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Danielle Bragaw – IECP, Penn State University Angela Dornbusch – AEI, University of Oregon Lydia Shen – AEI, University of Oregon Linda Wesley IECP, Penn.

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Presentation on theme: "Danielle Bragaw – IECP, Penn State University Angela Dornbusch – AEI, University of Oregon Lydia Shen – AEI, University of Oregon Linda Wesley IECP, Penn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Danielle Bragaw – IECP, Penn State University Angela Dornbusch – AEI, University of Oregon Lydia Shen – AEI, University of Oregon Linda Wesley IECP, Penn State University BEING EXPLICIT: PREPARING STUDENTS FOR ACADEMIC SPEAKING AND WRITING

2  Theory Overview  Examples of Student Work  Teaching Strategies  Sample Lesson Plans  Discussion AGENDA

3 From The Art of Marketing in a Global Culture – “Anthropologists make a distinction between high-context and low-context cultures. In high- context cultures - Asian and Hispanic cultures, for instance - communication depends heavily on context. In low-context cultures - like the U.S., for example - communication is more explicit and verbal.” David Beglar and Neil Murray Contemporary Topics 3 (2009) THEORY OVERVIEW: COMMUNICATION

4 "A high-context (HC) communication or message is one in which most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person, while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message. A low-context (LC) communication is just the opposite; i.e., the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code."  High Context – nonverbal communication  Low Context – explicit and verbal communication Edward T. Hall Beyond Culture (1976) THEORY OVERVIEW: HIGH CONTEXT VS. LOW CONTEXT

5 HIGH Japan Arab Countries Greece Spain Italy England France North America Scandinavian Countries German-speaking Countries LOW E.T. Hall and M. Hall Understanding Cultural Differences (1990)

6 "Communicative style is...the acquisition of culture- specific patterns of social interaction that represent learned ways of communicating within a specific culture." "Finally, culturally acquired patterns of communicating may affect not only how second language students participate in classrooms, but also their second language development." Karen E. Johnson Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms (1995) THEORY OVERVIEW: COMMUNICATION

7 Grice’s Cooperative Principal: 1.Quantity a)Make your contribution as informative as required. Do not make it more informative than is required. 2.Quality 3.Relation 4.Manner H.P. Grice “Logic and Conversation” from Syntax and Semantics (1975) THEORY OVERVIEW: COMMUNICATION

8 "Human communication is based on the fact that, as a rule, human beings want to communicate with one another successfully and want to maintain social harmony while doing so." Marianne Celce-Murcia and Elite Olshtain Discourse and Context in Language Teaching (2000 ) THEORY OVERVIEW: COMMUNICATION

9 1.Defining Terms / Describing Things 2.Argumentative Writing 3.Topic Response in Speaking STUDENT WORK SAMPLES

10 Sample 1: Conversation between instructor and students Instructor: Oh, my last meal was five thousand years ago. Can anyone explain "meal"? Multiple Students: Food. Lunch. You want potato and sandwich. Instructor: Yes, together those are a meal. How would we explain the meaning of meal? Those are good examples. Male Student: Like lunch. Like lunch meal. Instructor: OK, again those are good examples. Male Student: A list of foods. A list of food and drink. DEFINING TERMS / DESCRIBING THINGS

11 Sample 2: Define communication. Response: When I think about it, my mind draw different picture, such as wife and husband, cell phone, TV, meeting Sample 3: Describe a traditional food from your country. Response: First, it is masterpiece. Most people know Bubble Tea from Taiwan. It’s on behalf of Taiwan. When people talk about Bubble Tea, there are thinking to Taiwan. DEFINING TERMS / DESCRIBING THINGS

12 Sample 4: Why do international students study in the US? Response 1: Students know that United States do they best for students and their study. United States have the best university around the world. In United States you can see all different kind of people and from different country. Response 2: According this situation, USA have many good thing, for example, large land, many people, developed technology, much better wisdom, but so many international student’s reason that they chose USA, they don’t have confidence their university ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING

13 Sample 5: The effects or benefits of Taekwondo The first beneft helps people to develop mind training. For example, people who learn taekwondo overcome their limitation though practice and excercise. So, they can raise concentration and control their mind. If they are child to learn taeknowdo, they might make right sociability. Although taeknowdo is fighting sport, children can developed their sociability by fight. And second benefit is to make their body healthy… ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING

14 Sample 6: My Favorite Food Response: My favorite food is Korean food, especially Kimchi. Kimchi is made like cabbage…with some hot soy sauce…with really hot… I mean kind of hot… It is very healthy. And it’s Korean traditional food. That’s why it is my favorite. In Korean, everybody eat kimchi with rice. So my favorite food is kimchi. My favorite food is all kind of Korean food, but especially kimchi is my really favorite food. TOPIC RESPONSE IN SPEAKING

15 Sample 7: My Most Important Possession Response: My car is my best thing that I own for so many reasons. First of all, my car makes my life easier. It is more comfortable than transportation than taxis. Second, it is save my money. It save my money rather than using a taxi for example, or limo. Third reason, it helps me to go out and to travel throughout the states. Fourth reason, my car make my life easier. I can use my own air condition, heater… TOPIC RESPONSE IN SPEAKING

16 1.Creating Content 2.Creating Structure 3.Production Analysis STRATEGIES

17 1. Free-Writing 2. Fluency Lines 3. Graphic Organizers 4. Recognizing the Audience CREATING CONTENT

18 5. Double Entry Journal  From written texts  From audio texts CREATING CONTENT Notes from written/audio textsPersonal reactions/responses Key words Quotes Paraphrases Important ideas Summaries of interesting or important ideas from the reading/recording React to the ideas Express any points of confusions you have Ask questions of writer/speaker Relate ideas to other recordings, readings, discussions you have had on the topic Make connections to your own experiences, thoughts, or ideas

19 Presenting PIE / TEA  P oint: What is the point? What is the topic? This sentence is often referred to as the topic sentence.  I nformation/ I llustration : What are the examples? What is the support of the point? These sentences are often referred to as the supporting sentences.  E xplanation : How can we elaborate on the point and examples to make the ideas more clear for the reader? These sentences are often referred to as the explanatory sentences. CREATING STRUCTURE

20 The first beneft helps people to develop mind training. For example, people who learn taekwondo overcome their limitation though practice and excercise. So, they can raise concentration and control their mind. If they are child to learn taeknowdo, they might make right sociability. Although taeknowdo is fighting sport, children can developed their sociability by fight. And second benefit is to make their body healthy. Revision The first benefit is that it helps people to train their mind. For example, taekwondo is that people must overcome alone their limitations though continuous training. In this process, they can develop their patience and grow confidence. Not only that, children who learn taekwondo can develop cooperation and camaraderie while they get a time to exercise with others. Second benefit is that people who learn taekwondo can make their body healthy. SAMPLE OF PIE CHART IMPLEMENTATION

21 1. Analyzing sample paragraphs / responses for structure 2. Writing / Speaking from incomplete outlines CREATING STRUCTURE

22 1. Coding/highlighting one’s writing/transcripts  Identify the PIE parts of your paragraph. - Circle the P - Underline the I - Box the E DON’T leave your reader/listener to make the connections that you are making!  Is there something missing in your PIE? If so, build some new ideas to explain your point. DON’T leave your reader/listener to make the connections that you are making! 2. Descriptive Outlining  What does the paragraph say?  What does the paragraph do? PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

23 Context  Class: Intermediate-Advanced Oral Skills Class  Topic: Slang  Speaking objective: 1-2 minute response to a topic using support from various sources  Slang has been defined as “informal language that is used by particular groups to include some and exclude others.” Explain this idea using specific examples from the lectures/videos/readings from class and your personal experiences. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 1

24 Unit plan 1.Introduce topic with lecture, videos, and readings. (news report - teen slang) – complete left side of DEJ 2.HW: Complete right side of DEJ SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 1 Notes from written/audio textsPersonal reactions/responses Sample idea from “Deciphering Teens” news broadcast Teenagers use slang so that parents won’t understand them. When I was young, my friends and I would speak in English around my parents because they their English wasn’t very good. It wasn’t really slang, but the students in the video did the same thing. This made us feel different, younger.

