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Reading fluency as a marker for early reading progress: Strengths and Weaknesses Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and the Eastern Regional Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading fluency as a marker for early reading progress: Strengths and Weaknesses Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and the Eastern Regional Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reading fluency as a marker for early reading progress: Strengths and Weaknesses Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and the Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center Massachusetts Reading First,March, 2006

2 Examine the utility of reading fluency as a marker for early reading progress by focusing on three questions: 1. How useful are measures of reading fluency in identifying students who are “at risk” for performing below grade level on “high stakes” measures of reading comprehension? 2. What is the causal connection between reading fluency and reading comprehension? 3. What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children? What evidence do we have that there is a causal connection? What mechanisms or skills mediate that connection?

3 Why is it important for us all to acquire more knowledge and understanding about these questions? 1. Measures off reading fluency are being used in a very large number of states in Reading First as one of the primary indicators of early reading growth. 2. Reading Fluency has been identified as one of the five major components of reading growth that should be the focus of instruction and assessment in grades K-3 3. Many programs are currently being promoted and used for the specific purpose of increasing reading fluency— and the goal of these programs is not just to increase reading fluency, but also to increase students ability to comprehend complex text.

4 Examine the relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension with a view toward more fully understanding the answers to three questions: 1. How useful are measures of reading fluency in identifying students who are “at risk” for performing below grade level on measures of reading comprehension? 2. What is the causal connection between reading fluency and reading comprehension? What evidence do we have that there is a causal connection? What mechanisms or skills mediate that connection? 3. What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children?

5 The most common way of assessing reading fluency is to ask students to read a passage of grade level text orally and count the number of words the student reads correctly in a defined period of time. Provides a reliable assessment of fluency one passage – in low.90’s three passages with median – mid to high.90’s The time period for assessment is typically one minute. Oral reading fluency shows steady growth as children acquire reading skills during 1 st through 3 rd grade

6 20 30 40 50 Correct Words per Minute 60 70 80 90 100 1 st Grade 2 nd Grade 3 rd Grade WSFWSFWSWSFWSFWS 110 120 Correct Words per Minute on Grade Level Text Good, Wallin, Simmons, Kame’enui, & Kaminski, 2002 45 WPM 33 WPM 27 WPM

7 The most common way of assessing reading fluency is to ask students to read a passage of grade level text orally and count the number of words the student reads correctly in a defined period of time. Provides a reliable assessment of fluency one passage – in low.90’s three passages with median – mid to high.90’s The time period for assessment is typically one minute. Oral reading fluency shows steady growth as children acquire reading skills during 1 st through 3 rd grade Oral reading fluency measures are strongly related to reading comprehension in grades 1,2, 3

8 Correlations range from about.50 to.90, with most falling around.70. The strength of the relationship depends upon such things as: The measure of reading comprhension

9 N=218 R=.76

10 N=218 R=.56

11 Correlations range from about.50 to.90, with most falling around.70. The strength of the relationship depends upon such things as: The measure of reading comprehension Age/grade level of students – r with SAT10 1 st grader =.79 2 nd grader =.70 3 rd grader =.69 Why is the correlation higher at 1 st than at 3 rd grade?

12 These correlations indicate that performance on brief measures of oral reading fluency is strongly correlated with performance on measures of reading comprehension. It turns out that ORF measures have high predictive utility for identifying students likely to struggle on “high stakes” or formal measures of reading comprehension However, they don’t tell us directly how useful the ORF measures actually are in identifying students likely to struggle on comprehension measures

13 10 20 30 40 Hi risk Moderate Risk Percent Proficient on MCAS 50 60 Low Risk 70 80 90 3 rd Grade-MASS Florida 19 40 72 Orf > 78 Orf from 53 to 77 <53 3,339 students Prediction from first of year Percent Grade level on FCAT 25 46 86 Orf > 78 Orf from 53 to 77 <53

14 Teaching Reading is Urgent Performance at the end of first grade strongly predicts performance on third grade high stakes test. 88% of students who met the end of first grade ORF goal met or exceeded Oregon’s State Benchmark Test. Similar correlations have been found for CO, IA, FL, and PA.

15 Examine the relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension with a view toward more fully understanding the answers to three questions: 1. How useful are measures of reading fluency in identifying students who are “at risk” for performing below grade level on measures of reading comprehension? 2. What is the causal connection between reading fluency and reading comprehension? What evidence do we have that there is a causal connection? What mechanisms or skills mediate that connection? 3. What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children?

