Presentation on theme: "Pamela M. Stecker, Ph.D. Erica S. Lembke, Ph.D. July 8, 2005"— Presentation transcript:
1Pamela M. Stecker, Ph.D. Erica S. Lembke, Ph.D. July 8, 2005 Advanced Applications of CBM in Reading: Instructional Decision-Making StrategiesPamela M. Stecker, Ph.D.Erica S. Lembke, Ph.D.July 8, 2005
2Overview of Session 1. Importance of Using Progress Monitoring 2. General Approaches for Conducting Progress MonitoringUsing general outcome measures of achievement (robust indicators)Using skills-based measures of achievement (systematic sampling of curricular skills)3. Print-Based Progress Monitoring Measures in ReadingLetter-Naming FluencyLetter-Sound FluencyNonsense Word FluencyWord Identification FluencyOral Reading FluencyMaze Fluency
3Overview of Session (cont’d) 4. General Procedures for Data-Based Decision MakingGoal setting and rate of progressDecision-making framework5. Web-Based Applications in ReadingAIMSwebDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)EdcheckupYearly Progress Pro6. Generally Effective Reading InstructionInstructional proceduresCase studies
5What Is Progress Monitoring? Progress monitoring involves ongoing data collection on skills that are important to student success and can be used to:estimate student rates of improvementidentify students who are not demonstrating adequate progressaid teachers in instructional planning
6Why Is Progress Monitoring Important? Research has demonstrated that when teachers use progress monitoring for instructional decision-making purposes:students achieve moreteacher decision-making improvesstudents tend to be more aware of their performance(e.g., see Fuchs, Deno, Mirkin, 1984; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Ferguson, 1992; Stecker, Fuchs, & Fuchs, in press)
7Benefits of Conducting Progress Monitoring Student performance data on important, grade-level skills/content can be gathered quickly and easilyStudent progress can be analyzed in order to modify instructional programs when needed and/or adjust student goals upwardIndividual student data can be compared to data of other students in the classroom, in the child’s school, or in the school district
8Progress Monitoring: Levels of Implementation Schoolwide screeningTo identify at-risk students who may need additional servicesGrade-level, classroom-level, or individual student levelTo help general educators plan more effective instructionTo help special educators design more effective instructional programs for students who do not respond to general education
9Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Specific Form of Progress Monitoring CBM is a scientifically validated form of student progress monitoring that incorporates standard methods for test development, administration, scoring, and data utilizationCBM enjoys nearly 30 years of research to support its effectivenessSeveral computerized or Web-based versions of progress monitoring are based on principles of CBM
10Key Features of CBM Tests sample year-long curriculum Tests are relatively brief and easy to administerTests are given frequently (e.g., from twice weekly to every month) to judge student progressEach alternate form samples the same types of skills at the same level of difficultyStudent performance is used to set long-term goalsScores are graphed, and teachers use a decision-making framework to judge adequacy of student progressData are used to compare/contrast effectiveness of different instructional methodsCBM has documented reliability and validity
12Why Should Your School/District/State Implement Progress Monitoring? What efforts have you already made toward implementation of progress monitoring?What are your goals for implementation for next year?Goals for 3 years from now?ACTION PLAN
13Part 2: General Approaches for Conducting Progress Monitoring
14Two Main Approaches for Sampling Student Performance Using General Outcome Measures of AchievementRobust indicators of overall reading proficiencyOral reading fluencyMazeUsing Skills-Based Measures of AchievementMixed set of items representing systematic sampling of skills from the annual curriculum (e.g., mixed set of problems in mathematics)(see Fuchs, 2004 for a description of general outcome vs. skills-based measures)
15General Outcome Measures Correlate well with other measures of component skills that constitute readingCorrelate better than other possible tasks that could be used to represent reading
16General Outcome Measures in Reading Oral Reading Fluency and MazeOverall indicators of reading competenceStudents who score well on these skills tend to be students who also do well with decoding, sight words, and comprehensionScores and slopes correlate well with other global measures of reading competence, such as high-stakes test performance, performance on standardized tests, and teacher-made tests
17Skills-Based Measures Systematic sampling of the annual curriculum to create probes that proportionally represent the instructional curriculumAllows the possibility of providing analysis of level of mastery of component skills
18Skills-Based ContentMixed set of items representing important skills from the annual curriculum or state standards in reading/language arts, including, for example:selecting misspelled wordsidentifying main ideas for paragraph or passagelocating verbs within sentenceschoosing correct punctuation for writing a date
19What considerations do you need to address as you choose a progress monitoring system? What type of information do you hope to collect about student progress in reading?Approach you will use?Scope of implementation at your school (school, class, or grade level)?Resources?TimeMoneyPersonnelTechnologyHow will teachers be trained and provided with ongoing support?ACTION PLAN
20Part 3: Print-Based Progress Monitoring Measures in Reading
21Common Print-Based Progress Monitoring Reading Measures Letter-Naming FluencyLetter-Sound FluencyNonsense Word FluencyWord Identification FluencyOral Reading FluencyMaze FluencyType of measure and time necessary for administration varies by system!
