“ Fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.” National Reading Panel, 2000 www.nationalreadingpanel.org www.nationalreadingpanel.org “Accurate reading at a minimal rate with appropriate prosodic features and deep understanding Hudson, Mercer & lane, 2000 “The ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly and effortlessly with little attention to mechanics of reading such as decoding.” Meyers & Felton, 1999 “The ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly and effortlessly with little attention to mechanics of reading such as decoding.” Meyers & Felton, 1999
Deconstructing fluency definition… Accuracy- percentage of words read correctly, translates into frustration, instructional, independent level text levels Rate-how quickly words are read correctly in a minute (wcpm), established norms/benchmarks for age/grade levels e.g.Hasbrouck and Tindal norms Prosody-how smoothly passage is read, with expression and intonation, subjectively measured e.g. NAEP Oral Reading Scale
Reading Levels Instructional no more than 1 in 10 words difficult 90% Independent no more than 1 in 20 words difficult 95% Frustration more than 1 in 10 difficult Put Reading First, 2001 www.nifl.org
Deconstructing fluency definition… Accuracy- percentage of words read correctly, translates into frustration, instructional, independent level text levels Rate-how quickly words are read correctly in a minute (wcpm), established norms/benchmarks for age/grade levels e.g. Hasbrouck and Tindal norms Prosody-how smoothly passage is read, with expression and intonation, subjectively measured e.g. NAEP Oral Reading Scale
One minute timings… Choose a passage at grade level. Student reads aloud for one minute. Teachers records errors- mispronunciations, substitutions, reversals, omissions, words unable to read after 3 seconds. Teacher counts number of words read minus errors=wcpm.
Norms… Hasbrouck & Tindal, 2005 What do we use these for? What else?????
Digging down into the data….. So, why are you slow????
Digging down into the data….. So, why are you slow????
Deconstructing fluency definition… Accuracy- percentage of words read correctly, translates into frustration, instructional, independent level text levels Rate-how quickly words are read correctly in a minute (wcpm), established norms/benchmarks for age/grade levels e.g. Hasbrouck and Tindal norms Prosody-how smoothly passage is read, with expression and intonation, subjectively measured e.g. NAEP Oral Reading Scale (3-4)
NAEP’s Oral Reading Fluency Scale Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax.
The fluency connection to reading proficiency.. “When a reader is dysfluent, comprehension is compromised.” (Camp, Winograd & Zinna, 1981) “Reading fluency has strong connections to reading comprehension.” (Pinnell et al, 1995) “Reading fluency may be at heart of reading problems for a substantial number of students.” (Duel, Pressley and Hidden, 2004)
Development of… “In its beginnings, reading fluency is the product of the initial development of accuracy and the subsequent development of automaticity in underlying sublexical processes, lexical processes, and their integration in single word reading and connected text. These include perceptual, phonological, orthographic, and morphological processes at the letter, letter pattern and word level as well as semantic and syntactic processes at the word level and connected text level.” Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001
The fluent reader….. 4 reads every letter in word 4 reads almost every word 4 recognizes high frequency patterns 4 breaks words into syllables 4 relies little on context clues 4 sounds like speaking 4 activates extensive vocabulary 4 uses knowledge base to predict what comes next 4 focuses attention on connections, comprehension
Factors that might potentially influence or inhibit oral reading rate J. Torgeson, 2007 Proportion of words in text recognized as orthographic units" sight words” –Speed with which sight words are processed Speed of processes used to identify novel words Use of context to speed word identification –Contextual affects on speed of word recognition Speed with which word meanings are identified –How quickly meaning Individual choices between speed and accuracy
How does fluency develop in beginning readers???????