16 “the ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading, such as decoding” (Meyer and Felton (1999, p. 284). Some definitions of reading fluency

17 Five common methods for identifying words in text (Ehri, 1999) 1. By sounding out and blending graphemes into phonemes to form recognizable words (decoding) 2. By pronouncing common spelling patters as chunks (a more advanced form of decoding) 3. By retrieving words from memory. Such words are referred to as “sight words.” Retrieval happens quickly and effortlessly with practice 4. By analogizing to words already known by sight 5. By predicting words from context

18 Five common methods for identifying words in text (Ehri, 1999) 1. By sounding out and blending graphemes into phonemes to form recognizable words (decoding) 2. By pronouncing common spelling patters as chunks (a more advanced form of decoding) 3. By retrieving words from memory. Such words are referred to as “sight words.” Retrieval happens quickly and effortlessly with practice 4. By analogizing to words already known by sight 5. By predicting words from context Although all these methods for reading words become more fluent with practice, fluency increases most dramatically as more words become identifiable “by sight.”

19 These are iNTirEStinG and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle responsibilities are rEelaTed in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-spread concern that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.

20 The report of the National Research Council pointed out that these concerns about literacy derive not from declining levels of literacy in our schools but rather from recognition that the demands for high levels of literacy are rapidly accelerating in our society.

21 The Fluency Challenge….. “One of the great mysteries to challenge researchers is how people learn to read and comprehend text rapidly and with ease. A large part of the explanation lies in how they learn to read individual words. Skilled readers are able to look at thousands of words and immediately recognize their meanings without any effort.” Ehri, L. C. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading. London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

22 December, 3 rd Grade Correct word/minute=60 19 th percentile The Surprise Party My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise. My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise. I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them….. I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them…..

23 December, 3 rd Grade Correct word/minute=128 78 th percentile The Surprise Party My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise. My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise. I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them….. I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them…..

24 “the ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading, such as decoding” (Meyer and Felton (1999, p. 284). Some definitions of reading fluency “Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression” National Reading Panel, 2000 “Fluency involves accurate reading at a minimal rate with appropriate prosodic features (expression) and deep understanding” Hudson, Mercer, and Lane (2000, p. 16). “freedom from word recognition problems that might hinder comprehension” (Literacy Dictionary, Harris & Hodges, 1995, p. 85).

25 If comprehension is included as part of the definition of fluency, then questions about the causal relationships between fluency and comprehension disappear However, when we assess ORF, we do not directly assess comprehension, we assess rate of reading The question we address here is whether there are causal relationships between the processes that contribute to individual differences in oral reading rate and the processes that are required for good performance on measures of reading comprehension

26 Within current reading theory, we can identify two major ways that individual differences in ORF (as it is commonly measured) might be related causally to individual differences in reading comprehension Efficient, or automatic, identification of words allows the reader to focus more attention on the meaning of the passage Comprehension processes themselves may cause individual differences in reading rate. These comprehension processes influence both fluency and comprehension tasks.

27 Within current reading theory, we can identify two major ways that individual differences in ORF (as it is commonly measured) might be related causally to individual differences in reading comprehension Efficient, or automatic, identification of words allows the reader to focus more attention on the meaning of the passage Comprehension processes themselves may cause individual differences in reading rate. These comprehension processes influence both fluency and comprehension tasks.

28 The idea that automatic word recognition processes make it possible to focus more attentional resources on comprehension was initially popularized by the work of LaBerge and Samuals (1974) They developed a model of reading with the concept of automaticity as one of its central features 1. A complex skill like reading requires the rapid and efficient coordination of many processes 2. If enough processes are executed automatically, then the attentional load remains within tolerable limits. 3. Word identification processes are more likely to become automatic than comprehension processes

29 “In fact, the automaticity with which skillful readers recognize words is the key to the whole system…The reader’s attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that it’s free from fussing with the words and letters.” Marilyn Adams

30 Why is fluency important? Because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.

31 “Fluency, it seems, serves as a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Because when fluent readers are able to identify words accurately and automatically, they can focus most of their attention on comprehension. They can make connections among the ideas in the text and between the text and their background knowledge. In other words, fluent readers can recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Less fluent readers, however, must focus much of their attention on word recognition…The result is that non- fluent readers have little attention to devote to comprehension” (Osborn, Lehr, and Hiebert, 2003)

32 The Evidence: When reading rate is increased through the use of repeated reading techniques, comprehension also increases (16 studies-NRP report) Effect size for fluency =.44 Effect size for comprehension =.35 Problem: a variety of techniques were actually mixed together in these findings A more recent meta-analysis focusing only on repeated reading studies reported these effect sizes (THERRIEN, 2004) Effect size for fluency =.50 Effect size for comprehension=.25 Problem: processes other than word reading efficiency might be enhanced by repeated reading practice

