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BCASC Conference March 20, 2010 Presented by: Kristy M. Asral, M.Ed. Josh Kershenbaum, Esq. The ABCs of FBAs and BIPs.

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Presentation on theme: "BCASC Conference March 20, 2010 Presented by: Kristy M. Asral, M.Ed. Josh Kershenbaum, Esq. The ABCs of FBAs and BIPs."— Presentation transcript:

1 BCASC Conference March 20, 2010 Presented by: Kristy M. Asral, M.Ed. Josh Kershenbaum, Esq. The ABCs of FBAs and BIPs

2 Presentation Goals 1. To understand what an FBA and PBSP are and why they are important; 2. To learn strategies for data collection and appropriate behavior interventions. “Behaviors come and go, but functions are forever” - Ted Carr, SUNY Stonybrook

3 Overview Part 1: FBAs and PBSPs Part 2: Relevant Law Part 3: Case Studies

4 PART 1: FBAs and PBSPs What is a Functional Behavior Assessment? What are the elements of an effective FBA? FBAs: Why? How? Who? What are Positive Behavior Support Plans, and how do we develop and implement them?

5 What is a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)? An information gathering process. Helps us identify and understand the purpose of a child’s problematic behavior.

6 An Effective FBA A: Identifies the events / conditions that occur prior to problem behavior (“ Antecedents ”) B: Defines problem Behavior in specific terms C: Describes what happens afterwards that reinforces and/or maintains problem behavior (“ Consequences ”) Hypothesizes: What is the student trying to gain/avoid?

7 Why do an FBA? Avoid ineffective and unnecessary procedures Avoid unnecessary frustration

8 Why do an FBA? Behavior = Communication An effective FBA ACCURATELY determines what the behavior is communicating.

9 Why do an FBA? Shift in attitude: “child is a problem”  “child has a problem”

10 FBAs: Who and How? There are many ways to conduct an FBA. Goal = Testable Hypothesis

11 FBAs: Who and How? Informal Indirect/simple More complex

12 FBAs: Who and How? Informal : School team regularly involved Indirect/Simple: School specialists (e.g., school psychologist, guidance counselor and school team) Complex: Behavior trained staff member or IU and school team

13 FBAs: Who and How? Information provided by FBA is then used by the IEP team to develop a Positive Behavior Support Plan (“PBSP”), behavioral goals and supports, etc. FBA    PBSP

14 FBA Data Collection Options There are many ways to collect data Depends on the behavior of concern. The most common is the “A-B-C” data form (Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence)

15 Determining Level of FBA Source: pbis.org

16 Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)/ Positive Behavior Support Plans (“PBSPs”) Should be designed to teach students “replacement behavior” Replacement Behavior: Replacement of an inappropriate behavior by a more acceptable behavior through the use of prevention and reinforcement strategies

17 Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)/ Positive Behavior Support Plans (“PBSPs”) Should also include procedures to follow when the student continues the problem behavior.

18 Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)/ Positive Behavior Support Plans (“PBSPs”) Acceptable replacement behaviors might include: teaching self management techniques using appropriate conflict resolution skills

19 General BIP/PBSP Guidelines Teach the student to recognize “setting events” Foster a setting that encourages the desired behavior: preferred seating arrangements in a class the physical layout of the classroom the sequence of academic instruction Other examples?

20 General BIP/PBSP Guidelines Address the antecedent events Shape desired behavior through: Redirection Modification of instructional materials Repeating instruction Checking for understanding

21 General BIP/PBSP Guidelines Address the consequences of the desired behavior: Positive reinforcement Feedback

22 General BIP/PBSP Guidelines Modify curriculum and instructional strategies Differentiated instruction Permitting oral responses rather than written Other?

23 General BIP/PBSP Guidelines Reinforce appropriate behavior Student performance contracts Group classroom management strategies Other?

24 Part 2: Relevant Law Federal law State law What to do if schools do not comply

25 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) (FEDERAL Statute and Regulations) 34 CFR § (a)(2)(i) ( Development, review, and revision of IEP) “In the case of a child whose behavior impedes the child’s learning or that of others, [the IEP Team must] consider the use of positive behavioral interventions and supports, and other strategies, to address that Behavior.”

26 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law 34 CFR § (b) (Discipline: Authority of school personnel) If student DID NOT have a PBSP before suspension/expulsion, IEP team must conduct an FBA and develop and implement a PBSP as soon “as soon as practicable.” If student DID have a PBSP before suspension/expulsion, IEP team must review the plan and its implementation, and, modify the plan and its implementation as necessary, to address the behavior.

