Presentation on theme: "Specially designed instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Monitoring teacher implementation of specially designed instruction and services
2 Specially designed instruction Defined in IDEA 2004 as adapting the content, methodology, and delivery of instructionSpecially designed instruction vs. good teachingSpecially designed instruction – foundation of special education and focuses on the individual needs of the students. By definition, to be eligible for special ed – student needs specially designed instruction. IDEA defines SDI as adapting the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction.Characterized by significant and individualized adaptations that are not available to all general education students. Note: good teachers routinely adjust instruction to meet the diverse needs in the classroom, and minor modifications should not be considered “special education.” Only when significant adaptations are required that are not used with other students should it rise to the level of “special education.”
3 Individualized accommodations for accessing grade level content Multiple means of representationChanges in the way information is presentedMultiple means of expressionProviding alternate ways for students to demonstrate what they knowMultiple means of engagementChanges to gain student’s interest and increase motivationCurriculum adaptationsChanges in representation of contentRefer to admin walk through – 5 areas of SDI that apply to self-contained, resource, or inclusion teachers.Accommodations are educational practices that ensure involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. These accommodation fit under the umbrella of “Universal design for Learning” or UDL, which is defined as changes in how the curriculum is presented or represented or how students respond to the curriculum. UDL allows learning objectives to be achieved by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, write, etc.Administrators look for:Multiple means of representation – providing students with alternate ways to acquire content information (Ex: If a student can’t read printed text, may present information auditorily)Multiple means of expression – provide students with alternate ways to show what they know (Ex: students can say it, write it, draw it.Multiple means of engagement – students with disabilities may need alternate ways to increase motivation to learn. Teachers may provide choices, make learning relevant, etc.Curriculum adaptations – help students store and remember content information. Strategies include advance organizers, graphic organizers, etc.
4 Specially designed instruction Intensive and individualizedResearch based practices for students with disabilitiesDirect InstructionReadingMathSocial Skills for BIC classesLearning Strategy instructionExplicit and intensive instruction on IEP goals and objectives2nd area on walk-through form - Intensive and individualized SDI is typically delivered in a pull-out or self-contained classroom, but can be done in the general education classroom – especially with co-teaching arrangement.Research shows students with disabilities need explicit and direct skills based instruction.Whether teachers are working with student in general ed or any pull-out program, focus should be on quality instruction that is research based, and this includes need for direct instruction on deficit skills.Remember, students with disabilities did not respond to general education interventions, and these students require an approach that is significant and individualized.
5 Direct instruction Research based Reading Math Adams & Carnine (2004) conducted meta- analysisFindings clearly support effectiveness of this strategy.ReadingExamples include Project Read, Reading Mastery Plus, Corrective Reading, Read Naturally, Don JohnstonMathExamples include Mountain Math, Touch Math, Basic Math, etc.Direct Instruction is a highly structured teaching strategy that breaks skills into specific components that are taught in a controlled sequence. Here are the programs were are currently supporting.
6 Learning Strategy instruction Research basedFocus on teaching students how to learnFocusing togetherFraming RoutineSLANTProficiency Sentence WritingLINCSError Monitoring StrategyConcept Mastery RoutineContent Enhancement RoutineslLearning strategy instruction - these strategies come from the KU center for Research on Learning. Basically teaches students foundational skills of knowing how to learn. Here are the learning strategies used by inclusion/co-teachers.
7 IEP instruction Direct and intensive Deficit skills identified in student’s IEP goals and objectivesIEP instruction - intensive and direct instruction on student’s weaknesses. This is an instructional challenge for teachers to work on a student’s deficit skills while still providing instruction on grade level TEKS.
8 Controlling task difficulty Increase student motivationAvoid frustrationStudents with disabilities are easily frustrated - Control of task difficulty involves sequencing student work to maintain high levels of success and reduce frustration.
9 Grouping strategies Small interactive groups Peer tutoring Cooperative learningNote: whole group instruction is not appropriate in resource or self-contained settings.Grouping strategies are important. Research shows small, interactive groups of 6 or less is most effective. Includes peer tutoring or cooperative learning. In Resource or Self-contained classrooms, should not see whole group instruction.
10 Behavior management strategies Strategies on the (BIP):Antecedent strategies (prior to behavior occurring)Consequence strategies (strategies used after the behavior occurs)Teaching replacement behaviors(see handout)For BIC classrooms –Individual student point sheets linked to class wide motivation systemBehavior management strategies – section 4 on walk through form. Look for whether teachers are implementing strategies on student’s BIP. For BIC classrooms, must have student point sheets linked to classwide motivation /level system.
