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What Do I Need to Know About IEPs? June, 2009 9.17.091SERC.

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Presentation on theme: "What Do I Need to Know About IEPs? June, 2009 9.17.091SERC."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Do I Need to Know About IEPs? June, 2009 9.17.091SERC

2 Take a minute… What is the purpose of an IEP? 9.17.09SERC2

3 It is About Access 9.17.093SERC

4 What Does Access Mean? Access means a barrier-free opportunity to learn and use materials, resources, and events in natural settings. “Barrier-free” means without any unnatural or arbitrary obstacles Moll (2003) 9.17.094SERC

5 9.17.095SERC

6 1/12/06SERC6 What Practices Lead to Effective IEPs? Knowing the rationale behind IEPs Decision-making Documenting the decisions Implementing the IEP Measuring student progress

7 The Rationale Legal Background Terminology Philosophy Decision-Making Values 9.17.097SERC

8 What is the Purpose of IDEA? “ To ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living” §601 (d) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.098SERC

9 FAPE Free Appropriate Public Education means special education and related services that… have been provided at public expense; meet the standards of the State; include an appropriate school education; and conform with the IEP procedures §602 (9) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.099SERC

10 What Is Essential to Know? Special Education Related Services Supplementary Aids & Services Least Restrictive Environment 9.17.0910SERC

11 Special Education “Specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability…” §602 (29) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.0911SERC

12 Specially Designed Instruction “Adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child…, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction: To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child's disability; and To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.” Regulations: Part 300 / A / 300.39 / b / 3300A300.39b 9.17.0912SERC

13 Related Services “Transportation, and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services… as may be required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education...” speech-language pathology and audiology services interpreting services psychological services physical and occupational therapy recreation, including therapeutic recreation social work services school nurse services (to receive FAPE) counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling orientation and mobility services medical services (except medical services for diagnostic and evaluation purposes only) §602 (26) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.0913SERC

14 Supplementary Aids and Services “Aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with [LRE].” §602 (33) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.0914SERC

15 LRE Provision “ To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities… are educated with children who are not disabled, and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.” §612 (a)(5)(A) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.0915SERC

16 Mainstreaming Selective placement of students in special education in one or more general education classes Assumes a student must “earn” the opportunity by “keeping up” The student needed to adapt The general education classroom did not change 9.17.0916SERC

17 Inclusion Expresses a belief system (philosophy) of educating each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom(s) where he or she would otherwise attend Involves bringing support services to the child rather than moving the child to the services 9.17.0917SERC

18 A Necessary Paradigm Shift Mainstreaming LRE Visitor Member Stetson and Associates, Inc. 9.17.0918SERC

19 ALL kids are general education students A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education for Children and Their Families. (2002). 9.17.0919SERC

20 A Reflection on LRE How is the general education classroom considered as the first placement option (before removal)? How are supplementary aids and services used to support students staying in the general education classroom? Does the discussion about placement/location occur only after goals & objectives are set? 9.17.0920SERC

21 1/12/06SERC21 Based on That Purpose… An IEP should focus on: Increasing time with non-disabled peers (TWNDP) Increasing participation and progress in general education curriculum

22 What Are Your Decision-Making Values? More-is-Better Assumes that quantity equals quality Tends to decrease LRE Return-on-Investment Selects service most likely to “fix” Has an underlying notion of “you’re not ok” 9.17.09SERC22 Giangreco (2001)

23 Only-as-Special-as-Necessary Uses natural supports that exist in general education Determining the appropriate type & amount of service 9.17.09SERC23 Giangreco (2001)

24 The Process Planning and Placement Teams 9.17.0924SERC

25 Planning & Placement Team (PPT) CT Regulations “A group of certified or licensed professionals, who represent each of the teaching, administrative and pupil personnel staffs and who participate equally on the decision making process to determine the specific educational needs of the child and develop an IEP for the child.” Conn. Agencies Regs. § 10-76a-1(15) 9.17.0925SERC

26 1/12/06SERC26 Planning vs. Telling The purpose of the PPT is to MAKE DECISIONS and CREATE A PLAN So when we come into the meeting with goals already written and placement already determined… Who really made the decisions? When were they made? What were they based on? Does this comply with the intent of the law?