22Single-Skill vs. CBM Multidimensional Measures Single-skill measuresFocus on one type of skillStatic scores correlate well with some criterion measuresFew studies that document use of single-skill measures for modeling global learning over time; consequently, growth over time may not correspond well with overall learning of the broader domainInstructional utility may be overly narrow across the long term
23Single-Skill vs. CBM Multidimensional Measures Multidimensional Measures (CBM)Oral reading fluency and maze fluency--student must integrate many reading skills in order to perform well on taskScores and slopes correlate well with multiple global measures of reading competenceInstructional utility is broad based
24Letter-Naming Fluency Single-skill measure for kindergarten studentsUsed in AIMSweb, DIBELSData graphed: Number of letters named correctly in 1 minute
25Letter-Sound FluencySingle-skill measure used for kindergarten studentsUsed in AIMSweb, EdcheckupData graphed: Number of letter sounds produced correctly in 1 minute
26Nonsense Word FluencySingle-skill measure used for kindergarten and first-grade students (vc or cvc blending)Used in AIMSweb, DIBELSData graphed: Number of sounds produced correctly in 1 minute (Student may say individual sounds or say the entire word; however, credit is awarded for each sound produced)
27Word Identification Fluency Embeds several skills, such as decoding, sight-word recognition, vocabulary knowledgeUsed for first-grade studentsUsed in EdcheckupData graphed: Number of words said in 1 minute
28Oral Reading FluencyMultidimensional CBM measure used for students who are beginning to read connected text through high school studentsUsed in AIMSweb, DIBELS, EdcheckupData graphed: Number of words read correctly in 1 minute
29Maze FluencyMultidimensional CBM measure often used for students in fourth grade through high schoolUsed in AIMSweb, Edcheckup, Yearly Progress Pro; also used in Monitoring Basic Skills Progress computer program (L.S. Fuchs, Hamlett, & Fuchs, 1997)Data graphed: Number of correct maze choices in 2.5 minutes
30Print-Based Measures in Reading With which measures are you most familiar?Which measures would you like to examine?Relative benefits of individual measures?Resource considerations:TimeMoneyTechnologyTrainingACTION PLAN
31Part 4: General Procedures for Data-Based Decision Making
32General Procedures Select goal-level material Collect baseline data and set realistic or ambitious goalsAdminister timed, alternate measures weeklyApply decision-making rules to graphed data every 3-4 weeksImplement instructional interventions when warrantedUse database to analyze errors and to develop instructional procedures
33Selection of MeasureGeneral CBM Implementation Schedule
35Goal Setting: Methods Universal benchmarks Use of growth rates that reflect typical increases in performance by grade levelIntra-individual framework that accounts for baseline rate of improvement and multiplies rate by 1.5Goal-setting method varies by system used!
36CBM Reading Benchmarks K: 40 letter sounds per min.1: 50 words correct per min. on word list2: 75 words correct from text per min.3: 100 words correct from text per min.4: 20 replacements in text per 2.5 min.5: 25 replacements in text per 2.5 min.6: 30 replacements in text per 2.5 min.
37Realistic and Ambitious Growth Rates for Oral Reading Fluency Grade Realistic AmbitiousMaze Fluency(see L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, & Germann, 1993)
38Writing Goals: Legally Correct and Educationally Meaningful IEP Goals Current Level of PerformanceGiven passages sampled randomly from Grade 3 reading curriculum, Jasmine currently reads 50 words correct per minute (i.e., median baseline information).End-of-Year GoalIf teacher calculates a 1.5-word increase across 34 weeks left in school year and adds it to the current baseline, Jasmine’s goal will be set at 101 words read correctly per minute: (1.5 x 34) + 50 = 101In 34 weeks, when given a grade 3 passage, Jasmine will read aloud 101 words in one minute.
