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Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 9: Fluency & Automaticity Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 9: Fluency & Automaticity Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 9: Fluency & Automaticity Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden

2 Agenda for the morning 8:30 – Introduction / overview of workshops Definitions of fluency / automaticity Development of fluency Assessing fluency Teaching strategies Handwriting and links to comprehension

3 Module 1: Effective Professional Learning and Comprehension Module 2:Monitoring Comprehension Module 3:Making Connections Module 4: Maths & Comprehension Module 5:Questioning Strategies Module 6:Inferencing Module 7: Visualising and Visual Texts Module 8:Non-fiction reading strategies Module 9:Fluency and Automaticity Module 10:Vocabulary

4 Module 11: Maths and Comprehension July 22 nd (last Friday of holidays) Module 12: Structures and Processes for Comprehension instruction August 26 th (Friday, T3, Wk 5) Module 13: Using Data September 2 nd (Friday T3, Wk 6) EXPO – 28 th October (Friday Term 4, Wk 2) Module 14: Digital Comprehension 4 th November (Friday T4, Wk 3)

5 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Comprehension Successful Readers Vocabulary

6 Phonics Phonemic Awareness Vocabulary Comprehension Fluency

7 What do fluency and automaticity mean to you? fluency automaticity

8 Some definitions Automaticity is a general term that means the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.

9 Back to Work After Many Years

10 Some definitions Fluency is reading (and writing) with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point that they do not require conscious attention.

11 There is a very, very tall coconut tree and there are 4 animals, a lion a chimpanzee a giraffe.....AND... a squirrel They decide to compete to see who is the fastest to get a banana from the top of the tree. Who do you guess will win? Your answer will reflect your personality. So think carefully... Try and answer within 30 seconds. The Banana Test

12 If your answer is: A COCONUT TREE DOESN'T HAVE BANANAS. Lion = you're dull Chimpanzee = you're dense Giraffe = you're a complete moron Squirrel = you're hopeless

13 What Is Fluency?  Speed + Accuracy = Fluency  Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody)  Decoding and comprehending simultaneously  Freedom from word identification problems  Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens which means “to flow”  Smooth and effortless reading

14 Some definitions Automaticity is defined as fast, accurate and effortless word identification at the single word level. The speed and accuracy at which single words are identified is the best predictor of comprehension. Fluency, on the other hand, involves not only automatic word identification but also the application of appropriate prosodic features (rhythm, intonation, and phrasing) at the phrase, sentence, and text levels.

15 Deslea Konza – Fluency – 07:04 minutes

16 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts Passages Paragraphs

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18 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts

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20 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts

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23 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts

24 Word Recognition High Frequency Words Sight Words Onset-rimes (word sorts, drills) Prefix / Suffix Syllables Root words & word families – linked to etymological strategies Word Walls – rapid reading

25 Prefix & Suffix

26 Syllables 1.Closed – syllables that end in a consonant e.g. rabbit 2.Open – syllables that end in a vowel e.g. tiger 3.Vowel silent – usually long vowel sounds e.g. compete 4.Vowel digraphs – ai, ay, ea etc e.g. boat 5.R-controlled – when a vowel is followed by “r”, the letter “r” affects the sound of the word e.g. bird, turtle 6.Consonant + “le” – the consonant and the “le” form the final syllable e.g. table, little

27 Word level

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30 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts

31 African Elephant

32 Common phrases

33 Rapid Automatic Naming Sounds Letters Words Phrases Texts

34 …it has been proven beyond any shade of doubt that skilful readers process virtually each and every word and letter of text as they read. This is extremely counter-intuitive. For sure, skilful readers neither look nor feel as if that’s what they do. But that’s because they do it so quickly and effortlessly. Almost automatically; with almost no conscious attention whatsoever, skilful readers recognise words by drawing on deep and ready knowledge of spellings and their connections to speech and meaning. In fact, the automaticity with which skilful readers recognise words is the key to the whole system…The reader’s attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that it’s free from fussing with the words and letters.

35 Intonation & Punctuation ABC? DE. FGH! I? JKL. MN? OPQ! RST! UV? WX. YZ! ! 567? !

36 What can fluent readers do? Read every letter in every word. Read almost every word. Perceive letters in chunks; recognise high frequency letter combinations. Apply syllabication strategies to divide lengthy words with little conscious analysis. Use punctuation correctly.

