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Module 101 Solid Waste Management Have an overview of solid waste management, including some legislation Be aware of the responsible solid waste management.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 101 Solid Waste Management Have an overview of solid waste management, including some legislation Be aware of the responsible solid waste management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 101 Solid Waste Management Have an overview of solid waste management, including some legislation Be aware of the responsible solid waste management authorities and some management costs Define the composition and quantity of solid waste generated Discuss the collection, transport, treatment and disposal strategies Have some understanding of hazardous wastes and their disposal methods On completion of this module you should be able to:

2 Module 102 Objectives of solid waste management Safeguarding of public health Protection of the environment Transfer and treatment of waste, energy from waste and the conservation of basic materials Financial limitation of any scheme

3 Module 103 Functional elements of waste management structure

4 Module 104 Solid waste legislation Environmental Protection Act 1994 Subordinate legislation referring particularly to solid waste: Environmental Protection Policy - Waste Management Contaminated Land Act 1991

5 Module 105 Waste management hierarchy Source reduction and reuse are allocated the highest priority Install recycling programs Design a suitable treatment system Residual waste to controlled landfill

6 Module 106 Waste management hierarchy Waste avoidance Waste reduction Reuse Recycling Energy recovery Waste treatment Waste disposal

7 Module 107 Reduce, reuse and recycle Public education and perception on the environment Household to separate recyclable Collection agencies to set target for waste reduction Disposal agencies to reclaim rather than dispose Industry to favour recycled feedstock Minimise packaging

8 Module 108 Positive aspects of waste reduction, reuse and recycle Reduces pollution and environmental degradation Reduces amount of waste to landfill Saves natural resources Reduces industry's impact on the environment Preserves open space used by landfill Reduces consumer costs Contributes to a cleaner environment by reducing energy use

9 Module 109 Who is responsible for solid waste management? Local government in collection, treatment and disposal State agencies involved in quality guidelines Overriding powers of commonwealth in international issues

10 Module 1010 Municipal solid waste (MSW) composition Household or domestic waste Commercial waste Builders or demolition waste Industrial waste

11 Module 1011 Solid waste generation and cost Statistical data is paramount in solid waste management Problem of uniformity in reporting waste generation Household waste make up about half of total waste stream National average of MSW is about 776 kg/person.year Solid waste management average cost is $28/person

12 Module 1012 Waste composition

13 Module 1013 Transfer and transport Siting of transfer station will impact on disposal costs. Facility for efficient collection service by reducing the turn-round times, improves payload, reduces the number of vehicles to the main disposal site Offers opportunity to implement treatment prior to disposal. Activities may include compaction and baling, shredding and pulverising Transportation may comprise road, rail and water

14 Module 1014 Management strategies Planning essential at outset Fewer but larger facilities at favourable operating cost Allow for changing nature of waste generation Duty of care on waste holders and producers

15 Module 1015 Management strategies (cont) Increased powers for waste disposal authorities Registration of waste carriers Introduction of polluter-pays principle

16 Module 1016 Waste disposal options No single method is appropriate to every type of wastes

17 Module 1017 Factors to be considered Analysis of waste stream Reduce, recovery and recycling viability Quantity and rate of disposal Environmental assessment and long-term impact Collection authority issues

18 Module 1018 Factors to be considered (cont) Availability of suitable void space or land Distance from collection centre Transfer and treatment facilities Transportation methods and routes Overall cost

19 Module 1019 MSW disposal routes

20 Module 1020 Controlled landfill Still the major disposal method but largely dependent on suitable void space Concepts of attenuate and disperse or containment Major concerns of landfill –Leachate contaminating groundwater –Landfill gas (methane) –Infestation –Litter, dust –Noise and odour

21 Module 1021 Steps for implementing controlled landfill Site selection –EIS, geology/hydrogeology of site Landfill design (attenuate and disperse or containment) Leachate collection & treatment, gas utilisation Site operations –Compaction, stability, leachate and gas monitoring Site restoration and aftercare –Capping, soil erosion, settlement

22 Module 1022 Controlled landfill

23 Module 1023 Controlled landfill

24 Module 1024 Combustion of MSW Not widely used in Australia Expensive disposal option involving high maintenance costs Products are energy, flue gas and solid residues Residues represent 10% by volume and 25% by weight of input

25 Module 1025 Types of combustion Incineration of 'as received' waste Refused derived fuel in grate combustion Pyrolysis

26 Module 1026 Mass combustion

27 Module 1027 Potential environmental concerns of stack gases Particulates Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide Acid gases (HCl, HF, SO 2, NO x ) Heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As, Mn) Products of incomplete combustion (PICs)

28 Module 1028 Refused derived fuel (RDF) Coarse RDF Fluff RDF Pelletised RDF

29 Module 1029 Coarse RDF Feed subjected to pulverisation Removal of ferrous metal Result in smaller particle size More uniform fuel

30 Module 1030 Pulverising, shredding equipment

31 Module 1031 Air classification

32 Module 1032 Fluff RDF Lower moisture and metal contaminants Higher calorific value Lower ash residue after combustion Used usually in dedicated combustors High bulk density results in high transport cost Short storage period

33 Module 1033 Magnet separators

34 Module 1034 Pelletised RDF Fluff RDF after compression into discrete form Can be stored for extended periods Replace coal in boiler market place Smaller plants may lack suitable emission control

35 Module 1035 Pyrolysis Combustion in the absence of oxygen Produces gaseous, liquid and solid fuels Endothermic process requiring external heat source Limited to processing specialist waste

36 Module 1036 Composting Heterogeneous organic substrate in the solid phase Passing through a thermophilic phase and temporary release of phytotoxin Production of CO 2, water, minerals and stabilised organic matter Composting is controlled bioxidative process involving:

37 Module 1037 Managing composting at 3 levels At source through household education Organic material separated at source requiring a separate collection system Centrally separated by mechanical processing, requires a sophisticated processing infrastructure at transfer station

38 Module 1038 Important composting criteria Bulk density increases from 0.35 to 0.6 t/m 3 as organic matter is reduced Maintain free air space of 30 - 35% for aerobic activity Size to maximise surface area and to permit air flow Initial moisture 65% to 40% towards the process end Temperature for exothermic process 50 - 70 o C  to reduce pathogens, pests, seeds  controlled by air flow and material turning

39 Module 1039 Important composting criteria (cont) Carbon:nutrient (C:N) ratio of 30:1 - 15:1 for rapid aerobic growth  High ratio is detrimental to plants and low ratio releases odour  Tendency for ratio to fall from fresh to mature compost Final product pH should be about 7 - 8 Contaminants of concern are heavy metals Pathogens - maintain and control high temperatures to maximise destruction of pathogens and minimise health risks

40 Module 1040 Hazardous waste increase or cause mortality, illness present a hazard to human, health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed Defined as hazardous because of its quantity, concentration or physical, chemical, infectious properties that may

41 Module 1041 Hazardous waste (cont) reactivity ie unstable substances ignitable substances corrosivity ie 2 12.5 toxicity when ingested or absorbed It may also be defined according to other attributes of:

42 Module 1042 Hazardous waste management Cradle-to-grave management technique Control at a national level Waste minimisation Recycle and recovery Treatment and incineration Land disposal

43 Module 1043 Transport and storage of hazardous waste Transport and tracking system with a manifest document to accompany any waste A permitting system to ensure safe operation to treat, store or dispose

44 Module 1044 Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste Solidification Chemical treatment Incineration Landfill

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