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Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency  Understanding Fluency and Automaticity Issues  Instruction for Fluency and Automaticity.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency  Understanding Fluency and Automaticity Issues  Instruction for Fluency and Automaticity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency  Understanding Fluency and Automaticity Issues  Instruction for Fluency and Automaticity

2 Table Talk  Discuss several way that decodable texts could be used to reinforce and support explicit instruction in decoding. Explain how this would differ from using context texts (such as science or social studies).  What are some strategies you currently use to help students with fluency?  Discuss what do you think it means to directly teach comprehension strategies. What strategies do you currently teach in your classroom?

3 Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency  Understanding Fluency and Automaticity Issues  Instruction for Fluency and Automaticity

4 “…reading is like learning to ride a bike: if you go too slow you fall off” Susan Hall & Louisa Moats, Straight Talk About Reading Understanding Automaticity and Fluency

5 Defining Automaticity Birsh, 1999 “Ability to respond or react without attention or conscious effort. Automaticity in word recognition permits full energy to be focused on comprehension.”

6 Defining Fluency Birsh, 1999 “Ability to translate print to speech with rapidity and automaticity that allows the reader to focus on meaning.”

7 Defining Fluency Birsh, 1999 …“Beyond the ability to merely decode words, the ability to use punctuation and other cues to read smoothly and easily, with proper speed, accuracy and phrasing.”

8 Fluency Related Processes Wolf et al 2003

9 Factors that may limit oral reading rate:  Proportion of words recognized by “sight”  Speed with which sight words are processed  Speed of processes used to identify novel words  Speed with which word meanings are identified  Speed at which overall meaning is constructed (J.Torgesen in speech to American Speech and Hearing Association, 2003) (J.Torgesen in speech to American Speech and Hearing Association, 2003)

10 Further Challenges for Fluency The challenge for continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after third grade. 4 th, 5 th and 6 th graders encounter about 10,000 words they have never seen before in print during a year’s worth of reading. It is difficult to guess these new words from the context so they must have reliable decoding strategies to improve the accuracy with which “new” words are identified when encountered in text. Torgesen, 2003

11 In reading, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer…

12 Finds reading easy. Reads a great deal. Becomes a better, faster reader Good Reader Vs. Poor Reader Finds reading difficult. Reads very little. Reads slowly, with effort. Demands increase. Good Reader Poor Reader

13 “This cycle must be broken if poor readers are to become proficient readers.” Felton & Lillie, 2001

14 Putting it all together: the development of reading fluency To be a fluent reader: To be a fluent reader:  A child must be able to recognize most of the words in a passage “by sight”  Children must correctly pronounce words 5-10 times before they become “sight words”  Children must make accurate first guesses when they encounter new words or the growth of their “sight word vocabulary” will be delayed. J.Torgesen, 2003

15 National Reading Panel On Fluency  Guided, repeated oral reading with guidance from teachers, peers, or parents…  Improves word recognition, fluency and comprehension across the grades.  Helps good and poor readers as well as special education students. National Reading Panel, 2000

16 “students rarely have the opportunity to perfect their performance of a passage, as most texts tend to be read only once” National Reading Panel, 2000b Text Fluency

17 National Reading Panel On Fluency  While silent reading is important, the NRP found no significant effects on fluency for reading programs such as…  DEAR (Drop Everything and Reading)  AR (Accelerated Reader)  Reading Workshop  SSR (Sustained Silent Reading) National Reading Panel, 2000

18 Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency  Understanding Fluency and Automaticity Issues  Instruction for Fluency and Automaticity

19 Fluency Instruction: Principles and Strategies  Establish accuracy and then automaticity and fluency  Provide practice at the letter-sound, word, phrase and text level  Use a variety of Repeated Reading strategies  Model phrasing and reading with expression Felton & Lillie, 2001

20 Fluency Instruction: Principles and Strategies  Provide short frequent practice sessions  Establish goals and measure rate and accuracy  Document progress  Provide incentives  Combine fluency training and comprehension Felton & Lillie, 2001

21 Provide more adult guidance during reading Use more decodable text Practice words and phrases before reading Use shorter passages Model expressive reading Provide multiple daily sessions More incentives may be necessary For the More Impaired Readers

22 Phrases on the pathat their house with her friendcan you play have a drinkfrom a book all this junkour favorite book baking a cakewalking to school Phrases on the pathat their house with her friendcan you play have a drinkfrom a book all this junkour favorite book baking a cakewalking to school Fluency Practice: Phrase Level