37 What can fluent readers do? Read fluently with adequate speed, phrasing, intonation; their reading sounds like they’re speaking. Apply their knowledge of orthography to help identify unknown words they encounter. Activate, apply their extensive vocabulary.

38 What can fluent readers do? Use their knowledge about the structure of written text to anticipate words as they read. Rely little on contextual information because word recognition is rapid, automatic and efficient. Construct meaning as they read.

39 Partner Activity

40 Prosody Matrix or A Six Dimension Fluency Scale Phrasing Smoothness Pace Work in pairs Read Article Assess Swap Roles

41 Text Strategies

42 Modelled: Read a piece of text to students. Model fluent and dysfluent reading. Read with speed but no expression etc. Talk about what is happening with students.

43 Increasing Your Students’ Reading Fluency :19

44 Shared: Read text fluently. Ask students to read with you. Practise and provide feedback. Use a fluent reader as a model.

45 Guided: Model reading aloud in guided reading Use strategies such as paired reading (fluent reader with less fluent reader)

46 Independent: Provide opportunities for Repeated readings Choral Reading Echo Reading Paired Reading Readers’ Theatre Timed trials with charting

47 Fluency Activities 03:32

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50 Why assess fluency? Oral reading fluency measures are valid: have been found to predict results on high stakes reading comprehension tests Benchmarks for satisfactory reading rates are the same regardless of reading programme Benchmarks help teachers identify who is at risk for below year level performance

51 Assessing Fluency

52 Assessments DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Good and Kaminski, Univ. of Oregon https://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/materials_signup.php Test of Word Reading Efficiency Torgesen, Pro-Ed Gray Oral Reading Test IV

53 DIBELS subtests Letter naming Initial sound fluency Phoneme segmentation Nonsense word fluency Oral reading fluency Word use fluency Oral retelling

54 Creating a plan for fluency instruction and practice Assess students Identify children at risk Identify specific needs and group children for instruction (i.e. accuracy, automaticity at word level, or rate fluency in connected text) Provide explicit instruction in automaticity and fluency as well as opportunities for practice. Monitor progress

55 Rate and Fluency Guidelines

56 Effective fluency building instruction rests on three critical decisions: 1.Selecting appropriate instructional tasks (i.e., letter sounds students can produce accurately but not fluently). 2.Scheduling sufficient practice (multiple opportunities per day). 3.Systematically increasing the rate of response.

57 Australian Curriculum – English References to Fluency

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59 Australian Curriculum – English References to Handwriting

60 Fluency handwriti ng

61 Why handwriting ?

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63 Warm Ups

64 Explicit Instruction Name Sound Formation

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67 Rotation (in pairs)

68 For Older Students

69 What is quality? Think about quality hotels. What makes them five star?

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71 OK …. What do you think five star handwriting would look like?

72 Criteria Starting point Size Slope Shape Spacing Style Speed

73 12 Rules for Good Cursive Handwriting Many people do not know that 'Cursive' just means 'Joined-up'. It is not the name of any particular style. These rules apply to all Western handwriting regardless of the so-called copybook style. by Christopher Jarman M Ed, Dip Ed, Cert Ed.

74 1. Good writing is based on a pattern of ovals and parallel lines.

75 2. All lower-case letters start at the top

76 3. All the downstrokes are parallel

77 4. All similar letters are the same height

78 5. All downstrokes are equidistant

79 6. The space between words is the width of the small letter o.

80 7. Ascenders and descenders are no more than twice the height of small letters, preferably less.

81 8. Capital letters are no higher than the ascenders, preferably less.

82 9. Lines of writing are far enough apart for ascenders and descenders not to touch.

83 10. Letters which finish at the top join horizontally.

84 11. Letters which finish at the bottom join diagonally.

85 12. Letters which finish on a stroke moving left, are best left unjoined.

86 Agenda for the morning 8:30 – Introduction / overview of workshops Definitions of fluency / automaticity Development of fluency Assessing fluency Teaching strategies Handwriting and links to comprehension

87 Feedback https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ComprehensionFeedback https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/juliefullgrabe https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/debbiedraper


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