39Goal Line Versus Student’s Current Rate of Progress Examine both level and rate of student progress to determine whether students are progressing adequately to reach end-of-year goalsCompare student’s current rate of progress with projected rate of progress (i.e., goal line)To judge whether the instructional program needs to be modified to better meet student needsorTo determine whether the goal should be raised
41General Decision-Making Framework Trend-Line RuleIf 4 weeks of instruction have occurred AND at least 8 data points have been collected, figure trend of current performance and compare to goal line.If trend of student progress is steeper than goal line, raise goal.If trend of student progress is less steep than goal line, make a teaching change.
42What Is the Data-Based Decision Rule? The trend-line rule may be applied: Data-based decision is to make an instructional change.
43General Decision-Making Framework 4-Point Rule(supersedes the trend-line rule)If 3 weeks of instruction have occurred AND at least 6 points have been collected, examine the 4 most recent data points.If all 4 are above goal line, increase goal.If all 4 are below goal line, make a teaching change.If the 4 data points are both above and below the goal line, keep collecting data until trend-line rule or 4-point rule can be applied.
44What Is the Data-Based Decision Rule? The 4-point rule may be applied: Data-based decision is to raise the goal.
45What Is the Data-Based Decision Rule? The 4-point rule may be applied: Data-based decision is to make an instructional change.
47Intervention Implementation Most important aspect of CBMUSE THE DATA!!!The following instructional elements may be altered to enhance student performance:Instructional strategiesSize of instructional groupTime allocated for instructionMaterials usedReinforcement
49Considerations for Data-Based Decision Making How will you determine what goals to use? Universal goals? Slope data? Goals from a particular system?How often will you collect data and with whom? Schoolwide? With individual students?How will you prompt yourself to apply decision-making rules and how often? Or, how will you prompt others?How will instructional interventions be determined, and how will their implementation be monitored?ACTION PLAN
52AIMSweb CBM MeasuresReading-CBM (Oral Reading Fluency) English and SpanishMaze-CBM (Reading Comprehension)Early Literacy MeasuresMIDE (Spanish Early Literacy)Early Numeracy-CBMMathematics-CBMSpelling-CBMWritten Expression-CBM
53DIBELS™ CompatibleAIMSweb fully supports charting and reporting of all DIBELS brand assessmentsCustomers may use DIBELS assessments, AIMSweb assessments, or any combination of both
543-Tier Progress Monitoring and Response to Intervention system Powered by Edformation
55Tier 1 Benchmark Features Organizes Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and DIBELS™ Data for Benchmark Assessment Fall, Winter, and SpringPrepares Reports for Teachers, Principals, and Administrators on Individual Students, Classes, Grades, Schools, and School DistrictsIdentifies At Risk Students EarlyObjectively Determines Rates of Progress for Individual Students, Schools, and NCLB Risk GroupsAllows Evaluation at Multiple Levels of Comparison GroupsPrints Professional Reports for Parent Conferences and Other MeetingsPowered by Edformation
56Tier 1 Benchmark Individual Student Report - Spring Documents What Worked for At Risk StudentsPowered by Edformation
57Tier 1 Benchmark Class Report – Rank by Score and Percentile Rank Orders Students by PerformanceColor-Codes Individual Educational NeedsProvides Instructional Decisions to Think AboutPowered by Edformation
58Tier 1 Benchmark Grade Report – All Skills Matrix Identifies At-Risk Students in the School by Name, Teacher, Assessment, and Benchmark PeriodPowered by Edformation
59Tier 1 Benchmark Building Report – Above and Below Target Evaluates Improvement of Students Relative to Specified Achievement TargetsPowered by Edformation
60Tier 1 Benchmark District Report – Compare Schools Allows Comparison of Scores by SchoolPowered by Edformation
61Strategic Monitor Features Monthly assessments to allow more frequent evaluationVerifies achievement levelsIdentification of all students requiring intensive progress monitoring is ensuredPowered by Edformation
62Tier 2 Strategic Monitor Individual Student Report Powered by Edformation
63Progress Monitor Features Frequently assess students in need of intensive instructional servicesDocument the effects of interventionPrint professional reports for periodic and annual reviewsTranslate annual IEP goals into expected rates of progress (Aim lines) automaticallyMonitor progress (Trend lines) towards goalsPowered by Edformation