25 Unit plan 3. Introduce PIE & practice with fluency lines and/or incomplete outlines 4. Practice assessment – answer topic and record SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 1

26 Sample Response to Topic 1 According to the first lecture, slang is used for a variety of reasons. One reason which I found interesting is to stay in tune with the times. That basically means to show that you are being cool and aware of the changes in the surroundings. For example, in the radio broadcast on IM slang, people use certain slang to show they are part of a group. So people usually use slang to adapt themselves to groups who are in tune with the times—they want to be “included.” Some people use slang to identify themselves as different from others. They are reinforcing to other people that they are different or “excluding” others. According to the news program “Deciphering Teens”, teens use slang so parents and teachers won’t understand them. In other words, they make themselves distinct by using slang. When I was a teenager, I did this too. I wanted to be different from my parents. All these factors support the idea from lecture one that language change is inevitable. People use slang to stay in tune with the times and to be a part of a group. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 1

27 Unit Plan 5.Analyze response through transcription color-coding P = Purple I = Blue E = Red One reason which I found interesting is to stay in tune with the times. That basically means to show that you are being cool and aware of the changes in the surroundings. For example, in the radio broadcast on IM slang, people use certain slang to show they are part of a group. So people usually use slang to adapt themselves to groups who are in tune with the times—they want to be “included.” Unit Plan 5.Analyze response through transcription color-coding P = Purple I = Blue E = Red One reason which I found interesting is to stay in tune with the times. That basically means to show that you are being cool and aware of the changes in the surroundings. For example, in the radio broadcast on IM slang, people use certain slang to show they are part of a group. So people usually use slang to adapt themselves to groups who are in tune with the times—they want to be “included.” SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 1

28 Context  Class: Intermediate Oral Skills Class  Topic: Crime and Media  Speaking objective: 2-minute impromptu speech on one of the six topics given to students a week ahead of presentation day. Unit plan 1.It is a term final presentation of the four chapters on crime and media. 2.HW: Six charts with PIE structure were assigned. Each PIE chart should have one example from the chapters in the textbook. 3.Bring completed PIE chart to class ready for discussion. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 2

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30 Context  Class: Intermediate Reading, Writing, and Grammar Class  Topic: Being “Green”  Writing Objective: A source-based paragraph to respond to a topic using unit readings. Unit plan 1.Students have read and are familiar with all unit readings. 2.Introduce DEJ and show sample entries. 3.Have students do entries for homework. 4.Bring DEJ back to class ready for discussion. 5.During the test, provide descriptive PIE outline chart. 6.Proceed with the writing task. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN 3

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32 1.Have you encountered student work in your class that demonstrates similarity to the ones presented in the beginning of the presentation? What are some of your ways to help your students? 2.What are some of the strategies presented that could be implemented in your class? DISCUSSION

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34 Danielle Bragaw IECP at Penn State Angela Dornbusch AEI at U of Oregon Lydia Shen AEI at U of Oregon Linda Wesley IECP at Penn State PRESENTER INFO

35  Beglar, D. and Murray, N. (2009). Contemporary Topics 3 (3 rd ed.). Pearson Education ESL.  Celce-Murcia, M. and Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and Context in Language Teaching (1 st ed.) Cambridge University Press  Delani, R. (2010, March 22). APA citation style. Retrieved on March 16 th, 2013 from Long Island University Post website:  Grice, H. P. (1975). Syntax and Semantics. Princeton University.  Hall. E. T. (1976) Beyond Culture. Anchor Books.  Hall, E. T. and Hall, M. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences: Germans, French, and Americans (1 st ed.) Nicholas Brealey Publishing.  Johnson, K. E. (1995) Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge University Press. REFERENCES


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