27 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law Pennsylvania (state) Law 22 Pa. Code § (Defines: “Positive Behavior Support”) “Positive, rather than negative, measures must form the basis of behavior support programs to ensure that all students... shall be free from demeaning treatment, the use of aversive techniques and the unreasonable use of restraints.”

28 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law 22 Pa. Code § (continued) PBSPs “must include research based practices and techniques to develop and maintain skills that will enhance an individual student’s... opportunity for learning and self-fulfillment.”

29 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law 22 Pa. Code § (continued) PBSPs “must be based on a functional assessment of behavior and utilize positive behavior techniques.... [T]he types of intervention chosen for a particular student or eligible young child shall be the least intrusive necessary.”

30 FBAs and BIPs/PBSPs: Relevant Law 22 Pa. Code § (continued) “The use of restraints is considered a measure of last resort, only to be used after other less restrictive measures, including de-escalation techniques[.]”

31 When must an FBA be conducted? When a behavior violates a “code of school conduct” and is determined by the IEP team to be a manifestation of the student’s disability

32 When must an FBA be conducted? When a student is removed from his/her current placement as a result of weapon possession, and/or illegal drug possession/use, and/or serious bodily injury.

33 When must an FBA be conducted? When the student is removed from his/her placement for more than 10 consecutive or 15 cumulative school days and the behavior is determined not to be related to his/her disability.

34 When must an FBA be conducted? When the school contacts law enforcement.

35 When must an FBA be conducted? When the IEP team (1)determines that a student’s behavior is interfering with his/her learning or the learning of others, and (2) requires additional information to provide appropriate educational programming.

36 Parents Requesting an FBA You may request an FBA at anytime your child’s problem behaviors are becoming worse or when the team cannot explain to you WHY the problem behavior is occurring.

37 What Happens if School Refuses? Violation of child’s DUE PROCESS rights. State and Federal law provide PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS for parents/students. Right to a Fair Hearing

38 Stay tuned… March 3, 2010: House of Representatives passed H.R. 4247, the Keeping All Students Safe in School Act. If passed by Senate and signed by President, will become law &tab=summary

39 Part 3: Real Examples FBAs and PBSPs are individualized. Case Studies: Eddie Billy Tommy

40 Billy What is the problem behavior? What is Billy communicating with this behavior: At school? At home?

41 Billy CONSISTENCY Can we use the same interventions at home and school? Why would we want to?

42 Tommy What is the problem behavior? What is Tommy communicating with this behavior: At school? At home?

43 Tommy Can we use the same interventions at home and school?

44 Tommy What interventions/strategies can we use at home AND school? Praise and rewards for points earned “Active Ignoral” “Forced Choices” Setting Events: homework space, quiet work space Consistent language for redirection Timers, break down multi-step directions, get attention prior to giving directions

45 FBA Pitfalls Generic (should be individualized) Flawed (need a correct behavior hypothesis) Negative (should focus on reward not punishment)

46 More Behavior Strategies! I want, I need, help cards Hugs, high 5’s and other praise Quiet redirection Planned ignoring Coping skills (eg stop, think, relax, big problem vs little problem) Role play Social Skill language Positive phrases Proximity Humor Nonverbal cues Sensory breaks Timer I messages Clear routines and expectations Choice board Token economy Social Stories

47 Summary The law REQUIRES FBAs and PBSPs under certain circumstances FBAs and PBSPs need to be INDIVIDUALIZED FBAs help us explain WHY problem behavior is occurring Interventions should be as CONSISTENT as possible between home and school

48 FINALLY…. YOU ARE NOT ALONE!!

49 Resources Books Carol Gray. My Social Story Book. Carol Kranowitz & Lucy Jane Miller. The Out of Sync Child. Thomas Phelan, Ph.D Magic: Effective Discipline for Children Alan Sohn and Cathy Grayson. Parenting Your Asperger’s Child. Individualized Solutions for Teaching Your Child Practical Skills. Websites

50 Contact Us Kristy M. Asral, M.Ed. Asral Behavioral Consulting Services, Inc. Doylestown, PA (267) Josh Kershenbaum, Esq. Frankel & Kershenbaum, LLC Four Tower Bridge 200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 400 West Conshohocken, PA ( 610)


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