11 Classroom environment components Posted daily schedulesLearning centers/stationsStaff schedule postedBeginning and ending routinesAttention signalPosted classroom expectationsAdditional components for BIC classes:Crisis management planClassroom environment components for Resource or self-contained classrooms:Posted daily schedules, learning centers or stations including areas for 1:1 or small group instruction, independent work, other centers aligned with student’s IEP goals and objectives, staff schedule posted so that any time you know which staff is working with certain students throughout the instructional day, beginning and ending routines, attention signal, posted classroom expectations. For BIC classrooms, a crisis management plan.
12 Progress monitoringIs the teacher collecting and analyzing data on IEP goals and objectives or curriculum based measurements?Is the teacher using data to drive instructional decisions?Teachers must keep data at frequent intervals (preferably weekly) on student’s goals and objectives. Data should be visible and used to make instructional decisions.
14 Seven Steps to Progress Monitoring Writing Measurable Goals and ObjectivesMaking Data Collection DecisionsDetermining Data Collection Tools and SchedulesRepresenting the Data VisuallyEvaluating the DataMaking Instructional AdjustmentsCommunicating Progress
15 What is Progress Monitoring? Progress monitoring is the on-going process of collecting and analyzing data to determine student progress.
16 What is Progress Monitoring? Progress monitoring should beused to:Make instructional and service decisions based on student performance.Determine progress on IEPs (annual goals and objectives) for students in special education.
17 Rationale Why Use Progress Monitoring? Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) 2004Requires a student’s individualized education plan (IEP) to include:A statement of present levels of academic and functional performance;A statement of measurable annual goals;A statement of special education, related and supplemental services;An explanation of the extent, if any, of non-participation in the regular classroom;Etscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
18 Why Use Progress Monitoring? A statement of any appropriate and necessary accommodations on state and district-wide assessments;A statement of dates and duration of services;Appropriate, measurable post-secondary goals and transition services; andA statement of how the child’s progress toward the annual goals will be measured.Etscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
19 Why Use Progress Monitoring? Legal DecisionsThe absence of adequate progress monitoring has been the focus of several administrative and judicial decisions.Courts are unwilling to accept the claims of school districts regarding the appropriateness of a student’s program without proof in the form of data.Etscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
20 Why Use Progress Monitoring? Recent decisions have revealed five primary areas of concern:The IEP team fails to develop or implement progress monitoring plans;Responsibilities for progress monitoring are improperly delegated;Recent decisions concerning progress monitoring have revealed five primary areas of concernEtscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
21 Why Use Progress Monitoring? The IEP team does not plan or implement progress monitoring for behavior intervention plans;The team uses inappropriate measures to determine student progress toward graduation;Progress monitoring is not frequent enough to meet the requirements of IDEA or to provide meaningful data to IEP teams.(after reviewing slide)… so where do we start?... The current IEP…Etscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
22 Seven Steps to Progress Monitoring Write Measurable Goals and ObjectivesMake Data Collection DecisionsDetermine Data Collection Tools and SchedulesRepresent the Data VisuallyEvaluate the DataMake Instructional AdjustmentsCommunicate ProgressThe process begins by setting goals for each student, based on where the student is presently functioning (current level of educational performance or baseline level) and expected levels of progress. Connecting the baseline and the goal or target performance provides an aimline. Student performance on regularly administered probes is compared with the aimline to determine if the student is progressing toward the goal. When necessary, instructional interventions are designed and implemented to improve student progress.
23 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives The PLAFP sets the baseline for the annual goals.Determines approaches for ensuring involvement in, or adaptations or modifications to, the general education curriculum.Should accurately describe the student’s performance in all areas of education that are affected by the student’s disability.Each area of educational need identified in the PLAFP must be addressed in at least one other section of the form: annual goals, supplementary aids/services, special education programs and services, and/or secondary transition services.
24 PLAFP Information Sources Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and ObjectivesPLAFP Information SourcesWork samplesSchool recordsChecklistsCareer, transition, vocational assessmentsStudent work samples, portfoliosTeacher observations and recordsParent inputStudent InterviewsBehavioral dataCBAs and CBMSSystematic data collectionReport CardsStatewide assessmentBenchmark assessmentTeacher-made testsNorm-referenced testsCriterion Referenced Tests (CLASS)These are examples of information sources. Any information that demonstrates a link to the curriculum and shows strengths and weaknesses in essential skills can be used.AGC - TEKS-Based Instruction32
25 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives PLAFP ExampleCharlie knows how to compute math problems, but is unable to meet the 5th grade standards (80% on math benchmarks) for understanding and applying problem solving strategies to story problems. He does not understand the relationship between a description and a mathematical solution. Charlie scored at the 2.8 level on the solving section of the Key Math test, and 4.8 on the Computation section. He completes word problems with 50% accuracy.