33 The Evidence (cont.): Can practice specifically targeted on word reading efficiency improve fluency and comprehension? What we need is evidence that practice which focuses solely on increasing word reading efficiency can also increase text reading fluency and reading comprehension

34 What do we mean by context-free practice?: animalfaster happy nevertimesleeprabbit

35 The Evidence (cont.): Recently, Levy, Abello, and Lysnchuk(1997) reported a carefully controlled study with 4 th grade poor readers in which context free practice to increase speed of word identification positively affected both fluency and comprehension Critical features 1. intensive fluency practice-every word recognized in less than 1 seconds 1. intensive fluency practice-every word recognized in less than 1 seconds 2. Used long stories that places particular demands on fluency 2. Used long stories that places particular demands on fluency 3. Stories were at the appropriate level of difficulty for each student 3. Stories were at the appropriate level of difficulty for each student

36 To summarize: Increasing rate through repeated reading practice also increases comprehension There has been at least one demonstration that increasing rate through isolated word practice can increase reading comprehension

37 Across these definitions of fluency, we can identify two major ways that individual differences in ORF might be related causally to individual differences in reading comprehension Efficient identification of words allow a focus on the meaning of the passage Comprehension processes themselves may contribute to individual differences in reading rate. These comprehension processes are shared between fluency and comprehension tasks.

38 The Evidence: Although students remember more of the content from ORF stories if prompted to remember, they do remember a significant amount with only a cue to “do their best reading” ( Although students remember more of the content from ORF stories if prompted to remember, they do remember a significant amount with only a cue to “do their best reading” (O’Shea, Sindelar, & O’Shea, 1987) There is experimental evidence to indicate that comprehension processes (identifying anaphoric referents, integrating propositions in text with background knowledge, inferencing) can also become automatized with reading practice. (Perfetti, 1995) This means they can occur without the specific “intention to comprehend.” Comprehension is occurring for most students as they read the words on ORF passages.

39 The Evidence: How could automatically occurring comprehension processes affect rate of reading on ORF tasks? There is experimental evidence for fast acting, automatic spreading of semantic activation thast does not consume attention resources…words are primed for easier recognition (Posner & Snyder, 1975).

40 The Evidence: Jenkins, et al., (2003) asked 113 4 th grade students with a broad range of reading ability to perform three tasks: 1. ORF following standard (best reading) cue. 3. ITBS reading comprehension test 2. ORF with words in passage arranged in random order in a list

41 The Evidence: WPM Text = 127WPM List = 83 Correlation with ITBS Text =.83 List =.53 Processes unique to reading meaningful text supported more fluent reading of words – spreading activation based on comprehension facilitates fluency – is one possibility Test format that allowed comprehension processes (presumably operating in both ORF and comprehension test) to influence rate led to higher correlation – word reading that is influenced by comprehension is more correlated with comprehension than just word reading efficiency alone

42 Conclusions: 1. Both single word identification processes and comprehension processes contribute to individual differences in oral reading fluency for text a. At the lower end of the ORF continuum, word reading efficiency makes a stronger unique contribution in explaining variance in fluency b.At the higher end of the ORF continuum, comprehension processes make a stronger unique contribution to explaining variance in fluency.

43 Individual Differences in Oral Reading Fluency are influenced by different factors, depending on level of fluency 50 th 16 th 2 nd 98 th 84 th Standard Scores Automatic comprehension processes Single word reading efficiency 50 th 16 th 2 nd 98 th Standard Scores Automatic comprehension processes Single word reading efficiency

44 Conclusions (cont.): ORF is correlated with reading comprehension because 1. Both ORF and reading comprehension depend to some extent on efficiency of single word reading processes 2. Both ORF speed and reading comprehension scores are influenced to some extent by the efficiency of comprehension processes that facilitate performance on both tasks

45 Reading Processes measured by ORF facilitate performance on tests of Reading Comprehension Next question: Are the two direct causal connections the only reason that ORF is related to performance on tests of reading comprehension? A reminder about correlations A can be correlated with B because: A causes B (good reading rate enables comp.) B causes A (comp. enables good reading rate) Both A and B are caused by C (comp. and rate are both influenced by experience)

46 Fluency can be correlated with comprehension because individual differences in both skills are caused by differences in: Reading experience Home environment and support Motivation to succeed in school Reading Experience Fluency Reading comprehension through vocabulary increases Motivation to succeed in school Fluency Reading comprehension through development of reading strategies

47 “…motivated students usually want to understand text content fully and therefore, process information deeply. As they read frequently with these cognitive purposes, motivated students gain in reading comprehension proficiency” Guthrie, J.T. (et al.) (2004). Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through concept-oriented reading instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 403-421.