64Tier 3 Progress Monitor Case Manager Interface Powered by Edformation
65Tier 3 Progress Monitor Student Report 3 IEP Revisions Can Be EvaluatedPowered by Edformation
66Tier 3 Progress Monitor Student Report 4 And Revised as Necessary!!Powered by Edformation
67Response to Intervention (RTI) Standard Process Protocol Assess skills directly, frequently, and continuously using CBM assessmentsProgress Monitor with AIMSweb to chart expected rates of progress and quickly compare to actual rates of progressPlan, Intervene, and Document. The RTI Interface pulls data together to provide clear evidence of a response to intervention or lack of responsePowered by Edformation
68Response to Intervention (RTI) Case Manager Interface Powered by Edformation
69Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
70DIBELS Measures and Administration Schedule for Benchmarking
71Materials ProvidedMaterials can be printed for school-wide benchmarking (3 times per year) or for individual progress monitoring (weekly)For both benchmarking and progress monitoring, measures and directions are provided in easy-to-manage, folded booklets
72Information ProvidedProvides comprehensive data management and reports for:District-levelSchool-levelGrade-levelClass-levelIndividual student level
73Grade-Level Reports Report Components Benchmark Goals—long-term performance goals. Represent minimal levels of satisfactory progress for the lowest achieving students.Established, Emerging, or Deficit--if the benchmark goal is to be completed by the time the measure is administeredLow Risk, Some Risk, or At-Risk--if the benchmark goal is to be completed at some point in the future
75Class Reports Scores—raw scores Percentiles—percent of students that scored the same as or lower than the studentStatus—refers to grade-level reportInstructional recommendationsBenchmark (Tier I)—goal has been met or student is on track to meet subsequent goals; no additional intervention is recommended at this timeStrategic (Tier II)—no clear prediction regarding subsequent goals and additional intervention is recommendedIntensive (Tier III)—odds are against student achieving subsequent goals without substantial interventionReports can be printed for one testing period (e.g., Winter) or across the school year (Fall, Winter, Spring)
78Individual Student Reports Provides data on individual studentsAcross a school yearAcross the students’ elementary careerData are provided for each reading skill and can be compared to benchmark goals
99McGraw-Hill Digital Learning Language Arts: 15-minute weekly standards-based measure of specific skills:Text Comprehension (includes narrative, informational, and functional passages)VocabularySpellingWord AnalysisLanguage MechanicsLanguage Usage and ExpressionReading: 2 1/2-minute weekly maze measure
100How Yearly Progress Pro Works McGraw-Hill Digital Learning Student DiagnosticReportsGeneratedStudentTakesAssessmentHow YearlyProgressPro WorksTutorialLessonsAssignedTeacherAdjustsInstructionMcGraw-HillDigital Learning
101Grade: 3rdCluster: Word AnalysisSkill: Letter-sound correspondence for vowelsMcGraw-HillDigital Learning
117Price* Skills Covered* AIMSweb DIBELS Edcheckup Yearly Progress Pro Basic (data management for DIBELS)--$1 per student per yearPro (data management and materials for skills)--$2-$4 per student per yearEarly literacy, oral reading, maze, writing, early numeracy, spelling, mathematicsDIBELSMaterials only—Free; Materials and data management, $1 per student per yearEarly literacy, oral reading, retell, word use fluencyEdcheckupMaterials and data management, $80-$100 per classroom, per yearReading materials free for a limited timeBeginning reading, oral reading, maze, writing; mathematics being developedYearly Progress ProAnnual student subscriptions are $7.99 for one subject or $12.98 per student for two subjects (skills are aligned to state or national standards as requested), provides skills analyses and report access for teachers and administrators; includes student tutorials for each skill; add 1st-year technology and implementation fee per buildingReading and Language Arts--includes reading maze and language assessment of specific reading and language skills, such as main idea, critical analysis, spelling, vocabulary, grammarMathematics--grade-level specific computation and problem solving skills aligned to state and national standards*Information taken from Web sites or publishers on 5/30/05. Check with individual publishers for most current information.