27 IEP Team – Federal Statute A group of individuals composed of— The parents; At least 1 regular education teacher; At least 1 special education teacher, A representative who is Qualified to provide or supervise specially designed instruction; Is knowledgeable about general education curriculum; & Is knowledgeable about availability of resources; An individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results (may be a member of the team); Other individuals who have special expertise; & Whenever appropriate, the child. 9.17.09SERC27 §614 (d) of IDEA ‘04

28 Why an Administrator? Someone to ensure… Supervision of the special education Expertise in general education curriculum Appropriate services and resources are provided without delay Coordination of staffing, scheduling, and resources 9.17.0928SERC

29 A Reflection on Membership Do parents and students have an active roll in the PPT decisions? Who has the expertise in the general education curriculum, including specific subject areas? Who has specific knowledge about the student’s performance level? Who has the ability to coordinate resources and supervise the implementation of special education services? 9.17.0929SERC

30 1/12/06SERC30 Reflective Question What is the difference between these two terms? Paperwork Documentation

31 1/12/06SERC31 Reflective Question What is the difference between these two terms? Paperwork work such as writing letters or reports, which must be done but is not very interesting Documentation official documents, reports etc., that are used to prove that something is true or correct Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English http://www.ldoceonline.com/ http://www.ldoceonline.com/

32 1/12/06SERC32 Reflective Question Does the “paperwork” drive the process or does the process get documented?

33 Documenting the Process The Individualized Education Program 9.17.0933SERC

34 What Comes First? Write a number next to each item that represents the typical order of decisions in a PPT. 9.17.0934SERC

35 Compare & Contrast Compare this order to the IEP documentation. 1 2 3 9.17.0935SERC

36 Key Word: ALIGNMENT Need for Specially Designed Instruction Goals & Objectives/ Program Accommodations & Modifications Types of Support & Placement 9.17.0936SERC

37 Documentation of the Process PPT Meeting Cover Page p.1 Demographic information Record of Attendance PPT Recommendations p.2 (Summary optional) Prior Written Notice p.3 9.17.0937SERC

38 Individualized Education Program (IEP) Present levels of academic & functional performance Measurable annual goals How & when progress will be measured & reported Special education & related services/supplementary aids & services/program modifications or supports for school personnel Explanation of extent, if any, the child will NOT participate with non- disabled children in regular class Any accommodations necessary on state & district wide assessments Beginning date & frequency, location, & duration of services & modifications Post secondary goals & transition services (following 15th birthday) “A written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, & revised in accordance with this section & that includes -” §614 (d) of IDEA ‘04 9.17.0938SERC

39 Documentation of the Process IEP Present levels of Performance pp.4&5 Transition Planning p.6 Goals & Objectives p.7 Program Accommodations & Modifications p.8 State & District Testing Accommodations p.9 Special Factors, Progress Reporting, Exit Criteria p.10 Summary of Special Education, Related Services, and Regular Education p.11 9.17.0939SERC

40 Recording Data **Required Data Collection p.12 9.17.0940SERC

41 Present Level of Performance Page 4 & 5 How does the student’s present level of performance compare to general education content & performance standards? What general education standards does the student know and can do? 9.17.0941SERC

42  Demands/ Skills Years in School  The Achievement Gaps KU-CRL Gap Present Level Expected Performance 9.17.0942SERC

43 Specialized Instruction Page 4 & 5 How does the student’s disability specifically affect involvement and progress in to the general curriculum? If {concern}, then {impact} occurs in the area of… 9.17.0943SERC

