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Marcy Stein, Ph.D. University of Washington, Tacoma

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1 Marcy Stein, Ph.D. University of Washington, Tacoma
Reading Fluency Marcy Stein, Ph.D. University of Washington, Tacoma

2 Outline Fluency Definitions Research Support for Building Fluency
Fluency Building: Instructional Methods Fluency Building: Monitoring Fluency Progress Books and Programs References and Websites

3 Fluency as Assessment Reading Fluency Interventions
Fluency Definitions Fluency as Assessment Reading Fluency Interventions

4 Fluency as Assessment Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is a set of standard simple, short-duration fluency measures of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics computation. “One-Minute Timings”

5 Fluency as Assessment Purpose of CBM: Progress Monitoring
Student performance is assessed continuously during instruction. Decisions are made about whether student progress is satisfactory or not. DIBELS, AIMSWEB

6 Defining Fluency “Fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.” National Reading Panel, 2000

7 Defining Fluency “Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. They group words quickly in ways that help them gain meaning from what they read. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking.” Put Reading First, 2001

8 Defining Fluency “Fluency is the ability to read with sufficient ease and accuracy that one can focus attention on the meaning and message of text.” Adams, 2002

9 Factors Contributing to Fluency
Reading Speed FLUENCY Prosody Accuracy

10 Defining Accuracy Independent level (95%-100% accuracy)
Instructional level (90%-94% accuracy) Frustration level (<90% accuracy)

11 Defining Reading Speed
Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) Grade-level norms Set goals. Determine students with high needs.

12 Norms for Oral Reading Fluency Grades 2-5
Percentile Fall WCPM Winter Spring 2 75 82 106 124 50 53 78 94 25 23 46 65 3 107 123 142 79 93 114 70 87 4 125 133 143 99 112 118 72 89 92 5 126 151 105 128 77 100 WCPM = words correct per minute Hasbrouck & Tindal, 1992

13 Defining Prosody “The compilation of spoken language features that includes stress or emphasis, pitch variations, intonation, reading rate, and pausing.” Osborn & Lehr, 2003

14 Research Support for Building Fluency
Fluency and Reading Comprehension

15 Theory of Automaticity
More Fluent Readers direct relatively little effort to the act of reading, allowing them to focus active attention on meaning and message. Less Fluent Readers must direct considerable effort to the act of reading, leaving little attention for reflecting on its meaning and message. Foorman & Mehta, 2002; Samuels, 2002

16 Theory of Automaticity
Less fluent readers need to allocate more resources to decoding. More fluent readers have more resources available for comprehension. decoding comprehension

17 Fluency and Reading Comprehension
Oral reading fluency was more closely related to reading comprehension (as measured by a standardized test) than to word recognition of words drawn from the oral reading passage. Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988

18 Fluency and Reading Comprehension

19 NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale
Level 4: Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Level 3: Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Level 2: Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. Level 1: Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur-but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Listening to Children Read Aloud, 15. Washington, DC: 1995

20 NAEP 4th-Grade Oral Reading Study
Nonfluent Fluent Fluency Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Percent Accuracy 94 96 97 Words per Minute 65 89 126 162 Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Listening to Children Read Aloud, 15. Washington, DC: 1995

21 Oral vs. Silent Reading “Most of the evidence cited to support independent silent reading comes from correlational rather than experimental research.” National Reading Panel, 2000

22 Oral vs. Silent Reading “Of the few experimental studies on the effects of independent reading, most have found small or no gains in reading achievement as a result of such activity.” Osborn & Lehr, 2003

23 Guided, Oral, Repeated Reading
So… What Works? Guided, Oral, Repeated Reading

24 Fluency Building: Instructional Methods

25 Building Reading Fluency
Model fluent reading, then have students reread the text on their own. Provide guided, oral, repeated reading practice. student-adult reading (parent, tutor, paraeducator) partner reading (small group, class-wide) tape-assisted reading computer-assisted reader’s theater Osborn & Lehr, 2003 Put Reading First, 2001 Rasinski, 2003

26 Guided, Oral, Repeated Reading
benefits from feedback feedback from peers or adults Oral student engagement Repeated three or more repetitions or to specified criterion motivating activity

27 Repeated Reading: Student-Adult
Significantly increases reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension Works with older students as well as elementary children Fosters fluent word recognition through multiple exposures to words

28 Repeated Reading: Student-Adult
Direct students to reread a relatively short passage ( words) until: a predetermined level of fluency is attained, or the text has been read 3-5 times.

29 Repeated Reading: Partner Reading
Before using partner reading for repeated reading, do the following: Designate reading partners. Select appropriate reading materials. Assemble materials. Implement the program.

30 Step 1: Designate Partners
Rank order students according to results of survey-level assessment. Split the list in half to form pairs. Pair top-ranked reader of the higher-performing half with top-ranked reader of the lower-performing half; do the same for the two students who are second on each list and so on until all students are paired.

31 Step 2: Select Reading Materials
Identify materials appropriate for the lower reader’s instructional reading level (90%-94% accuracy). Have both partners read the same passage from the same material. Have enough materials selected for two new passages per week.

32 Step 3: Assemble Materials
What Teachers Need timing device list of partner pairings description of partner roles What Students Need reading partner reading material folder

33 Step 4: Implement Partner Reading
The stronger reader reads aloud; this models fluent reading. The less fluent reader reads aloud the SAME text for the same length of time. After both partners have read, one partner asks the other to: identify the sequence of the key ideas. tell the main idea.

34 Tape-Assisted Reading
Purpose: To give students support and a sense of the proper phrasing and speed of fluent reading. The student: listens to text read at wpm by a fluent reader and follows along by pointing to the text. reads aloud in sync with tape subvocalizing the words. reads same text independently following repeated reading procedures.

