Presentation on theme: "Hamilton County Educational Service Center"— Presentation transcript:
1Hamilton County Educational Service Center Language Arts instructional strategies transition for Special Education teachers and All TeachersLisa Campbell, Ed.D.Hamilton County Educational Service CenterApril 10, 2012Students with disabilities, as well as all students must be challenged to excel within the general curriculum and be prepared for success beyond school. The Common Core State Standards provide an opportunity to improve access to rigorous academic content standards for students with disabilities, and all students. The continued development of understanding about research-based instructional practices and a focus on their effective implementation will help improve access to English language arts (ELA) standards.Emphasis on the title that includes ALL teachers – Strategies that are effective with students with disabilities are effective with all students.
2Reflection Question…Is it unrealistic to expect that students with disabilities (outside of the small % of students who will qualify for alternate assessment) be expected to master the new and more challenging CCSS in ELA?Is this expectation long overdue?As a former general educator AND former intervention specialist, I choose to believe, and would like to suggest for all to believe, that the expectation is long overdue.
3WelcomeWhat did you have to doWhy present you with this challenge?Your task is to join all nine dots using only four (or less) straight lines, without lifting your pencil.
4What’s the point?Why present you with this challenge?To challenge you to think beyond the possible boundaries or obstacles and consider all possibilities in meeting the needs of all students with instructional strategies that may be “out of the norm” or out of the realm of what has been done in past years.We need to think differently about opportunities to provide high quality instruction for students with disabilities in order to meet the demands of the CCSS.
5Common Core State Standards in ELA ELA CCSS are K-12 standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language. They also include standards for literacy in content areas for grades 6-12.
6Common Core State Standards & Students with Disabilities IDEA requires that students with disabilities participate in high-stakes testing. Students with disabilities must be challenged within the general education. The CCSS will help students with disabilities prepare for and access high-stakes testing.Students with all disabilities including:Specific learning disabilitiesEmotional and behavioral disordersSpeech and language impairmentsDevelopmental cognitive disabilitiesAutism spectrum disordersOther health impairmentsPhysical impairmentsSensory impairmentsSevere multiple impairmentsTraumatic brain injuryBullet One: students with disabilities need access to grade-level curriculum and instruction because they are expected to participate in state high-stake testing with their peers. Students with disabilities ―students eligible under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)―must be challenged to excel within the general curriculum and be prepared for success in their post-school lives. The continued development of understanding about research-based instructional practices and a focus on their effective implementation will help improve access English language arts (ELA) standards for all students, including those with disabilities.Note: In 2004, IDEA further increased expectation that instruction be anchored in the general education curriculum.Bullet Two: All students, regardless of disability, should be participating in the CCSS. There are 13 disabilities recognized by the federal government. *sensory impairments includes deaf/hard of hearing, vision impairment, as well as deaf/blind).(Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997; Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004)
7What’s Not Covered in the Standards? Page 6 of CCSS in ELAOn page 6 of the CCSS, a section detailing what is not cover in the standards specifically states…(covered on next slide). There are implications for students with disabilities and all teachers within this section. Let’s take a look…
8“Intentional design limitations” of the standards The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach.The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations.It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needsIf the standards don’t define supports for all students, are they left undefined….or?
9Application to Students with Disabilities The site includes a PDF promoting a “culture of high expectations for all students” in a document titled Application to Students with Disabilities
10Importance of Early Intervention When the instructional needs of learners are met early, students with and without disabilities have less difficulty and require less specialized instruction later.Stress that “early” intervention refers to “just in time” intervention (as soon as difficulties are documented) rather that early as in at an early age, although often disabilities are most effectively noted at early ages.