44 Transition Planning Page 6 How was the student’s needs for transition assessed? How are the student’s preferences and interests determined? How does the student’s transition planning link to goals and objectives? 9.17.0944SERC

45 Measurable Goals & Objectives Page 7 What specific strategies, skills, and concepts does the student need to learn? Observable (Can we see, hear, touch it?) Measurable (Can we count it?) Specific (Can we agree when we see it?) 9.17.0945SERC

46 Which Ones Are Observable, Measurable, & Specific? Paying attention Aggressive behavior Out of seat Off task Throwing objects Homework completion Comprehension Spelling errors Phonemic awareness Math facts known Writing narrative Correct words per minute How would you change vague and non-measurable terms to be observable, measurable, and specific? 9.17.0946SERC

47 The “Stranger Test” Can any teacher implement these goals/objectives? The student will use appropriate vocabulary in writing assignments Using a highlighter and a set directions for a task, the student will highlight the verbs to indicated what needs to be done The student will improve social skills in group settings 80% of the time 9.17.0947SERC

48 The “Dead Person” Test Can a dead person meet these goals/objectives? During circle time, the student will remain quiet for ten minutes The student will keep hands and feet to self For class discussions the student will use a ticket each time she wants to contribute 9.17.0948SERC

49 What Needs to Be Learned? Strategies Problem-solving and decision-making Study skills Coping Compensation Self-awareness Self-management Skills Able to do Specific applications Concepts Need to know Abstract ideas 9.17.0949SERC

50 1/12/06SERC50 Writing a Desired Goal Clearly define the outcome Observable (can be seen) Measurable (can be counted) Specific (clear terms, no room for a judgment call)

51 Reporting Progress Page 7 What is the expected amount of growth? How will it be known that the student has made progress? What is the monitoring process? Frequency, duration, accuracy Type of assessment How will progress be reported? How often? 9.17.0951SERC

52 The 80% Rule The child will cross the street with 80% accuracy The student will write a paragraph with 80% accuracy The child will decode a reading passage with 80% accuracy 9.17.0952SERC

53 Instructional Levels for Reading Word Identification Independent level (science) 98%-100% Instructional level (reading) 93%-97% Frustration level 92% or less Reading Comprehension Independent level 100% Instructional level 75%-100% Frustration level 74% or less Gickling (1978) 9.17.0953SERC

54 Le was gabadling when she entered, taking no obvious note of her yestle at all. Danielle looked at lex curiously. She knew that Edward had been on whub lately and was one of the very few outside of House Bassets who knew the truth behind that whub. The dark plawbs had come and infiltrated Claymont's zeubs, and Edward was serving as a front mallec for their operations. If Danielle held any preconceived gezoxs of how terrible the elf truly could be, one look at Edward surely confirmed those qualalicutions. Le had never been a nervous one-Danielle wasn’t sure that le was now-and had never been a mallec Danielle would have expected to find at odds with herself. Salvatore, R.A. Servant of the Shard Wizards of the Coast (2000) 9.17.0954SERC

55 Frustration Level Le was gabadling when she entered, taking no obvious note of her yestle at all. Danielle looked at lex curiously. She knew that Edward had been on whub lately and was one of the very few outside of House Bassets who knew the truth behind that whub. The dark plawbs had come and infiltrated Claymont's zeubs, and Edward was serving as a front mallec for their operations. If Danielle held any preconceived gezoxs of how terrible the elf truly could be, one look at Edward surely confirmed those qualalicutions. Le had never been a nervous one-Danielle wasn’t sure that le was now-and had never been a mallec Danielle would have expected to find at odds with herself. Salvatore, R.A. Servant of the Shard Wizards of the Coast (2000) 9.17.0955SERC

56 For Example… … scoring a 5/6 on a rubric measuring the use of the graphic organizer … at least 5 consecutive school days based on the check sheets and teacher observations … as measured by the student being able to correctly state the steps with 100% accuracy 9.17.0956SERC

