Pacing Commercial Programs Beam Reading Tempo Time Time/Tape/Check/Chart Closed-Captioned Television
Wide Reading Book Baskets/Browsing Boxes Selecting “Just Right” Books Book Clubs
Accuracy Students who read fluently read with accuracy. Students who are able to identify the graphophonic cueing system. (the relationship between letters and sounds) Accuracy is the vital link to reading with ease.
Assessment When assessing fluency, teachers should observe whether students can do the following: Recognize letters, clusters of letters, and words automatically. Attend to punctuation marks and syntax. Read long stretches of text while cross- checking for meaning, grammatical structure, and phonetic application. Group words into phrases or clause units.
Assessment Continued Emphasize words to enhance expression. (intonation and pitch) Convey the text’s mood and meaning. Adjust speed and amount of support needed to meet the demands of the text. Reread to clarify or problem solve. Read a wide variety of genre’.
Fluency instruction extends beyond word recognition. Fluency is the ability to read smoothly, easily, and readily with freedom of word recognition problems. (Harris and Hodges, 1981)