118Types of information provided? Cost? Other academic areas covered? Considerations When Selecting a Web-Based System for Progress MonitoringMeasures needed?Types of information provided?Cost?Other academic areas covered?ACTION PLAN
119Part 6: Generally Effective Reading Instruction
120General Considerations When Determining Interventions Using research-validated instructional procedures: Is there evidence for their effectiveness?Oral reading fluency or maze fluencyVery low scores: student probably would benefit from instruction in decoding and word identificationSomewhat low scores: student probably would benefit from fluency interventionsAverage scores: student probably would benefit from vocabulary instruction and text comprehension strategies
121NRP Findings Focus on Critical Areas of Literacy Instruction Phonemic Awareness—ability to hear and manipulate individual sounds in oral languagePhonics—understanding and connecting letters of written language with sounds of oral languageFluency—reading text accurately and quicklyVocabulary—oral or reading language needed for effective communicationText Comprehension—purposeful and active strategies for understanding written language(National Reading Panel, 2000)
122PHONEMIC AWARENESSPhonological awareness: The understanding that ORAL language can be broken down into smaller components and the ability to manipulate those components--sentences into words, words into syllables, words into onsets and rimes, and words into individual phonemes—/s/ /u/ /n/ or /s/ /u/ /n/ /sh/ /i/ /n/Phonemic awareness: the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words; appears critical for reading and spelling developmentPut Reading First—various dimensions of phonemic awareness: phoneme isolation, identity, categorization, blending, segmentation, deletion, addition, substitution
123Critical Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness Blending: I’ll say the sounds of a word. You guess what the word is. What word is this? /fffuuunnn/Segmenting: I’m going to say a word, and then I’ll say each sound in the word. Listen carefully. “man” - /m/ /a/ /n/ Now I’ll say a different word and you tell me each sound you hear.
125Phoneme Deletion or Substitution Deletion: I’m going to ask you to say a word and then to say it again without one or more of its sounds. Say “sat.” Now say it again, but don’t say /s/. (“at”) Say “plate” but don’t say /p/. (“late”) Say “plane” but don’t say /n/. (“play”)Substitution: Say “plane” but change /pl/ to /tr/ (“train”)General progression of difficulty: beginning sounds, ending sounds, middle sounds)
126PHONICSSystematic and Explicit Phonics instruction significantly improves young children’s decoding, spelling, and reading comprehension and older students’ word reading and oral text reading skills.Systematic: logical sequence and careful selection of letter-sounds for instructionExplicit: precise directions for teachers or careful wording to emphasize accurate models for students and to make letter-sound relationships conspicuous
127Why Is Phonics Instruction So Challenging for Many Teachers? Many teacher preparation programs do not provide training in phonics instruction.The English alphabet contains 26 letters but we use roughly 44 phonemes. These sounds are represented by as many as 250 different spellings (e.g., /f/ as in ph, f, gh, ff).Many core beginning reading programs have not emphasized systematic and explicit phonics instruction.
128Phonics InstructionUse a functional sequence of letter-sounds, one that leads to rapid success in reading wordsProvide opportunities for practicing decoding skills both in word lists and in connected text
129Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction Introduce most common sound for a new letter (/k/ for “c”)Separate instruction of potentially confusing letters due to visual or auditory similarity (h/n, e/i, b/d)May introduce lower case letters first (more functional)Start with high-utility letters (s, t, m, and vowels, not z, x)Select words that start with continuous sounds rather than stop sounds when beginning to sound out words—or for blending and segmenting practice (use “mat” before “bat”)
130FLUENCYRepeated and monitored oral reading significantly improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.Caution: Silent, independent reading with little guidance or feedback may not be enough to improve fluency and overall reading achievement.
131Why Fluency Is Important More fluent readers focus their attention on making connections among the ideas in a text and between these ideas and their background knowledge. Therefore, they are able to focus on comprehension.Less fluent readers focus their attention primarily on decoding and accessing the meaning of individual words. Therefore, they appear to have little attention left for comprehending connected text.