57 Program Accommodations & Modifications Page 8 What is the impact of this accommodation on: learning; access to general education curriculum; independence? How can this accommodation be more like peers and be cool? What assistive technology was considered? 9.17.0957SERC

58 Accommodations vs. Modifications Accommodation A change made to the teaching or testing procedures in order to provide a student with access to information and to create an EQUAL OPPORTUNITY to demonstrate knowledge and skills (HOW) Modification A change in what the student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate (WHAT) While a student may be working on modified course content, the subject area/context remains the same as for the rest of the class. Nolet, V. & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000) 9.17.0958SERC

59 Let’s Give it a Try! Identify each of the items as an accommodation or modification… 9.17.0959SERC

60 Accommodation or Modification? Color code important words or phrases George Washington was the first president of the United States Accommodation 9.17.0960SERC

61 Accommodation or Modification? Read mathematical word problems aloud to a student Accommodation 9.17.0961SERC

62 Accommodation or Modification? A student retrieves 2 pictures from the Internet related to the essential elements of a World History topic. He demonstrates understanding by naming and pointing to the correct picture when cued by his peers during a presentation Modification 9.17.0962SERC

63 Accommodation or Modification? Allow a student to complete a project as an alternative to a test It Depends 9.17.0963SERC

64 Accommodation or Modification? A student is learning the concepts of part, whole and half; her peers are working on adding fractions Modification 9.17.0964SERC

65 Accommodation or Modification? Provide audiotapes, CDs or MP3s of textbooks and have the student follow the text while listening Accommodation, except… 9.17.0965SERC

66 Accommodation or Modification? A student is working on elapsed time through creating and using a schedule of his daily activities, while his classmates work on multi-step word problems with elapsed time Accommodation, as long as… 9.17.0966SERC

67 Accommodation or Modification? Graphic organizers such as semantic webs or concept maps Accommodation 9.17.0967SERC

68 Accommodation or Modification? Reduce the number of Math problems from 25 to 10 Accommodation, as long as… 9.17.0968SERC

69 Accommodation or Modification? Provide alternative books with similar concepts, but at an easier reading level Accommodation, as long as… 9.17.0969SERC

70 Accommodation or Modification? A student is required to discriminate between animals and plants when given pictures and short descriptions, while the rest of the class is required to tell the distinguishing characteristics of animal and plant cells Modification 9.17.0970SERC

71 Accommodation or Modification? Provide a designated note taker or photocopy the notes of a classmate (use carbonless paper) Accommodation 9.17.0971SERC

72 How did you do? 9.17.0972SERC

73 Examining Impact Evidence of High Impact on Learning High Access to General Education Curriculum Fosters Independence Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning No Access/Barrier to General Education Curriculum Fosters Dependence 9.17.0973SERC

74 Evidence of High Impact on Learning High Access to General Education Curriculum Fosters Independence Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning No Access/Barrier to General Education Curriculum Fosters Dependence Reducing Amount of Work 9.17.0974SERC

75 Evidence of High Impact on Learning High Access to General Education Curriculum Fosters Independence Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning No Access/Barrier to General Education Curriculum Fosters Dependence Teacher Orally Read Directions 9.17.0975SERC

76 Evidence of High Impact on Learning High Access to General Education Curriculum Fosters Independence Evidence of No Impact on/Prevents Learning No Access/Barrier to General Education Curriculum Fosters Dependence Manipulatives 9.17.0976SERC

77 Integration with Universal Practice Most Like Peers Enriches Other’s Learning Seen as “Cool” Easy to Put into the Routine Least Like Peers Deters Other’s Learning Seen as “Uncool” Difficult to Put into the Routine 9.17.0977SERC

78 Peer Reads Directions Most Like Peers Enriches Other’s Learning Seen as “Cool” Easy to Put into the Routine Least Like Peers Deters Other’s Learning Seen as “Uncool” Difficult to Put into the Routine 9.17.0978SERC