11Standards-Based IEPs & Classroom Instruction Include IEP goals based on academic content standards for the grade in which the student in enrolled (regardless of the student’s disability). Standards-based IEPs should be designed to monitor the student’s progress in achieving the student’s standards-based goals.Students with disabilities need access to grade-level curriculum and instruction. Access can take place in either a special education or a general education classroom.Standards-based IEP’s include goals and objectives based on CCSS for the grade in which the student is enrolled-regardless of the student’s disability or functioning level.Bullet Two: Standards-based IEPs should be designed to monitor the student’s progress in achieving the standards-based goals.Bullet Three: Students with disabilities are general education students first and need access to the grade-level curriculum and instruction including quality classroom (tier 1) instruction.Bullet Four: Instruction can (and should) take place either in a special education or a general education classroom or both.(Minnesota Department of Education 2010)
12Shift in Writing Applications: Increase in Writing from Sources Instructional Implications:Writing instruction needs to emphasize use of evidence to inform or to make an argument; it includes short, focused research projects K-12.Students K-12 develop college and career-ready skills through written arguments that respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they listen to and read (Appendix A, pp ; student samples, Appendix C).Shifting away from today’s emphasis on narrative writing (in response to de-contextualized prompts), the standards place a emphasis on students writing to sources, i.e., using evidence from texts to present careful analyses, well-defended claims, and clear information. Rather than asking students questions they can answer from their prior knowledge or experience, the standards expect students to answer questions that depend on information in a variety of text selections.
13Shift in Reading Standards: Increase in Informational Text and Text-based Answers Instructional Implications:Teachers need to ensure that classroom experiences stay deeply connected texts and that students develop habits for making evidentiary arguments based on the text, both in conversation as well as in writing, to assess their comprehension of a text (Appendix A, p. 2). This includes critical reasoning with focus on analysis and evaluation.Increasing the amount of informational text students read K-12 will prepare them to read college and career-ready texts.
14Additional shift requiring critical reasoning: Text Complexity Instructional Implications:In order to prepare students for the complexity of college and career-ready texts, each grade level requires growth in text complexity (Appendix A, pp. 5-17). Students read the central, grade-appropriate text around which instruction is centered (see exemplars and sample tasks, Appendix B).Teachers need to prioritize time in the curriculum for close and careful reading and provide appropriate and necessary supports to make the central text accessible to students reading below grade level.
15Scaffolding for Text Complexity introducing background knowledgeimmersing students in more complex language exposure and usage that makes a difference in their ability to access knowledgeengaging students with carefully selected or constructed graphic organizers that make the structure of the text visiblemodeling how to interpret the meaning of texts that use more complex approaches, like satire or rhetorical argumentStudents deserve exposure to and opportunities to interact with complex unexpected texts.But how do we scaffold them into reading grade level complex texts? Some examples include….engaging pairs or teams of students with more challenging texts as “buddies” and giving them opportunities to reflect on those texts through discussions with each other or through “buddy” journalsmaking 20 percent of their class reading “stretch” texts that help them reach beyond their reading level
16Scaffolding for students with disabilities and all struggling readers Using tiered text is one way to scaffold. Teachers select an easy-to-read text aligned with students’ entry-level background and academic knowledge. Built on the Gradual Release of Responsibility model, which involves explicit teacher modeling, guided instruction, and independent practice—tiered texts scaffold student understanding and provide background knowledge and the multiple exposures to academic vocabulary required for comprehension.Balancing the rigor of text complexity as proposed by the CCSS with current student reading levels may seem daunting; however, through explicit instruction in vocabulary and by building background knowledge through the use of tiered texts, teachers can make complex texts accessible to all students.The first text the teacher selects should be short, introduce students to key concepts, and be written at a level that matches students’ entry level abilities. The second text selected should be longer and more challenging. It should reinforce the information and language of the first selection and transition students to more complex text.
17A Model for Success for All Students TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentTransition to next slide….how to determine WHAT focus lessons to develop…STUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Model for Success for All StudentsFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
18Deconstructing the State Standards for Students with Disabilities Be aware of the student’s present level of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP). Identify the appropriate grade level standard(s) statements. Unpack the standard. Identify what the student needs to know and be able to do in the simplest terms possible.First, it is important to be aware of the student’s present level of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP). This information can be found on the student’s most current IEP.Next, you will need to identify the grade level standard statement according to the grade level of same age peersFinally, you will need to “unpack the standard.” This means identifying what he/she needs to know and be able to do.
