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Alternative and Informal Assessments

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1 Alternative and Informal Assessments
Chapter 5 Florida Memorial University Ms. Yohana Lopez

2 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Standards
ICC8K1 – Basic terminology used in assessment. ICC8K4 – Use and limitations of assessment instruments ICC8S8 – Evaluate instruction and monitor progress of individuals with exceptional learning needs. ICC8S9 – Develop or modify individualized assessment strategies. ICC8S10 – Create and maintain records. GC8K1 – Specialized terminology used in the assessment of individuals with disabilities.

3 The Need for Informal or Alternative Assessments
Standardized test have been associated with many problems: Standardized tests contain items that relatively quick to administer and easy to score so that administrators can sort large numbers of students as efficiently as possible. Also does not take into consideration individual student learning style and differences. There is a controversy about intelligence testing, which is based largely on the use of standardized NRTs. Do not consistently and accurately monitor student learning and have limited utility in informing instructional intervention.

4 Performance Assessments
Performance assessment is one alternative to traditional methods of testing student achievement. Performance assessment requires students to demonstrate knowledge and skills, including the process by which they solve problems. Performance assessments measure skills such as the ability to integrate knowledge across disciplines, contribute to the work of a group, and develop a plan of action when confronted with a new situation. Performance assessments are also appropriate for determining if students are achieving the higher standards set by states for all students. This brochure explains features of this assessment alternative, suggests ways to evaluate it, and offers exploratory questions you might ask your child's teacher about this subject.

5 Teacher-Made Tests and Quizzes
Teachers use many techniques in evaluating students, probably the most popular is the written paper-and-pencil test that they themselves construct. These usually consist of essay or multiple-choice items. The multiple choice, paper-and-pencil test is probably the most frequently used test, with other types such as true/false, essay and performance tests. The also format the test to either require either recognition or recall response.

6 Curriculum-Based Evaluation (CBE)
CBE is a type of performance assessment that directly assessed student’s performance on their local school curriculum. There are four characteristics that describe this type of evaluation. The student is assessed in the basic skills in the local school curriculum CBE employs the use of academic probes, short assessment tools that can be quickly administered. (1-5 min) and score to assess student’s progress CBE calls for frequent and repeated assessment of student performance using these techniques (2 weeks) for ongoing monitoring of student progress Resulting student data are graphically presented to demonstrate trends in student progress

7 Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
Curriculum-based measurement, or CBM, is a method of monitoring student educational progress through direct assessment of academic skills. CBM can be used to measure basic skills in reading, mathematics, spelling, and written expression. It can also be used to monitor readiness skills. When using CBM, the instructor gives the student brief, timed samples, or "probes," made up of academic material taken from the child's school curriculum. These CBM probes are given under standardized conditions. The child's performance on a CBM probe is scored for speed, or fluency , and for accuracy of performance. The results are then charted to offer the instructor a visual record of a targeted child's rate of academic progress.

8 Common Uses of CBM Enhance instruction for individuals and groups
Predict performance on high-stakes tests Enhance instructional planning Develop local norms Enhance communication Screen students who are at risk for academic difficulties and track their progress Reduce bias in assessment Serve as an accountability measure Accurately assess various populations of students

9 Differentiation Between CBM and Mastery Measurement
There are two key differences between mastery measurement and CBM. Mastery measurement tests include only problems or questions about one skill set, in an order determined early in the year, while CBM tests include problems or questions from different skill sets all year, in any order. With mastery measurement, the curriculum doesn't continue until everyone "masters" that skill, while with CBM, success is different for each individual rather than everyone meeting a certain goal.

10 Types of CBM There are two types a general outcome measure and a skills based measure. These are some characteristics common to the Curriculum Based Measurement systems. Items selected from the identified curriculum domain Repeated measures based on oral reading fluency, accuracy, and phonemic awareness. Items sampled from the identified curriculum domain & randomly selected for measure. Items are author selected and randomly sequenced for the 5 literacy subset measures

11 Advantages of CBM There are several advantages over traditional standards of progress monitoring over annual achievement tests: Improvement communication between teacher, student, and parent. Increased sensitivity to student growth. Technical adequacy. Ability to measure the breadth of knowledge and skills gained. Ability to measure learning regardless of teaching approach.