23 Fluency Practice: Text level  Choose passage on instructional level.  Preview story using titles and pictures.  Teacher reads story with expression to model  Teacher slides finger along words as student watches Felton & Lillie, 2001

24 Fluency Practice: Text level Fluency Practice: Text level  Teacher and student read together; student reads alone.  Teacher graphs correct words per minute.  Student reads at least 2 more times.  Student (and teacher) set goal and work toward it. Felton & Lillie, 2001

25 1 st Read Read Silently, text orientation 2 nd Read Read Aloud, Timed, Set Goals, Graph 3 rd Read Read Aloud, Timed, Set Goals, Graph 4 th Read Next Meeting: Read Aloud, Timed, Assess goals, Graph Repeated Reading

26 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Words Per Minute 12345 Session Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Katie's Repeated Readings

27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Correct 1 23 4 5 Session Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Katie's Oral Accuracy

28 81 135 153 151 184 180 0 50 100 150 200 Words Per Minute FebApril Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Katie’s Pre- Post Comparisons

29 Reading Levels  Independent level: 98-100% accuracy  read without assistance  can be used for fluency practice  Instructional level: 95-98% accuracy  read with assistance  used for fluency after accuracy practice  Frustration level: below 95% accuracy  too difficult  not used for instruction


31 Scaffolding Instruction for Fluency Success  Review decoding skills  Review vocabulary and proper names  Discuss story, pictures; students make predictions  Teacher reads aloud prior to student  Teacher/student read together  Teacher reads leaving certain words for student  Student reads silently first Felton & Lillie, 2001

32  Rhythm  Intonation  Expression  Phrasing Prosody ABCD? EFG. HI? JKL. MN! OPQ. RST? UV! WX. YZ! AB. CDE? FG! HIJK. LMNO. P! QRS, TUV. W, X, Y, Z!

33 Prosody Woman without her man is nothing. Woman, without her, man is nothing. The old man the boat. The old, man the boat.

34 Dave saw a black snake in the shade by a lake. He said, “I will take the snake to be my pet.” He gave his snake the name Jake. Dave did not know what a snake ate. Jane, at the pet shop sold him a rat for the snake. Dave’s mom said, “No, Jeff. I can take a snake, but a snake and a rat is too much.” Jeff took the snake back to the lake and the rat to the shop. Phrasing may be tricky in “unnatural” decodable text. Students may differ in the length of phrase they can handle. Marking Text For Phrasing

35 Teaching Phrasing And Reading With Expression  Explain to student importance of phrasing and expression  Mark copy of text to indicate natural phrasing  Model reading with appropriate phrasing and expression  Have students practice  Move toward student marking of text and independent practice

36 Rating Prosody Level 1 Word-by-word, infrequent two to three-word phrases (not preserving syntax). Level 3 Majority of phrasing appropriate, but with little or no expression. Majority of phrasing appropriate, but with little or no expression. Level 2 Level 2 Two-word phrases with some longer – some word by word may be present. Grouping may be unrelated. Level 4 Meaningful phrases, preservation of syntax, read with expression. NAEP Rating

37 Use Variety Of Repeated Reading Strategies  Assisted reading  4-way oral reading  Reader’s theater  Poetry reading  Tape Assisted Reading

38 Fluency Strategies: Assisted Reading  Pair student with another at same reading level  Pair students who are compatible  Students read assigned text aloud in unison  Reading may be practiced and then tape recorded  Students and teacher listen to tape and discuss rate, phrasing, intonation, expression and comprehension

39 Fluency Strategies: 4-Way Oral Reading  Teachers lead reading of text using varying types of oral reading.  Students never read individually but read with a partner or group.  4 types of oral reading: 1.Unison choral reading 2.Echo reading 3.Paired reading 4.Mumble reading

40 Fluency Strategies: Reader’s Theater  Choose text or portion of text that  is engaging  has a well-paced storyline  has lots of dialogue  Prepare copies of text  mark different characters parts on each copy  use highlighter, checkmarks or underlining

41 Then Great Big Billy Goat started across the bridge. “TRIP-TRAP, TRIP-TRAP, TRIP- TRAP.” The old troll called out, “Who’s that trip- trapping over my bridge?” “It is I, Great Big Billy Goat Gruff. What are you going to do about it?” “I’m coming up there to eat you,” roared the troll. “Well, come on up,” bellowed the Great, Big Billy Goat Gruff. I’m waiting for you.” The troll rushed up to the top of the bridge. Narrator 1 Narrator 2 All Great Big Billy Goat Troll Marking Text for Reader’s Theater

42 Fluency Strategies: Reader’s Theater  Students practice individual parts then read together as a play.  Discuss expression, phrasing, etc. and reread.  Exchange scripts and parts and reread.

