Presentation on theme: "JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY IDENTITY, IMMIGRATION & DEMOCRACY BY: FRANCIS FUKUYAMA As presented by Nicola Walters and Sylvie Thomas."— Presentation transcript:
JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY IDENTITY, IMMIGRATION & DEMOCRACY BY: FRANCIS FUKUYAMA As presented by Nicola Walters and Sylvie Thomas
From Hyde Park, Chicago. Attended George Mason University Political scientist, political economist and author. Wrote “End of History and the Last Man” Believes the struggle of ideologies is coming to an end, since end of Cold War. Used to advocate Neo-conservatism, but has since distanced himself. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
IDENTITY, IMMIGRATION AND LIBERAL DEMOCRACY Liberal democracy faces many challenges : jihadist terrorism Integration of immigrant minorities: Islamism is a manifestation of modern identity politics, a by-product of the modernization process itself. Signs of trouble: Madrid bombings 11 March 2004 Murder of Theo van Gogh by Mohammed Bouyeri (Amsterdam 2 November 2004) London bombings 7 July 2005 French riots November 2005 Right-wing populist parties opposed to immigration (increasingly mobilised around Muslim minority issues) National Front – France Vlaams Belag – Belgium People’s parties – Denmark and Switzerland Freedom Party - Austria Growing literature on the emergence of “Eurabia”
IDENTITY AND THE HOLE IN LIBERAL THEORY Hobbes and Lock – human beings possess natural rights as individuals in the state of nature – rights that can only be secured through a social contract that prevents one individual’s pursuit of self-interest from harming the rights of others. Liberalism established the principle of religious toleration, however the actual separation of church and state was never fully achieved in many modern liberal democracies. Left unanswered the question of the exact degree to which the free exercise of religion by private individuals would be allowed to impinge on the rights of people within a religious community or tradition.
Freedom of cultural groups to protect their own group identities was not seen as a central issue by the American founders. Question of group identities might not have been such a problem but for the parallel development of identity politics in modern societies. IDENTITY AND THE HOLE IN LIBERAL THEORY CountryPercent of Population France7.5 Germany3.6 Britain2.5 Italy1.7 Netherlands6.2 Spain1.2 EU total3.2
INNER NATURES AND OUTWARD SELVES Charles Taylor (Canadian philosopher) – “This is the powerful moral ideal that has come down to us. It accords moral importance to a kind of contact with myself, with my own inner nature, which it sees as in danger of being lost… through the pressures toward outward social conformity.” America : One’s social status was achieved rather than ascribed. One’s life story was the search for fulfilment of an inner plan, rather than conformity to the expectations of one’s parents, kin, village, or priest. Taylor : One’s inner self is not just a matter of inward contemplation; it must be inter-subjectively recognised if it is to have a value.
IDENTITY AND THE HOLE IN LIBERAL THEORY Modern identity politics revolves around demands for recognition of group identities Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms = violation of the liberal principle of equal individual rights. Multiculturalism, understood not just as tolerance of cultural diversity in de facto multicultural societies but as the demand for legal recognition of the rights of ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups, has now become established in virtually all modern liberal democracies.
RADICAL ISLAMISM AND IDENTITY POLITICS French scholar Olivier Roy – the root of radical Islamism is not cultural, but rather it has emerged because Islam has become deterritorialized in such a way as to throw open the whole question of Muslim identity. Traditional religiosity is not universalistic, identity becomes problematic precisely when Muslims leave traditional Muslim societies by emigrating to Western Europe. Muslim identity becomes a matter of inner belief rather than outward conformity to social practice, salvation lies in a subjective state that is at odds with one’s outward behaviour. Understanding radical Islamism as a form of identity politics also explains why 2 nd and 3 rd generation European Muslims have turned to it.
RADICAL ISLAMISM AND IDENTITY POLITICS Stuck between two cultures with which they cannot identify, they find a strong appeal in the universalist ideology offered by contemporary jihadism. It is not an accident that so many of the perpetrators of recent terrorist plots and incidents either were European Muslims radicalised in Europe or came from privileged sectors of Muslim societies with opportunities for contact with the West. The problem of jihadist terrorism will not be solved by bringing modernisation and democracy to the Middle East. It is naïve to think that radical Islamists hate the West out of ignorance of what it is.
IDENTITY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA Liberal societies are known for having weak identities; many celebrate their own pluralism and multiculturalism, arguing that their identity is to have no identity. Lipset : American identity was always political in nature and was powerfully influenced by the fact that the US was born from a revolution against state authority. Based on 5 Pillars: Robert Bellah : USA has a civic religion, but is a church open to newcomers
IDENTITY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA Work ethic in America Lipset – American exceptionalism = double-edged sword. European identity is much more confused. After WWII = strong commitment to creating the same kind of tolerant and pluralist political identity that characterizes the US – Post-national ideal But European identity remains something from the head rather than heart 2005 referendum defeat in France and the Netherlands – not yet ready to give up on nation-state and sovereignty National identity has been officially frowned upon since the beginning of the European project BUT in each member state has a strong sense of national identity.
IDENTITY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA European skepticism on whether Muslim immigrants want to integrate, but immigrants are not always welcomed. Europeans have a harder time integrating their immigrants? Muslims vs. Hispanics Numbers: 2-3 million Muslims in US population of 300 million if this were proportionate to France there would be over 20 million Muslims in US.
WHAT IS THE SOLUTION? 2 pronged approach: Changes in behaviour by immigrant minorities and by members of the dominant national communities. First Prong : Recognise that the old multicultural model was a failure. Liberalism cannot ultimately be based on group rights, because not all groups uphold liberal values. (Cultural diversity was to be practiced in the private sphere) Some contemporary Muslim communities are making demands for group rights that simply cannot be squared with liberal principles of individual equality. Failure to Separate church from state completely.
WHAT IS THE SOLUTION? Second Prong concerns the expectations and behaviour of communities in each European country. Rules for naturalisation and legal citizenship must be on a non-ethnic basis and the conditions made less difficult National identity has always been socially constructed – revolving around history, symbols, heroes, and stories that a community tells about itself. Leitkultur – the notion that German citizenship entails certain obligations to observe standards of tolerance and equal respect. Questioning why French republicanism failed. Perhaps because favoured multiculturalism?
WHAT IS THE SOLUTION? Quasi-religious ceremonies and rituals of America and lack of in Europe European welfare state is harming the ability of European societies to integrate culturally distinct immigrants. Too much political correctness? It has taken acts of violence to open up a more honest discussion of these issues in the Netherlands, Britain and France. The rise of relativism has made it impossible for postmodern people to assert positive values for which they stand, and therefore the kinds of shared beliefs they demand as a condition for citizenship. “Who are we?” Sam Huntington