19Example of Deconstructing a Standard Break the standard into its component parts:Quote accuratelyExplain what happenedDraw inferencesAnalyze the subskillsDecides on a focus. For example, focus on explaining what happened in the text to improve the student’s comprehensionDetermine Accommodations and/or Modifications for student to successfully reach standardDetermine Plan to Monitor ProgressStandardQuote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (RL.5.1)Now let’s take a look at the standard. Discuss example from slide. Explain the bullet three will be explained in more detail next.
20Accommodation vs. Modification An effort to alter the representation or presentation of the curriculum or to modify the student’s engagement with the curriculum to enhance access and progress.Changes in the assessment or curriculum that do not alter the validity, reliability, or security of the test or curriculum.Modification: Substantive changes in an assessment or academic curriculum that change the rigor or expectation.Explain that modification and adaptation are sometimes used synonymously, but neither are equal or synonymous with accommodation.
21Various Accommodations Presentation Accommodations—change how an assignment or assessment is given to a student. These include alternate modes of access which may be auditory, multisensory, tactile, or visual. Response Accommodations— allow students to complete assignments, assessments, and activities in different ways (alternate format or procedure) or to solve or organize problems using some type of assistive device or organizer. Setting Accommodations—change the location in which an assignment or assessment is given or the conditions of the setting. Timing/Scheduling Accommodations—increase the allowable length of time to complete an assignment or assessment, or change the way the time is organized for an assignment or assessment.Bullet One: Presentation Accommodations change how an assignment or assessment is given to a student. These include alternate modes of access which may be auditory, multisensory, tactile, or visual.Bullet Two: Response Accommodations allow students to complete assignments, assessments, and activities in different ways (alternate format or procedure) or to solve or organize problems using some type of assistive device or organizer.Bullet Three: Setting Accommodations change the location in which an assignment or assessment is given or the conditions of the settingBullet Four: Timing/Scheduling Accommodations increase the allowable length of time to complete an assignment or assessment, or change the way the time is organized for an assignment or assessmentAn accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. These are a first step prior to implementing a modification to curriculum.(Minnesota Manual of Accommodations 2009, 12)
22Facts Related to Modifications Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are not modifications, adaptations, or accommodations, but are supports that should be afforded to ALL students regularly.Curriculum modification is based on ranging degrees in which our educational approach becomes distinct from or maintains the similarities to existing general curriculum.Modifications are described by altered content knowledge, conceptual difficulty, educational goals, and instructional method versus building scaffolding and bridges between existing curriculum and people involved in the educational process.Modifications are only appropriate when used as a scaffold to more rigorous instructional expectations.Note:Inappropriate modifications have the potential to increase the gap between the achievement of students with disabilities and grade level expectations. This could adversely affect students throughout their educational career.
23What can I do TOMORROW to better prepared to implement the CCSS with all students? Learn more about or solidify knowledge of differentiationand Universal Design for Learning (UDL).Gather and respond to data gathered from formative andsummative assessments.Engage in Response to Intervention (RTI).Practice gradual release of responsibility.Specific to the content area of ELA:Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehensionWriting
24A Framework for Success: RTI Features include:Focus on prevention prior to interventionUniversal screeningQuality instruction for ALL studentsProgress monitoringData-based decisionsTier 1 instructionIntervention (tier 1)Tier 2 instructionIntervention (tier 2)Tier 3 instructionIntervention (tier 3)
25ReferencesCommon Core State Standards Initiative. 2010a. “Application to Students with Disabilities.” Accessed MarchCommon Core State Standards Initiative. 2010b. “Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.” Accessed March 21,Common Core State Standards Initiative. 2010e. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Accessed March 23,Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, Pub. L., No , 105th Cong., 1st sess.Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, 20 U.S.C et esq. (2004) (reauthorization of Individuals with Disabilities).Minnesota Department of Education Adaptations Form. Roseville, MN: Minnesota Department of Education.No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2008).Samuels, Christina A “Special Educators Look to Tie IEPs to Common Core.” Education Week, January 11,