48 Differences in SES cause differences among students in both comprehension and fluency Lower SES students:  Lower vocabulary  Less support for reading in the home –less practice  Less preparation in preschool environment for early acquisition of alphabetic principle  Less exposure to books  Fewer opportunities to develop rich content knowledge Lower Comprehension Lower Comprehension Lower Fluency Lower Fluency Lower Comprehension Lower Fluency Lower Comprehension

49 Differences in SES cause differences among students in both comprehension and fluency Differences in learning opportunities and motivation for school learning that are associated with differences in SES cause both: Lower Comprehension Lower Fluency ???

50 N=218 ORF R=.76 Vocab R =.69 NVR R =.48 Mem R =.35 Total R 2 = 71% Common = 43.5% ORF = 18.9% Vocab = 7.1% NVR = 1.2% Mem =.3%

51 ORF Unique R =.43

52 If we controlled for the joint, and shared, contribution of vocabulary, nonverbal reasoning, and memory, we would expect: What is the practical meaning of these analyses in terms of the potential impact of interventions that increase just reading fluency If we based our estimate of the impact of these interventions on the raw correlation between ORF and comprehension, we would expect: A 10 WPM gain on ORF would produce a 12.5 point gain on the FCAT 10 WPM gain on ORF would produce an 8.6 point gain on the FCAT

53 Conclusions from analysis of causal relations between ORF and reading comprehension: Interventions that focus directly on increasing oral reading fluency are likely to have an impact on performance on broad comprehension measures, because fluency is causally related to comprehension How ever, the maximum impact from improvement in ORF will not be obtained unless work on ORF is embedded within a complete program that also stimulates and builds comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and reasoning skills, because these variables have an independent impact on comprehension

54 Something else to think about: “Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression” National Reading Panel What is the role of prosody in fluent reading? Why is prosody important? Should teachers spend time modeling prosody and encouraging students to read with expression?

55 What are the causal relationships among prosody, comprehension, and reading rate? Prosody indicates that the child is apprehending the meaning of what is being read-prosody reflects comprehension If children will read with expression, it helps them understand what they are reading Possible Causal connections:

56 The relationship between prosody and reading comprehension Certainly, when speech is given with proper prosody and expression, it helps the listener to comprehend The evidence is not definitive on this point, but it seems most likely that prosody is primarily a reflection of comprehension, rather than a cause of it. Does it work the same way for reading? Does the reader listen to his/her own prosody as an aid to comprehension? Schwanenflugel, P.J., et al., Becoming a Fluent Reader: Reading Skill and Prosodic Features in the Oral Reading of Young Readers, Journal of Educational Psychology, 2004, 119-129

57 Examine the relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension with a view toward more fully understanding the answers to three questions: 1. How useful are measures of reading fluency in identifying students who are “at risk” for performing below grade level on measures of reading comprehension? 2. What is the causal connection between reading fluency and reading comprehension? What evidence do we have that there is a causal connection? What mechanisms or skills mediate that connection? 3. What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children?

58 Learning to read accurately is one of the first steps to becoming a fluent reader What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children?

59 The development of reading fluency for students in Reading First Schools: Massachusetts Data Growth of Reading Fluency in Second Grade. Testing point% at Benchmark percentile rank Fall, 2003 44.2 41 st Spring, 2003 41.230 th Fall, 2004 46.042 nd Spring, 2005 49.937 th

60 The development of reading fluency for students in Reading First Schools: Massachusetts Data Growth of Reading Fluency in Third Grade. Testing point% at Benchmark percentile rank Fall, 2003 38.333 rd Spring, 2003 36.728 th Fall, 2004 40.734 th Spring, 2005 43.132 nd

61 The development of reading fluency for students in Reading First Schools: Massachusetts Data Relative performance across grades 1-3 in Spring 2005 Grade% at Benchmark percentile rank First 60.049th Second 49.937 th Third 43.131 st

62 The development of reading fluency for students in Reading First Schools:Florida Schools For the past two years, students in 320 Reading First schools in Florida have been “losing ground” in the development of reading fluency in 2 nd grade. Many students who enter second grade with reading fluency at “grade level” leave second grade below grade level

63 37 th percentile 53 rd percentile

64 : Instructional Emphasis for Second Grade Fluency – 4%

65 About half our second graders began second grade not having met the February 1 st grade benchmark in NWF Slightly more than 20% still hadn’t met the 1 st grade benchmark at the end of second grade