Linnae Ehri ’ s Phases of Word Reading incidental visual cues letter knowledge partial phoneme awareness complete phoneme awareness phoneme- grapheme correspondence early sight word learning reading fluently by sound, syllable, morpheme, whole word, families and analogies Logograhic Early Alphabetic Mature Alphabetic Orthographic
Connection-forming theory… Ehri, 2002 “Pronunciations are the anchor for written words in memory. Readers learn sight words by forming connections between letters seen in spellings of words and sounds detected in their pronunciation already present in memory.” “For a reader with well developed phonemic awareness, the phonological structure of the word serves as mnemonic for remembering the letters in the spelling.” “Grapho-phonemic connection provides a powerful mnemonic system that bonds written words to their pronunciations in memory along with meaning. Once the alphabetic mapping system is known, readers can build a vocabulary of sight words easily.” Connections are formed that link written words to their pronunciations and meanings in memory.
Sight Words “Sight words are words that readers have read accurately on many occasions. They read the words by remembering how they read them previously. The term sight indicates that sight of the word activates that word in memory, typical role in sentences and meaning.” (Ehri, 1998) “Sight words include any word that readers have practiced reading sufficiently often to be read from memory.” (Ehri, 2002)
“We believe that the neural circuitry within the brain has integrated all the features of a word so that a mere glance at that word instantly activates its stored model in the word form area located in the back of the brain. Fluent readers no longer have to sound out words part by part.” Shaywitz, 2002
Dysfluent Readers Ehri and Wilce (1983) found that less skilled readers do not form these complete connections. “don’t unglue from the print” “..wickedly fractured and slow in purpose.” “..wickedly fractured and slow in purpose.”
A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. “Reading fluency problems are apparent at the same time that children are acquiring word attack skills. Thus, the development of reading fluency may need to be viewed as a concomitant process in the earliest stages of learning to read words, rather than as a product of learning to read. Early reading instruction may need to target not only word recognition but also fluent word recognition. Vaughan & Chard, 2002
One more thing about accuracy and automaticity…. “If children are allowed to fall behind in the development of word reading skills in first, second and third grade, they miss out on the many thousands of accurate word reading repetitions necessary to sustain normal growth in size of sight vocabulary.” “If children are allowed to fall behind in the development of word reading skills in first, second and third grade, they miss out on the many thousands of accurate word reading repetitions necessary to sustain normal growth in size of sight vocabulary.” J. Torgeson, 2007 VBIDA Presentation
“What does it mean for teaching?” Jean Chall (referencing research in a personal communication, 1988-Stahl et al, 2007) What do you do?
Research Based Building Blocks for Instruction Phonemic awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Text comprehension Put Reading First, The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, 2001 for Teaching Children to Read, 2001www.nifl.gov What about Fluency?
Fluent letter reading “Automatic recognition of graphemes is a critical first step to the development of letter patterns that make up words or parts of words.” (Adams, 1990) (Adams, 1990) Varied factors: demands coordination of visual, verbal and attention systems familiarity with phonological-orthographic features not all letters are created equal-make all high frequency(Neuhaus, 2002):
Words “If words are not identified accurately in sufficient repetitions, the accurate orthographic representations are not formed and words must be recognized through analytic means that take more time than recognition on the basis of a unitized orthographic representation.” Torgeson et al, 2000
Single word reading-how many times?…. Normal reader four-five times Up to 40 exposures for LD child???
Phrases “a considerable amount of research has demonstrated that helping students learn to read in phrases will improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement.” “a considerable amount of research has demonstrated that helping students learn to read in phrases will improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement.” Rasinki, 2003
Which words and phrases???? High frequency and/or irregular word Controlled or decodable –Real –Nonsense
Fry Instant Word List, 1980 50% of words encounter in elementary school reading
Don’t forget!!!! “Competent reading requires skills that extend beyond the single word level to contextual reading, and this skill can best be acquired by practicing reading in which the words are in am meaningful context.” (NICHD, 2000) Don’t forget!!!! “Competent reading requires skills that extend beyond the single word level to contextual reading, and this skill can best be acquired by practicing reading in which the words are in am meaningful context.” (NICHD, 2000)
Repeated readings are a research-based instructional intervention, shown to be effective in developing fluency. The repeated reading method emerged from the theory of automatic information processing in reading (Samuels, 1997). According to this theory, a fluent reader decodes text automatically, without attention, thus leaving attention free to be used for comprehension. During repeated readings, students read sections of text aloud repeatedly until the desired fluency is achieved. Curriculum-based measurement methods are used to collect daily data on reading rates.