79 Manipulatives Most Like Peers Enriches Other’s Learning Seen as “Cool” Easy to Put into the Routine Least Like Peers Deters Other’s Learning Seen as “Uncool” Difficult to Put into the Routine 9.17.0979SERC

80 State & District Testing & Accommodations Page 9 Which accommodations increase the student’s opportunity to successfully demonstrate learning? How do these accommodations impact the student’s ability to take a test? How do these accommodations align with the accommodations used in the student’s daily instruction? 9.17.0980SERC

81 Special Factors, Progress Reporting, Exit Criteria Page 10 What was considered for students with behavior concerns, visual impairments, hearing impairments, or for students who do not have English as a primary language? How often will the student’s progress be reported? How and when will the student exit special education services? 9.17.0981SERC

82 Special Education, Related Services, & Regular Education Page 11 How frequently does the student need direct instruction? Who will provide the instruction? Who will be responsible to oversee implementation & monitor student progress? Where will the instruction occur? 9.17.0982SERC

83 Infusing IEPs List the typical schedule or activities, including non-academic areas/unstructured times, such as art, PE, music, recess, lunch, or hallway List the student’s IEP goals and objectives Determine when these goals and objectives can be taught and reinforced 9.17.0983SERC

84 Arriv/Dismis SS Math Reading Science Art Flex Time Music Lunch Given a balance scale and manipulatives the student will orally demonstrate how to maintain equivalence in simple one variable equations… XX Given a pattern, the student will use manipulatives to determine if it is repeating or growing… XXX When using a real world problem involving money, the student will provide the right amount of money needed or more and determine if change is needed… X X Schedule of Activities IEP Goals 9.17.0984SERC

85 Arriv/Dismis SS Math Reading Science Art Recess Music Lunch Given a small group activity, Steven will record conflicting ideas as a first step to negotiating a compromise… XXXX In a given social or group situation, Steven will go to an adult when he needs assistance resolving a conflict…. XXXXXXXXX In a given social or group situation, Steven will initiate conversation with a peer… X X X X Schedule of Activities IEP Goals 9.17.0985SERC

86 Implementing the IEP 9.17.0986SERC

87 Integrity Did we do what we said we would do? Reasons why we tend not to follow through: IEP was not a “working document” for all implementers IEP was not clearly defined or comprehensive The implementers need professional development The right resources (time, money, personnel) were not supplied 9.17.0987SERC

88 Measuring Student Progress Evaluating Impact Reporting Progress 9.17.0988SERC

89 Measuring the Effectiveness of Implementation Did we achieve our goals for student outcomes? How do we know this? 9.17.0989SERC

90 Monitoring vs. Evaluating Monitoring On-going and frequent Part of the implementation process Provide information for adjustments in plan Evaluating A specific point in time A review of the implementation process Provide information for decisions on next steps 9.17.0990SERC

91 Resources for IEP Development Bateman, B.D. & Herr, C. M. (2003). Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives. Wisconsin: IEP Resources. Clark, S. G. (2000). The IEP process as a tool for collaboration. Teaching Exceptional Children 33(2): 56- 66. Massanari, C. B. (2002). Connecting the IEP to the general curriculum: A talking paper. Nolet, V. & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the General Curriculum: Including Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform. California: Corwin Press. 9.17.0991SERC

92 Web Resources for IEP Development Giangreco, M. F. (2001). Guidelines for making decision about IEP services. http://www.uvm.edu/~mgiangre/http://www.uvm.edu/~mgiangre/ Reed, P. Let’s put the planning back in Individual Educational Programs. http://www.wati.org/at_services/pdf/atintheeip.pdf http://www.wati.org/at_services/pdf/atintheeip.pdf Connecticut State Department of Education (Special Education) http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2678&Q=320 730 http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2678&Q=320 730 Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 http://idea.ed.gov/explore/viewhttp://idea.ed.gov/explore/view 9.17.0992SERC


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