132Oral Reading Fluency Norms, 2005 123456785989107125138150GradeWPM*Spring norms*Over 100,000 studentsTaken from: Oral Reading Fluency, 90 Years of Measurement. Behavioral Research and Teaching, Eugene, OR,
133Fluency Interventions Model fluent reading. Have students reread text themselves. Read aloud daily.Students should read aloud repeatedly with guidance.Use text at independent level (approx. 95% accuracy).Use adults, peers, or tape recorders for modeling and practicing one to one (although can do classwide partner reading). Choral reading may engage groups of students.Activities from Put Reading First:Student-adult readingChoral readingTape-assisted readingPartner readingReader’s theater
134Repeated Readings as an Instructional Strategy Text used for repeated readings may be of varying length—often 100-word passages are used for young elementary children. Student reads text three or four times, trying to decrease the duration for each reading. Or, teacher sets a time limit, such as 1 or 2 min., for student to read as much as possible. Goal is to increase the amount read in each subsequent reading.Text should include only words the student can read rapidly and accurately, either through efficient decoding or good sight-word vocabulary.Teacher or student may chart progress and reinforce increases in rate.
135VOCABULARYMany words are learned indirectly through everyday experiences with oral and written language (e.g., conversations, listening to others read, reading independently).However, some vocabulary must be taught directly through specific word instruction or through word-learning strategies.
136Direct Vocabulary Learning: Specific Word Instruction Direct vocabulary instruction aids in comprehension. However, a text may have too many unknown words for direct instruction—be selective with vocabulary. Students do not have to know all words in order to understand text.Words selected should be important, useful, and difficult.Teach specific words prior to reading text (e.g., use a model, synonym, or definition).Repeat exposure to vocabulary often and in many different contexts.Teach word-learning strategies (e.g., use of dictionaries and other reference tools, contextual clues, word parts).An important aspect of teaching vocabulary is selecting a set of appropriate examples.
137Examples for Specific Word Instruction Model the concept “above.” Use hand or object and place above or not above other objects (demonstrate position).Teach meaning for “gigantic” by using the known synonym “large.” Connect to prior knowledge, check with examples and nonexamples, and use in sentences.Teach meaning by providing definition: “exit—a door that leads out of the building. Is this (point to front door) an exit or not? How do you know?”(see Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, & Tarver, 2002)
138COMPREHENSION… …is the reason for reading! Comprehension is both purposeful and active. Good readers have a purpose for reading, and they think actively about what they are reading as they are doing it (metacognition—monitoring understanding during reading and applying “fix up” strategies, such as adjusting reading speed and rereading; also checking understanding afterward).
139Effective Comprehension Strategies Comprehension monitoring—involves students using a set of steps to recognize when they have difficulties understandingGraphic and semantic organizers (webs, charts, frames)—to illustrate relationships among ideas and eventsSummarizing—involves synthesis of important ideas; helps to identify main ideas, eliminate unnecessary information, and remember contentAnswering questions and generating own questions—help students to establish purpose, focus attention, think and monitor actively, review content, and relate content to prior knowledgeStory structure—knowledge of story parts (e.g., characters, setting, problem, sequence of events, problem resolution) facilitates comprehensionGuidelines for How to Teach ComprehensionCooperative learning—students work together to apply comprehension strategies. Effective with clearly defined tasks and content-area reading.Multiple-strategy instruction—students use different strategies flexibly as needed to assist their comprehension.
140Comprehension Strategies Should Be Taught Directly As with other “big ideas” in reading instruction, comprehension strategies must be taught explicitlyProvide explanations--why strategy helps and when it should be appliedModel or demonstrate strategy--think aloudProvide guided practice using strategyScaffold assistance during practice opportunities until students become independent in applying strategy
141Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS): A Multiple Strategy Intervention Classwide peer tutoring program to supplement classroom literacy instruction for practicing important reading skills and strategies, such as decoding, sight-word recognition, oral reading fluency, summarization, and predictionValidated instructional practices that strengthen general education’s capacity to meet academic needs of increasingly diverse population in classrooms(D. Fuchs, Fuchs, & Burish, 2000)
142PALS Research Based on Juniper Gardens ClassWide Peer Tutoring model Has over 10 years of experimental researchUsed in Title 1 and Non-Title 1 SchoolsImplemented in urban and suburban schoolsIncludes high, average, and low achievers as well as students with disabilities
143Critical Features of PALS Supplemental reading practice several times per week (30-45 min. each session, depending on grade level and activities)Structured activitiesReciprocal roles (Coaches and Readers)Individualized support--corrective feedbackMore time on task with active engagementInclusion of all students with built-in opportunities for successFacilitation of positive peer interactionsOpportunities to monitor student progressPractical AND effective strategies
144General Procedures for PALS PALS is conducted three times each week (about min. per session) but four times is recommended in Title I schools or very low-achieving schools.Students are rank ordered, split in half, and stronger readers in top half are paired with weaker readers in bottom half.Each pair is assigned to one of two teams.Teams and pairs remain together for 3-4 weeks, and partners work to earn points for their team each week.Within pairs, the stronger reader reads first to provide a model, but coach and reader roles are switched during each activity.Partners read text at the level of the weaker reader.Teachers monitor students, provide help, and award bonus points for good tutoring behaviors.