35 Computer-Assisted Reading

36 Reader’s Theater Use of scripts (plays, poetry, expository text)
No costumes, props, or scenery Multiple opportunities for meaningful practice

37 Reader’s Theater Weekly Activities
Select or write a script (see Resources) Monday: Introduce activity; assign parts. Tuesday-Thursday: Have students practice. Friday: Have students perform. Rasinski, 2003

38 Fitting It In before school during school after school lunch recess
school-wide reading time after school

39 Getting Kids on the Ball
Basketball-loving Tacoma students get a reading on educational priorities The News Tribune, 1/21/2004 Andre Stout and Trevor Wong coach youth basketball at the North Tacoma Boys & Girls Club

40 The tutors time the students as they read passages written for various grade levels, marking on a sheet how many words they read in one minute. The News Tribune, 1/21/2004

41 After each reading, tutors help them with words they find difficult
After each reading, tutors help them with words they find difficult. The children read each passage three times before moving on to another. The News Tribune, 1/21/2004

42 “The teachers tell you this stuff works in class, and you’re like, ‘yeah,’” Wong said. “Then you come out here and see it. You’re like, ‘Wow.’” The News Tribune, 1/21/2004

43 Guided, Oral, Repeated Reading
Two essential features: Opportunities for Practice Guidance and Feedback

44 Monitoring Fluency Progress
Graphing Fluency Progress Making Instructional Decisions Determining WCPM

45 Graphing Fluency Progress
Adult Monitoring (teacher, paraeducator, tutor) Student Self-Monitoring As part of a repeated reading program, the student may record the wcpm of their first “cold” reading on a graph. On each subsequent reading, the student records the increase in fluency.

46 QuickReads © 2004, Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Making Instructional Decisions Determine Annual Goals
Begin with the median score (middle) of baseline (approximately three assessments) Calculate wcpm for each remaining week Grades 1-2: 2 to 3 words per week Grades 3-5: 1 to 2 words per week If a 1st-grader reads 25 wcpm today… how many wcpm should s/he read next week? in 5 weeks? in 10 weeks? 27-28 35-40 45-55

48 Corrective Reading Individual Reading Progress Chart Decoding B1: Lessons 12-35
© 1999, SRA/McGrawl-Hill.

49 Determining WCPM WCPM = Total Words Read – Errors
Scored as Errors Mispronunciations/Word Substitutions Omissions Hesitations Reversals Scored as Correct Repetitions Self-Corrections’ Insertions Dialect/Articulation Special Cases Numerals Hyphenated Words Abbreviations

50 Monitoring Reading Fluency
Practice Activity Monitoring Reading Fluency

51 Books & Programs




55 Read Naturally Masters Edition (ME) Steps
1. Select Story. The student selects a story from the packet at the correct reading level and gets the cassette or audio CD for the story. 2. Read Along—Key Words: The student reads the key words and definitions with the recording. 3. Prediction: The student writes a sentence using the title, picture, and key words to predict what the story will say about the topic. 4. Cold Timing: The student times himself/herself for one minute, orally reading the selected story for the first time and underlining unknown words. 5. Graph in Blue: The student graphs the number of words read correctly in one minute. 6. Read Along: The student reads the story three times, tracking and subvocalizing, with the recording. 7. Practice: The student practices reading the story without the audio tape several times until able to read at the predetermined goal rate.  Students time each practice. 8. Answer Questions: The student answers the questions about the story.

56 Read Naturally Masters Edition (ME) Steps
9. Pass Story: The teacher times the student for one minute on the story, subtracts the errors, and determines if the student has reached the goal.  To pass, the student must also make less than three errors, read with good expression, and answer the comprehension questions correctly. 10. Graph in Red: The student graphs the number of words read correctly in the one-minute timing.  The student marks the same bar of the graph used in step 4. 11. Retell/Word List: The student writes a retell of the story either writing a specific number of ideas from a story or writing for a specific amount of time.  In the phonics levels, the student practices the word list until s/he is able to read a predetermined number of words in one minute. Repeat. Begin a New Story: The student repeats steps 1-10 with a new story. Adjust. Adjust Goals/Levels: After the student completes 12 stories in a level, consider adjusting the student's goal or level.






62 Conclusion Fluency is important because it is related to reading comprehension. Reading fluency can be developed by engaging students in guided, oral, repeated reading activities. Monitoring student progress in reading fluency: can be motivating to students. is useful in setting instructional goals.

63 References & Websites

64 References Adams, M.J. (2002, November). The promise of speech recognition. PowerPoint presentation at A Focus on Fluency Forum, San Francisco, CA. Available at Armbruster, B.B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy. Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S. & Tyler, B. J. (In press). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Dowhower, S. L. (1989). Repeated reading: Research into practice. The Reading Teacher, 42, Foorman, B. R., & Mehta, P. (2002, November). PowerPoint presentation at A Focus on Fluency Forum, San Francisco, CA. Available at Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Maxwell, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9 (2),

65 References Hasbrouck, J. E., & Tindal, G. (1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in grades 2 through 5. Teaching Exceptional Children, 24, National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. (2003). A focus on fluency. Honolulu, HI: Regional Educational Laboratory at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Available online at Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader. New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books. Samuels, S. J. (2002). Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp ). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

66 Websites Reports on Reading
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Listening to Children Read Aloud, 15. Washington, DC: 1995 A Focus on Fluency Put Reading First National Reading Panel Report

67 Websites Professional Development Reader’s Theater
Reader’s Theater Reader’s Theater Script Service – Primary grades From Script to Stage – Grades K-8

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