when given two random numbers between 0 to 30, John will write the correct symbol (less than, equal to, or greater than) with 50% accuracy as measured by student work samples, teacher observations and/or charts. By 11/08, when given two random numbers between 0 to 70, John will write the correct symbol (less than, equal to, or greater than) with 70% accuracy as measured by student work samples, teacher observations and/or charts. By 2/09, when given two random numbers between 0 to 100, John will write the correct symbol (less than, equal to, or greater than) with 90% accuracy as measured by student work samples, teacher observations and/or charts. Note: Progress reporting times should be 3x’s a year. Remember these reporting dates March, June and November. The last progress reporting time should match the goal annual date.

45 Learner Outcomes: Goals
Identifying Roles Build Communication 1 2 Learner Outcomes: Goals Basic Tips Classroom Management 5 Organize Caseload 3 Write Effective Reports/IEP’s 4

46 Rules & Procedures Guidelines for Creating Rules (expected norm regarding behavior) Limit 5-6 Specific is better Consistent with School Rules Understandable Manageable Always Applicable Positive Consistent with Teacher’s Philosophy Procedures (concern how things get done in the classroom) Classroom Behavior Plan Warning System Consequences Steps in Teaching “Procedures are the railroad tracks- content is the train.” - Rick Smith

47 Classroom Rules Sample
Be in your assigned seat and ready to work when the bell rings. Bring required books and materials to every class, unless told otherwise by the teacher. Listen and stay seated when someone is speaking. Follow directions the first time they are given. Turn assignments in on time. Treat everyone and their property respectfully. Phrase rules in the positive Make sure rules reflect your philosophy Check each rule for clarity. Delete any unnecessary words. Communicate rules to families.

48 Steps to Building a Positive School Climate
Build Relationships and Communicate Caring Create a Climate of Cooperation Provide a Safe and Secure Environment Model and Teach how to be Responsible Communicate High Expectations to students and Staff Teach and Show Respect Be Ready with a Positive Attitude Each Day Teach and Encourage Expected Behaviors Support Frequent Communication with Parents

49 Behavior Guidelines Tell them What to do Rather than What not to do
Get Student’s Attention Prior to Giving Directive Give Clear and Concise Directions, and Check for Comprehension Give Direction Once, then Help with Compliance. Give Choices if Possible Allows Follow Through Determine Antecedents to Behavior Comment On and/or Reward Appropriate Behaviors Be Models for the Students Don’t be Afraid to ask for Help Use as Few Words as Possible Use Least Intrusive Prompt Allow Process Time before Redirecting Be Consistent Avoid Using “No” and “Don’t” Use Transition Warnings Give Reminders/Prompts Prior to a Difficulty Activity/Situation Reinforcement and/or Consequence Should be Immediate Have a Filler Activity Available Don’t Talk About Students in front of them, another Student or a Parent Catch Them Being Good!!!!

50 Procedural Tips Colored walls that correlate with color table groups
Color Folders for specific academic work- independent work at student’s desk Determine Behavior charts that works best for each individual student Create Data Collection System for assessment, group work, individual work and/or student self charting

51 References Broer, S., Doyle, M. & Giangreco, M. (2002). Perspectives of students with intellectual disabilities about their experiences with paraprofessional support. Exceptional Children, 71.4, 415 (16). Retrieved June 30, 2008, from> Forster, E. & Holbrook, M. (2005). Implications of paraprofessional supports for students with visual impairments. Review, 36.4, 155 (9). Retrieved June 30, 2008, from> Frank, A., Keith, T. & Steil, D. (1988). Training needs of special education paraprofessionals. Exceptional Children, 55.n3, 253 (6). Retrieved June 30, 2008, from French, N. (2001). Supervising paraprofessionals: A survey of teacher practices. The Journal of Special Education, 35,

52 References -continued-
French, N. (2005). An introduction to working effectively with paraeducators. Special Connections, 1-5. Retrieved on July 20, 2008, from /specconn/main.php?cat=collaboration.html Gerlach, K. (2002). Teamwork: Key to success for teachers and paraeducators. Impact15, 1-4. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from Harkness, C. (2002). The paraeducator’s role on education teams: Lessons from experience. Impact, 15, 1-3. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from /impact/152/over1.html

53 References -continued-
Hequet, M. (1995). Quality goes to school: Total quality management in school administration. Training, 32.n9, 47 (7). Retrieved July 21, 2008, from Leavy, P. (2000). Do they still do that? The business journal, 20.34, 37. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from> Likins, M. (2002). Effective training for paraprofessionals. Impact 15, 1-4. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from Morgan, J. & Ashbaker, B. (2001). A teacher’s guide to working with paraeducators and other classroom aides. Virginia: ASCD

54 References -continued-
Pickett, A. (1999). What are the guidelines for paraeducator roles and responsibilities. NWREL, Retrieved July 19, 2008, from Pickett, A. (2002). Paraeducators: The evolution in their roles, responsibilities, training, and supervision. Impact, 15, 1-5. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from products/impact/152/over2.html Wallace, T. (2002). The role of teachers and administrators in supervising paraeducators. Impact 15, 1-6. Retrieved July 19, 2008, from 152/over5.html Wallace, T., Shin, J., Bartholomay, T. & Stahl, B. (2001). Knowledge and skills for teachers supervising the work of paraprofessionals. Exceptional Children, 67.4, 520. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from>

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