“Guided oral reading with repetition effective in improving reading fluency and overall achievement…” NRP, 2000 Practices that emphasize repeated or guided oral reading practice: –Repeated reading (individual & group) –Assisted reading e.g. neurological impress –Tutor-based techniques e.g. paired reading, peer tutoring, cross age –Tutoring
Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: a meta- analysis… If repeated reading is intended as an intervention to improve students' overall reading fluency and comprehension (i.e., transfer), then the conditions that produce larger effect sizes include: – –Passages read aloud to an adult – –Passages read 3-4 times – –Corrective feedback on word errors given – –Passages read until a performance criterion is reached. Therrien, 2004
Suggested Procedure Repeated Reading 4 select paragraph, short story at instructional level (decodable or controlled) 4 preview vocabulary/story 4 adult reads aloud-student follows along 4 read together (impress) 4 student repeats (3-4 times optimal) 4 graph speed, provide feedback on and record errors 4 follow-up with comprehension questions
Assisted reading….. Neurological Impress-teacher and student read simultaneously, teacher slightly faster and louder….. –Choral-entire group reads one text in unison (variations on a theme-refrain, antiphonal etc…) –Echo reading- teacher reads, student echoes –Tape or technology assisted reading (e.g. Reading Soliloquy) Multicomponent interventions such as RAVE-O include instruction in word retrieval, vocabulary, orthography, and fluency (Wolf & Bowers, 1999).
Paired reading My turn, your turn…. Adapted-Rasinki,2003 Two readers-one more proficient than the other Pair can be: –parent and child –teacher and child –para and child –older student and child –two children same grade, different levels of proficiency Text that has been practiced or is familiar, instructional level Sit side by side, more proficient reader begins his/her section while partner follows with finger on text (adjust rate to push partner, read somewhat louder voice what is difficult for partner) Then second reader reads his/her section, partner can provide accurate pronunciation, have partner repeat word if needed Partners should question each other-provide prompts e.g. What was most important word (s) in your section? Provide recording sheets and incentives
Phrase-Cued Reading Reading phrases with good expression can be taught directly. Put the text on an overhead transparency. Have student slide the eraser of his pencil under phrases. The teacher models this “scooping” process first, then asks students to follow the model. Text can be written—and read— in phrases.
Resources … Speed Drills from Concept Phonics 1-800-539- READ Great Leaps Reading Program 1-800-GRLEAPS Language! www.sopriswest.com Read Naturally www.readnaturally.com The Six Minute Solution: A Reading Fluency Program www.sopriswest.com www.sopriswest.com Quick Reads www.quickreads.org Wilson Fluency Kit www.wilsonlanguage.com
References… Chard D.J. & Vaughn S. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, (35)5, 386-406. Ehri, L. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading. London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II. Moats, L. (2005). Language essentials for teachers of reading and spelling Modules 5. Longmont, Co: Sopris West. Meyer, M. & Felton, R. (1999) Repeated reading to enhance fluency; Old practices and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 293-306. Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A., Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed. ), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Parkton, MD: York Press. Rasinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader. New York: Scholastic Press. Speece, D.L. & Ritchey, D. (2005) A longitudinal study of the development of oral reading fluency in young children at risk for reading failure. Journal of Learning Disabilities, (38)5, 387-399. Stahl. K.D., & McKenna, M.C., (2006) Reading research at work; Foundations of effective practice. New York: Guilford Press. Therrien, W.J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: a meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, (25) 4, 252-261. Wolf, M. & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3)211-239.