26 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives PLAFP Example: Joshua is a 10 year old student in third grade who needs clearly defined rules and a structured environment. In unstructured situations or when given a difficult assignment, Joshua will often hit teachers and peers. His hitting behavior occurs an average of 6 times per day. During preferred activities, Joshua engages in appropriate peer interactions on a daily basis.
29 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives Precise and measurable goals provide a clear basis for monitoring student progress.The annual goals estimate what outcomes can be expected in an academic year based on the student’s present level of performance.The objectives provide steps for meeting the goal.Teachers must write precise and measurable goals thatprovide a clear basis for monitoring student progress.The goals estimate what progress can be expected ina set period of time based on where the student ispresently performing. Students in special educationprograms have annual goals and short-term objectives.The annual goals estimate what outcomes can be expec-ted in an academic year based on the student’s presentlevel of performance. The objectives provide steps formeeting the goal.
30 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives It is important to consider how the cumulative effect of special education services will help achieve school and post-school outcomes when setting the annual goals.Even though the IEP focuses on goals for one year, the goals should be building toward helping the student achieve post- school or long-term outcomes.
31 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives Annual goals and short-term objectives must have the following components:Student: Use the student’s name.Behavior: State what the student will do. Use verbs that are observable and measurable.Conditions: State the specific circumstances under which the student will perform the expected behaviors.Criterion: Set a standard indicates a reasonable level of performance that the student will achieve after instruction or intervention.Refer to reference chart
32 Step 1: Write Measurable Goals and Objectives Table Activity: Use the Reference Guide to write a measurable goal and/or objective for Joshua.
33 Step 2: Making Data Collection Decisions Data decisions guide the selection of a meaningful data collection toolType of data neededWhereBy WhomHow often-
34 Step 2: Make Data Collection Decisions What type of data will be collected?Permanent/Visible productsEvent RecordingDuration RecordingABC ChartsAnecdotal ObservationsData collection serves as a day-to-day guide for making adjustments in instruction, and provides the information needed to determine student progress toward goals and, in the case of students in special education, objectives. Data must be collected often enough to provide for timely intervention and student progress toward the goal. The following questions can guide decisions:
35 Step 2: Make Data Collection Decisions Where will data be collected?ClassroomPlaygroundCafeteriaSchool HallwaysJob-siteCommunityAnywhere data reflecting progress can be observed and counted efficiently!
36 Step 2: Making Data Collection Decisions Who will collect data? General Education teacher Special Education teacher Paraprofessional Student Job coach Parent Others
37 Step 2: Make Data Collection Decisions How often will data be collected?DailyMonthlyWeeklyQuarterlyData must be gathered as frequently as necessary—and no more!High priority objectives may warrant daily data collectionImplementation of new programs require more frequent data collectionData can be gathered anytime the student has the opportunity to exhibit the behavior to be observed and counted—but only as often as necessary.
38 Step 2: Make Data Collection Decisions Effectiveness of services and instructional method is best determined when progress is measured frequently.If progress is monitoredThen effectiveness mayDaily, as part of instructionBe determined within 2 weeksTwice a weekBe determined within a monthWeeklyBe determined within a quarterQuarterlyNOT be determined, even after a yearAn Administrator’s Guide to Measuring Achievement for Students with IEPs.
39 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules The tools used to collect data and measure progress provide evidence of student performance specific to IEP goals and objectives.Data collection tools should represent different types of measurement in order to provide a clear picture of student progress.Bullet one: let the behavior to be observed dictate the tool…EVIDENCE means you can tangibly show the team how the student performedExample: You wouldn’t use clothing size alone to measure progress in weight loss… you would use multiple measures like weight, inches, clothing size, BMI, etc…
40 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules Commonly used tools/methods:CBMSWork SamplesAssessment checklistsAnecdotal recordsPortfolio assessmentStructured interviewsTeacher-made testsSurveysRating scalesRubricsCurriculum-based assessmentObservationsTools must be selected or designed to collect data. A schedule to review the data must be established. The type, location, and frequency of data to be collected, as well as who will collect the data, determine the tools or methods to be used.Work SamplesProvides evidence of student performance through “hard copies” of actual student work.WritingMathProjects (cutting, drawing)Pictures of student workAudio recordings of student performance (reading, responding to questions)
41 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules The data collection schedule depends on how service is delivered:Times for data collection should be worked into daily and weekly plans for instruction.Data collection does not necessarily have to be separate from instructional time.Regular education teachers and other service providers play a key role in data collection and input.Times for data collection should be scheduled when concerns have been brought up.