43  Students prepare for the Coffee House Party early in the week.  Individual poems are selected based on interest and readability by students and teachers.  Poems can be read individually or in pairs.  Daily practice sessions with the teacher serving as the poetry coach.  Students practice at home. Poetry Coffee House

44  At the end of the week, the lights are dimmed and classrooms are transformed to an inviting coffee house filled with good things to eat.  Some type of performance chair or barstool is used.  Teacher reads first and introduces the performers.  All visitors are requested to bring a poem to read.  Poems can be discussed between sets. Poetry Coffee House

45 Audio Assisted Reading Books on Tape   Use at instructional and independent reading level   Student must look at print while listening   Student practices with tape until ready to performance read for teacher

46 Audio Assisted Reading Computer Based Assisted Reading   Books are presented in visual and auditory forms   Student highlights sentences or unknown words   Some programs allow student to read and computer records accuracy and rate

47 Opportunities for repetition Practice of high frequency words Illustrations to support text Modeling of expressive reading Exposure to multiple genre Provides scaffolding Vocabulary development Benefits of Audio Assisted Reading

48 Combining Accuracy, Fluency And Comprehension Practice  Each story is read in 3 different ways:  Expert reader (accuracy)  Read for speed (rate, fluency & expression)  Read for meaning (comprehension)  Preparation  Select story based on instructional level and skill to be taught  Plan lesson Morris, 2003

49 Expert Reader (Accuracy)  May be preceded by partner reading for practice  Each student reads 1 or 2 pages.  Student receives Expert reader score (% correct)  Below 95% requires more practice and another check for Expert Reader

50 EXPERT READER Name _____________________ Expert Reader EXPERT READER Name _____________________ Date Score Date Score 10-15 10-1610-18 969897100

51 Read For Speed (Fluency)  Students paired-up  1 st partners from all pairs timed at the same time for 2 minutes.  Graph number of words read.  2 nd partners read and graph.  1 st partners, then 2 nd partners read and graph a second time.

52 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 70 89 99 111 82 76 Read for Speed Graph

53 Reading For Meaning (Comprehension)  Read story in sections.  Use echo-reading, choral reading, mumble reading, individual oral reading, silent reading.  Question and discuss after each section.  Retelling and further discussion at the end of story.

54 Final Words…. Just like decoding accuracy, fluency is a bridge towards comprehension and the desire to read more, which will ultimately enable deeper comprehension. Fluency, therefore, is a means- just like decoding-to a higher end than itself. For the end of all our efforts is a child who reads accurately enough and fluently enough to understand what she reads and to reach for more. Wolf et al, 2003

55 Congratulations! You have completed Unit 8: Developing Automaticity And Fluency

56 Sources  Berninger, V. (2002). Referenced in Neuhaus, G.F. What does it take to read a letter? Perspectives (Newsletter of the International Dyslexia Association), 28 (1).  Birsch J.R. (1999). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. New York, New York: Paul H. Brooks.  Felton, R. & Lillie, D. (2002). Teaching students with persistent reading problems (a multi-media CD ROM). Greensboro, N.C: Guilford County Schools.  Fry E. (2003). How to Teach Reading. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials.  Martha Combs. (2001). Readers and Writers in the Primary Grades. Prentice Hall.

57 Sources  Hall S.L., & Moats L.C. (1999). Straight Talk About Reading. Chicago, Il: Contemporary Books.  Juel C. (1994). Learning to read and write in one elementary school. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.  Morris, D., & Slavin, R. E. (2003). Every Child Reading. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.  National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read – Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Pub. No. 00-4764.  Rasinski, T.V. (2003). The Fluent Reader. New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books.

58 Sources  Rasinski, T. V. (2004). Fluency Seminar. Boone, NC.  Shaywitz, S. (2004). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.  Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21. 360-406.  Torgesen, 2003. Speech to American Speech and Hearing Association.

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