66 One problem that arises from so many students coming into 2 nd grade still weak in effective, accurate word reading strategies Growth in fluency requires accurate practice A major factor underlying growth in fluency for struggling readers is how fast the number of words they can recognize “by sight” increases Children must read unfamiliar words with perfect accuracy on multiple occasions before they can become sight words Sight vocabulary must grow very rapidly in second grade to keep pace with normative development

67 47 th percentile 62 nd percentile Over ½ of our students did not make the benchmark on time

68 What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children? Reading first students need many opportunities to acquire sight word representations for high frequency, high utility words – working to expand student’s “sight word vocabulary” as fast as possible Reading First students need powerful instruction in strategies for accurate word identification (phonemic decoding) in first grade and extending into complex skills in second grade. Children must become accurate readers as a first step toward becoming fluent readers. Supervised, repeated reading practice is one efficient way to do this

69 What are the big ideas that should guide our work to build reading fluency in young children? Reading First students should be encouraged to attend to meaning in all their reading assignments Encouraging students to read with prosody will lead them to attend to meaning Repeated practice in reading for meaning supports the growth of “automatic comprehension processes” which are important for both fluency and comprehension

70 Strengths of oral reading fluency measures: They are an extremely reliable measure of one of the important components of reading proficiency They currently provide the most accurate brief assessment to identify students likely to struggle on measures of comprehension at the end of grades 1, 2, and 3.

71 The most important single danger in using Oral Reading Fluency measures as an index of “reading growth” in grades 1-3 is that teachers will be mislead into focusing just on rate. We must focus on the true definition of fluency: It involves reading at an appropriate rate with deep comprehension

72 Thank you

73 References: Adams, M. J. (1991). A talk with Marilyn Adams. Language Arts, 68, 206-212 Fleisher, L. S., Jenkins, J. R., & Pany, D. (1979). Effects on poor readers’ comprehension of training in rapid decoding. Reading Research Quarterly, 15, 30– 48. Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M.D., & Jenkins, J. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-259. Fuchs,L.S., Fuchs, D., & Maxwell, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9(2), 20-29. Good, R.H., Wallin, J.U., Simmons, D.C., Kame’enui, E.J. & Kaminski, R.A. (2002). System-wide percentile ranks for DIBELS benchmark assessment. (Technical Report 9). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. Harris, T. L., & Hodges, R. E. (1995). The literacy dictionary. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B. & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How? The Reading Teacher (in press)

74 Hudson, R.F., Mercer, C.D., & Lane, H.B. (2000). Exploring reading fluency: A paradigmatic overview. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Gainesville. Jenkins, J.R., Fuchs, L.S., van den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno, S.L. (2003). Sources of individual differences in reading comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 719-729. Kuhn, M.R., & Stahl, S.A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 3-21. Levy, B.A. (2001). Moving the bottom: Improving reading fluency. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain. (pp. 357-382). Parkton, MD: York Press. Levy, B.A., Abello, B., & Lysynchuk, L. (1997). Transfer from word training to reading in context: Gains in reading fluency and comprehension. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 20, 173-188. Marston, D. (2000). personal communication cited in Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M.D., & Jenkins, J. (2001). Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283-306.

75 National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Washington, D.C. Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E.H. (2003). A Focus on Fluency. Monograph published by Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Copies available at www.prel.org/programs/rel/rel.asp. www.prel.org/programs/rel/rel.asp O'Shea, L. J., Sindelar, P. T., & O'Shea, D. J. (1987). The effects of repeated reading and attentional cues on the reading fluency and comprehension of leaming disabled readers. Learning Disabilities Research, 2, 103-109. Perfetti, C.A. (1995). Cognitive research can inform reading education. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 106-115. Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Attention and cognitive control. In R. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 55–85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

76 Rasinski, T.V. Assessing reading fluency. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). Funded by U.S. Office of Education. 2004 Rasinski, T.V. (2003). The Fluent Reader. New York: Scholastic Schwanenflugel, P.J., Hamilton, A.M., Kuhn, M.R., Wisenbaker, J.M., & Stahl, S.A. (2004). Becoming a fluent reader: Reading skill and prosodic features in the oral reading of young readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 119-129. Stahl, S.A. (2004). What do we know about fluency? Findings of the National Reading Panel. In In McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.) The voice of evidence in reading research. (pp. 187-211) Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Therrien, W.J. (2004). Fluency and Comprehension Gains as a Result of Repeated Reading: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 252-261 Tindal, G., Hasbrouck, J, & Jones, C. (2005). Oral Reading Fluency: 90 Years of measurement. Technical Report #33, Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon


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