3 Facts about Military Families 2.2 million service members1.9 dependent childrenOver 40% are under 537% of families live on installationsRemainder live in 4,000+ communitiesOver 17,000 AF families havean EFMP memberAnd move 6-9 times in a career
5 Facts of Scenario A Disabled adult child (over the age of 18) Child receives Supplemental Security IncomeLives in a group homeEligible for MedicaidJob placement programwith a mentor/coachFather is active duty memberHis will, SGLI and SBP gives all to sonWhat are the legal issues?
6 Legal Issues for Scenario A Property and SGLI to disabled adult/childSSI benefits limit resources to $2,000 per personEffect: Loss of SSI, Medicaid, group home, job placement with mentor
7 Legal Issues for Scenario A Solution: Special Needs Trust42 U.S.C. 1396p(d)(4)(A) and 42 U.S.C. 1396p(d)(4)(C)Third Party Trust: TSgt Jones’ Best OptionFirst Party Trust: Matt’s Possible RemedyMilitary Benefit ProblemsSurvivor Benefit Plan: 10 U.S.C. 1447Dependency & Indemnification Compensation38 U.S.C. 1314
9 Facts of Scenario BSchool field trip for all students in the 5th grade at a public middle schoolSchool field trip costs $5.00 for all childrenIt costs $ more for childin wheel chairParents can’t afford additionalcost
10 Legal Issues for Scenario B Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) as required by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act34 CFR explains the “Free” in FAPE as:“…the provision of educational and related services without cost to the handicapped person or to his or her parents or guardian, except for those fees that are imposed on non-handicapped persons or their parents or guardian...“
12 Facts of Scenario C Military family moves Child is 7-years old and autisticFormer individualized education program (IEP) required inclusion in a classroom with an aide – child thrivedNew school district:No services for monthsSelf-contained classroomCuts OT and speech therapy from IEP
13 Legal Issues for Scenario C “Comparable services” from old IEPIndividuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of and the Interstate Compact for Military Children20 U.S.C. 1414(d)(2)(c)(i) andHard to enforce long term [34 CFR (f)]Get denial in writing (Prior Written Notice letter)Process for Appealing IEP/Denial of FAPENote about experts and attorney feesFree Appropriate Public EducationNo FAPE for “months,” consider self-help (private school)
15 Legal Issues for Scenario C “Comparable services” from old IEPIDEA and the Interstate Compact for Military Children20 U.S.C. 1414(d)(2)(c)(i) andHard to enforce long term [34 CFR (f)]Get denial in writing (Prior Written Notice letter)Free Appropriate Public EducationProcess for Appealing IEP/Denial of FAPEExperts and attorney feesSelf-help remedies
17 Facts of Scenario D Military Family moves to another state Developmentally delayed child for speech under the age of 3 (i.e. doesn‘t talk)Has an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) in sending state for delayNew state defines eligibilitydifferently and states child maynot be eligible for services
18 Legal Issues for Scenario D IDEA Act, Part C (but after age 3…)BUT it does not establish eligibility criteriaStates define developmentally delayedAL: 25% delayed BUT AZ: 50% delayed thresholdWho pays for early intervention varies by stateWhat about overseas? DoDD Schools?Educational & Developmental Intervention ServiceSee DoDI , section ESee
20 Facts of Scenario ESecond grader with disability is suspended from schoolSuspension in school recordsRecords state child has ADHD, sensory processing disorder, behavioral disorders and GMSParents have never been informed of GMSRequest for copy of school records - denied
21 Legal Issues for Scenario E Manifestation of Disability ?20 U.S.C. 1415(k)(E)(i)10 days cumulative = change in placementFAPE still due to child with disabilityFamily Education Right to Privacy Act20 U.S.C. 1232g (called FERPA)Right to inspect and reviewstudent education recordsRequest correction if inaccurate or misleading
23 Scenario F A1C Smith and her spouse have two children $1000 in savings, live off base at Moody AFBOne child has Downs SyndromeThey need extra money to pay for equipment for the child with a disabilityThey apply for Supplemental Security IncomeWhat are the military-related issues?
24 Legal Issues for Scenario F What counts as income for SSI?Salary? BAH? BAS? Hostile fire pay? Family sep pay? Imminent danger pay?Heroes Earning Assistance & Relief Tax Act of [122 Stat 1624 (2008); 20 CFR (b);and 20 CFR (a)(2)]What happens if they move to:Los Angeles AFB? Overseas?Privatized housing on a military installation?
26 Facts of Scenario G Military family with two children in school Cindy, who has ADHD, wants to take the SAT. and the school told her “no”Jim, who has intellectual disabilities, is 17The school has decided to move him from a regular classroom to a self-contained classroomJim’s parents object to the placementThey also want advice on what happens legally when he turns 18?
27 Legal Issues in Scenario G Can take the SATAccommodations are available for the SATCan file an appeal with schoolRequest a Due Process HearingRequest “Stay-Put” [20 U.S.C. 1415(j) and 34 CFR to hold current placementDiscuss transfer of IEP rights to JimDiscuss guardianship and special needs trusts
28 Documents as Alternative to Guardianship Living WillDurable Power of Attorney for Health CareFinancial Power of AttorneySpecial Needs TrustLiving TrustRepresentative Payee (for SSI benefits)General Power of AttorneySpecial Power of Attorney for Educational Decisions (IEP)
30 Facts of Scenario H Military family with one child in school Eric has intellectual and emotional disabilitiesHe has wandered away from the school and been found in the play ground by school officialsHis teachers are fed up with this behaviorThey propose the use of restraints and use of an isolation room to address the behavior
31 Federal Law GAO Report (2009) – used routinely and not in emergency Not uncommon to see bungee cords, duct tape, ropesLittle peer reviewed research confirming this methodC.N. v. Willmar Public School s, 591 F.3d 624 (8th Cir 2010)Restraint in IEP but used to demean childNot violation of 4th Amendment – in IEPFederal legislation was introduced to make a federal standard to prevent methods that restrict breathing, mandate parent notification
33 Federal Law FAPE NOT Best – restrain your language Understand ECHO Due Process - no expert cost coveredUse ECHO therapist as expertsIEP meetings, hearings, etc.Don’t disclose moving plansSettlement agreements – in-district clauses?
34 This concludes this webcast… and Ms. Hills, Ms This concludes this webcast… and Ms. Hills, Ms. Barrow and I are glad to take a few questions….