42 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules Think-Pair-Share1)Think for a few moments about how you would collect data on Joshua’s behavior.2)Pair with a partner and talk about the answer each of you came up with. Identify the answers you think are best or most unique.3)Share your thinking with the whole group.
43 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules Visual representation of data provides a picture of student progress, and helps to clarify the written word or list of numbers used to make decisions.Ways to show data visually include:GraphsChartsChecklists
44 Baseline data Joshua’s hitting behavior Time M T W T F Total 9-9:10 / / / /9:30-40 / / // / /10-10:10 // /// / // /10:30-40 /// / //// /// // 13Day totalMake a line graph and then a histogram
45 Step 3: Determine Data Collection Tools/Schedules Table ActivityUse the information to graph the baseline data.Share with others at your table.
46 Joshua baseline data Frequency of hitting behavior Baseline Intervention
47 Joshua baseline data Frequency of hitting behavior Baseline Intervention
48 Step 4: Represent the Data Visually Compiling data is a critical component.Periodically review and graph or chart the collected data.Attempting to compile all data collected during the year right before the ARD would be an overwhelming task.If data is collected:Then data should be compiled:DailyWeeklyTwo or three times per weekBi-weekly or monthlyOnce a weekMonthly
49 After Intervention Data Joshua’s hitting behaviorTime M T W T F M Total9-9: / // // // / /9: / / / /10-10:10 / // / // / /10:30-40 // //// // / // //Day totalMake a line graph and then a histogram
50 Step 4: Represent the Data Visually Table Activity:Graph dataDiscuss the impact of the graphs.How might the IEP meetings for these students gone had only the collected data (not compiled) been shared.
51 Step 5: Evaluate the Data Data collection provides information used to drive instruction.Data must be reviewed regularly and on a predetermined basis.Data must be evaluated to determine if the student is making progress toward the goals and objectives.Data should determine how well the student is responding to the intervention being implemented.
52 Step 5: Evaluate the Data Decision rules should be applied when analyzing the graph.Based on 4 most recent consecutive scores a decision to intervene should be made if –four consecutive data points are below the goal line (or above if decreasing behavior)ORfour of the last six data points are below the goal line (or above if decreasing behavior).
56 Step 5: Evaluate the Data Table Activity: Evaluate Joshua’s data
57 Step 6: Making Instructional Decisions When the data patterns indicate the need to intervene, simple instructional interventions should be used first and then more intensive interventions.When instructional interventions do not result in the expected progress being made the ARD Committee may need to be reconvened to reevaluate the goal and objectives.When the data patterns indicate the need to intervene, simple instructional interventions should be used first and then more intensive interventions.If these adjustments still do not yield results, moderate and then more intensive interventions should be tried.When instructional interventions do not result in the expected progress being made the IEP team should be reconvened to reevaluate the goal and objectives.
58 Step 6: Making Instructional Decisions If the data patterns show progress is:Adequate or better-- the program is working, and should be continued.Stalled, but the student can do some of the task-- provide direct or intensive instruction on difficult steps.Stalled close to the goal--provide increased repetitions and frequent opportunities for practice.At or near zero--the task is too difficult, teach prerequisite skills.Accomplished--move on to a new goal.
59 Step 7: Communicating Progress Communication about student progress should actively involve the parent and the student.Communication is a motivational tool for students and strengthens home- school bonds with parents.
60 Step 7: Communicating Progress The ARD committee determines how progress will be communicated and the method and schedule is noted on the IEP.Progress on IEP goals must be reported at least as frequently as progress is reported for students who do not have disabilities.Ways to keep lines of communication open include:G Communication books and data logs G Parent/teacher conferences G Progress reports and report cards G Phone calls
61 Final ThoughtsProgress monitoring processes that are focused, clearly defined, and completed will ensure meaningful educational programs for students with disabilities.
62 Final ThoughtsProgress monitoring remains a required part of the IEP with IDEAEtscheidt, Susan K. (2006)
63 Works Cited/Consulted An Administrator’s Guide to Measuring Achievement for Students with IEPs.Etscheidt, Susan K. (2006). Progress monitoring: Legal issues and recommendations for IEP teams. TEACHING Exceptional Children,Jones, C. J. (2004). Teacher-friendly curriculum-based assessment in spelling. TEACHING Exceptional Children,Show Me the DATA! University of Washington, Experimental Educational UnitPemberton, J. B. (2003). Communicating academic progress as an integral part of assessment. TEACHING Exceptional Children,