12 Development, Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation of CBM
The following steps appear in the Manual for Teachers adapted by Jim Wright’s (2008) Identify the domain to be assessed Identify a measurement pool of items to be selected Prepare the CBM probes Administer the probes Use consistent scoring criteria

13 Graphing CBM Scores CBM data is graphed so that it can be interpreted easily. Graphing can be done by hand or by computer. In order to graph appropriately follow the following guidelines: Clearly label the graph with the student’s name, grade, domain being monitored, specific skills being monitored, dates, when probes were administered, and unit of measurement. The date when each probe is administered is recorded on the x-axis, and the unit of measurement is plotted on the y-axis. Develop a goal line that joins two points on the graph: the median score for baseline data points and the end-of-year target performance goal. Mark any changes in intervention using a vertical line. Clearly mark the baseline phase, separate that from the first intervention, and separate that from the second intervention.

14 Using CBM Graphs for Decision Making
The examiner reviews the student progress data to make instructional changes. If scores are above the goal line, the end-of-year goal needs to be increased. If scores are below the goal line, the student’s instructional program needs to be revised. If the trend line and goal line are pretty much the same, no changes are needed.

15 Commercially Available CBM Probes
Includes: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phonological awareness Alphabetical principle Fluency in connected text Vocabulary Comprehension AIMSweb This assessments probes are in the areas of literacy, reading, early numeracy, mathematics, spelling, and written expression. The Monitoring Basic Skills Progress software.

16 Purpose and Content of Portfolios
Portfolio Assessment A growth portfolio can be used to create a record of student growth in a number of areas. For example, a teacher may use writing portfolios to collect evidence of a student's progress in developing writing skills. Purpose and Content of Portfolios When they are used as part of an evaluation of student learning, portfolios provide evidence to support attainment of stated learning objectives. It may be different types of portfolio depending on the use: Process Portfolio Product Portfolio Showcase Portfolio Accountability Portfolio Electronic Portfolio

17 Portfolio Evaluation Procedures
A portfolio includes multiple work sample to allow the reviewer to evaluate a student’s performance. Table of content Organized by sub-areas and chronologically Having a standardized set of requirements for what is to be included in a portfolio make it easier for teachers to develop a scoring rubric.

18 Scoring Rubrics Rubrics enhance reliability in scoring
Clear scoring criteria allows more than rater to consistently evaluate the product. Rubrics enhance validity in scoring When scoring criteria on the rubrics are developed by consensus from experts in the content domain, the validity of the performance assessment. Rubrics enhance effective communication Rubrics communicate to both the students completing the task. Parents and stakeholders also may have access to the rubric that informs them about how their students works was rated.

19 Guidelines to Using Portfolios
Identify and clearly state the purpose for the portfolio Be sure that portfolio content aligned with the articulated purpose of the portfolio Ensure students participation in the selection, review, and reflection components of portfolio assessment. Include a narrative explanations for why items were included in the portfolio. Scores and grades on individuals artifacts are not a requires components of portfolio assessment. Have clear scoring criteria and train raters

20 Ecological Assessment
Observing Classroom Environment Ecobehavioral Ecological Inventories Identify the curricular domains Identify and Investigate current and future environments within the domain Identify sub environments for each relevant environment Identify key activities for each sub environment Identify the skills needed to perform each activity Ecological inventories may be used to identify students needs and to plan instruction across domain and skills.

21 Alternative Assessment in an RTI Model
• Assessing the students current functioning, including areas of strength and difficulty. The purpose of such assessment is to define concerns that will be targeted for intervention, inform the intervention plan and to collect baseline data regarding the students pre-intervention functioning. Practitioners will select assessment instruments and procedures based on such purposes. • Setting an appropriate learning goal that the student can reasonably achieve within a brief intervention period. Such a goal must be realistic, as practitioners can use the goal as a standard for determining whether the intervention was effective for the student. • Implementing with integrity evidence-based interventions designed to address the student’s specific needs. “Evidence-based” means that a creditable body of scientific data exists, supporting the intervention’s efficacy in resolving a particular problem. • Monitoring the student’s response to the intervention using both ongoing data-collection and pre-post measures.

22 Question Justify the important of assessing the learning environment. What techniques are used in assessing environmental variables at school?

23 Thank You

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