145PALS Activities for Kindergarten and First-Grade Students Includes Teacher-Led Practice and Partner Activities Conducted in Pairs:Phonological Awareness (e.g., saying first and last sounds, rhyming, counting sounds, segmenting, and blending)Letter-Sound Correspondences (e.g., letters and letter combinations)Decoding (e.g., words and sentences)Fluency (e.g., sight words, stories, and book reading)
146PALS in Grades 2-6 Partner Reading (11-12 minutes) Stronger reader reads for 5 minWeaker reader rereads same text for 5 minWeaker reader retells selection for 1 min. in Grades 2-3 or for 2 min. in Grades 4-6Paragraph Shrinking (10 minutes)Stronger reader reads new text, stopping to summarize after each paragraph: states the most important who or what, tells what mainly happened, and gives main idea statement in 10 words or less (5 min.)Weaker reader continues with new text using same procedure (5 min.)Prediction Relay (10 minutes)Stronger reader makes prediction for next half page, reads half page, stops to verify prediction for 5 min.Weaker reader continues with new text using same strategy for 5 min.
148General Considerations When Determining Interventions Using research-validated instructional procedures: Is there evidence for their effectiveness?Oral reading fluency or maze fluencyVery low scores: student likely would benefit from instruction in decoding and word identificationSomewhat low scores: student likely would benefit from fluency interventionsAverage scores: student likely would benefit from vocabulary instruction and text comprehension strategies
150Jonah2nd grader makes many errors during oral reading fluency assessmentsWord correct scores are lower than classmates’: 30, 35, 28, 32, 40, 35, and 31Daily teacher-directed, whole-class instruction that includes some independent work; also two days per week has two reading groups focused on skills-based activities; three days per week has whole-class writing activitiesScore of 31 on last measure (seen on next slide) and Quick Miscue Analysis to illustrate types of miscues made on first 10What might you ask Jonah’s teacher about structuring class time and activities for language arts? What type of intervention(s) might benefit Jonah?
151Larry was very excited! His father 6 had just brought home a new puppy. Larry’s 14brother and sister were going to be verysurprised, tooThe little puppy was black and brown 31with a few white patches. Her ears were long 40and floppy. Her tummy nearly touched the 47ground. Dad said this dog was a beagleLarry thought their new dog was cute. 62He couldn’t decide what he wanted to name 70saw him (T provided)our bmother was muchsorpraypup bluefor much His hair wasfunny teeth were torngrowl our puppy boy
152was saw no yes very him excited ----- just our brought b minimal Word WrittenWord SpokenGrapho-phonemicSyntaxSemanticswassawnoyesveryhimexcited-----justourbroughtbminimalbrothermotherweremuchsurprisedsorpraypuppypupQuick Miscue Analysis30%50%
154Case Study 2—AlexAlex is a 3rd grade student in Mr. Simon’s general education classroom. Alex has always been a slow reader, and as the text has become more difficult, her reading has gotten even slower. Mr. Simon has asked the special education teacher for advice, because he isn’t sure why Alex reads slowly. Mr. Simon has been collecting 1-minute samples of Alex’s reading performance in grade level text and has been graphing that performance. For the last three weeks, Alex’s scores have fallen below the goal line. On these passages, Alex has received the following scores:Passage 1—57 wcpm, 3 errors (Sahara (teacher supplied--TS); desert (said “dessert”); arid (TS))Passage 2—58 wcpm, 2 errors (Thursday (said Tuesday); while (said “whil”))Passage 3—55 wcpm, 3 errors (passage (TS); blossoming (TS); garden (said “garnet”))For each passage, Mr. Simon also has Alex retell everything that she can remember about what she read. Alex retells an average of 87% of main story elements.Based on the information you have, what reading intervention might you suggest for Alex at this time?
155Considerations When Determining What Reading Strategies to Implement When will you implement interventions?How will you determine what intervention to implement?How often will you make decisions about which interventions to implement and whether interventions are working?ACTION PLAN